Animal Diversity Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ctenidia
gills
Chromatophores
Coiling
reduces fouling
CHOANOCYTES
COLLAR CELLS
Conical teeth
Organization
 
P: Chordata
Organ syste,
Organization
 
P: Echinodermata
Organ system/level
"water bears"
Phylum Tardigrada
Which class?
 
Millipedes
Class Diplopoda
Fish
Gnathastomes, chondrichtryan-sharks. Cartilage, bones. 2 chamber heart. Color vision, different senses, electric. No stomach, jaws. Gill slits. Lay eggs
Platyhelminthes
Flatworms, Tapeworms
 
Bilateral Symmetry
3 Cell Layers
Incomplete Gut (but has a stomach)
has a brain! :O
Accelomate
Diploblastic
 
Classification
 
P: Chordata
SP: Urochordata
SP: Cephalochordata
SP: Vertebrata/Craniata
     C: Agnatha
     C: Chondrichthyes
     C: Osteichythes
     C: Amphibia
     C: Reptilia
     C: Aves
     C: Mammalia
Swim via jet propulsion
Cephalopoda
Polyphyletic
from many ancestral forms
Arthropoda
Insects, spiders, crustaceans. Eumetazoa. 3 Germ layers. Bilateral symmetry. 2 Gut openings. Coelomate. Protostome
endothermic
body temp regulated metabolicallymammals, birdsallows immediate activity at will
Which class?
 
amphibians, toads, salmanders
C: Amphibia
Circulation
 
P: Chordata
closed system
2-4 chambered heart
hemoglobin in/on blood
Clams and muscles
Phylum Mollusca
Class Bivalvia
Viviparous
live-bearing, get nourishment from mom
Parazoa
"sponges"
simplest animals that lack defined tissues and organs but their cells can differentiate over and over again, while most cell types differentiation is irreversible process
Monophyletic
from a single ancestral form
COELOM
Cavity located within the mesoderm.
Protostome
consists annelids, mollusks and arthropods
development of the mouth from the balstospore
spiral determinate cleavage
Vertibrates
(Chordata Subphyla)
Mammals, Birds
 
vertebral column replaces notochord
complete circulatory/respiratory/excretory system
Bilateral Symmetry
Developed from oceans and Estuarine Environments (fresh water meets salt water)
development of cuticle/impermeable skin layer
Respiration evolved from gills to lungs
moveable appendages
sexual reproduction
Duterostome 
 
Have a 3-chambered heart
C: Amphibia
C: Reptilia
Direct flight muscles
pull the wings down
Have 8 overlapping plates
P: Mollusca
C: Polyplacaphora
Squids, octopi, cuttlefish, nautilus
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Homocercal Tail
symmetrical tail
present in Class Osteichythyes
Respiration
 
P: Chordata
 
 
gills, lungs, skin, air bladders
linked to circulatory system
Have a 4-chambered heart
C: Aves
C: Mammalia
 
***crocadillians from Class Reptilia have a 4-chambered heart as well***
Sensory/Nervous
 
P: Chordata
dorsal hollow nerve cord
complex array of sensory organs
Which class?
 
sea lillies and feather stars
C: Crinoidea
Shared characteristics between arthropods and polychaeta (annelid)
metameric segmentation
paired appendages on segments
double ventral nerve cord
cuticle
Classifications:
 
Polyphyletic
Monophyletic
Clade
Polyphyletic- does not include most recent common ancestor
Monophyletic- does include most recent common ancestor or group and all descendants
Clade- a monophyletic group
PROTOSTOME CLEAVAGE
cleavage is spiral & determinante
SCOLEX
the specialized head of a tapeworm
Nematoda
Roundworms. Eumetazoa. 3 Germ layers. Bilateral symmetry. 2 Gut openings. Pseudocoelomate.
Spicules
tough skeletal fibers made from calcium carbonate or silica within the mesohyl; used to hold the sponge together 
egg-> larva -> pupa -> adult
Holometabulous
Division Endopterygota
Classification of Phylum Mollusca
C: Gastropoda
C: Bivalvia
C: Polyplacaphora
C: Scaphapoda
C: Cephalopoda
Cryptobiosis is a characteristic of which of the following?
A. Tardigrada
B. Onycophora
C. Chelicerata
D. Asteroidea
E. Polyplacaphora
A. Tardigrada
An organism that has internal fertilization and then holds its offspring inside the female until hatching with no placenta or other direct source of nutrition from the mother is said to be...
a. amniotic
b. placental
c. ovoviviparous
d. viviparous
e.
c. ovoviviparous
Madreporite
hole on aboral surface where water enters
Have a 2-chambered heart
C: Agnatha
C: Chondrichthyes
C: Osteichythes
Blastula
hollow ball of cells after morula forms
Pseudocoelomates
one of body plans for bilateral symmetric animals
called "pseudo" because it is not lined with epithelial tissue
has body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm space
CLASS HYDROZOANS
alternate between polyp and medusa, colonial
SEGMENTED
A series of repeating singular units, called segments. Generally worms.
Tetrapods
a vertebrate pocessing 2 pairs of limbs, such as amphibains, reptiles, birds, and mammals
synapsidfeature of?
mammals (anapsid ancestor)feature of tetrapod
Which group of tetrapods has the pectoral girdle located inside of the rib cage?
a. Aves (birds)
b. Anura (frogs and toads)
c. Squamata (snakes and lizards)
d. Crocodillia
e. testudines (turtles)
e. testudines
Stone Canal
connects the madreporite to the ring canal
Dermal Endoskeleton
 
P: Echinodermata
 

composed of calcareous ossicles and is covered by epidermis


endoskeleton allows for continuous growth and provides protection


ossicles may fuse to form a test
What is an Animal?
A multicellular heterotroph without cell walls.
Cells do not divide by mitosis (haploid cells)
Some undergo metamorphosis
9 GROUPS OF ANIMALS
Bottom to top:Sponges, Cnidarians, Flatworms, Mollusks, Echinoderms, Chordates
Blastospore
the opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes 
Spiracles
pores that can open or close to regulate air flow and limit water loss
part of the tracheal system
How many chambers in the heart of a snake?
 
 
3
Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord Characteristics

in vertebrates, anterioir end becomes enlarged to form the brain and the rest becomes the spinal cord
Which system is not segmented in the Annelida?
a. nervous
b. circulatory
c. digestive
d. excretory
e. muscular
c. digestive
Which larval type is typical to the Cnidarians?
A. Planula
B. Velliger
C. Trochophore
D. Nauplius
E. Bipinnaria
A. Planula
3 Germ Layers
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm
 
Endoderm- inner germ layer that gives rise to epithelium that lines inside of digestive and respiratory tracts
Mesoderm- middle germ layer that gives rise to muscle, bone, circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems
Ectoderm- outer germ layer that gives rise to outer epithelium (hair, skin, nails) and nerve tissue including sense organs, brain, spinal cord.
Swim bladder
an adaption, from a lung, that enables bony fishes to adjust their density and thereby control their buoyancy
Adaptions snakes have to being limbless
adaption to burrowing
variety of feeding types: swallow live prey, constrict prey, venemous
This Class of the Chordata do not have a swim bladder
C: Chondrichthyes
What is difference between Protosome and Deuterosome?
Protostome-mouth develops first before anus
Deuterostome- anus develops first before mouth (humans are Deuterostomes)
Annelida differ from Arthropds in which of the following ways?
a. segmentation
b. having both ectoparasitic and free-living taxa
c. having filter-feeding taxa
d. having a closed circulatory system
e. having metameres
d. having a closed circulatory system
Hollow dorsal nerve cord
develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube located dorsal to the notochord; develops into the brain and spinal chord
unique to chordates
Describe the tracheal system of an insect
a system of air tubes (trachea) in insects extending from surface spiracles (openings); carries air to the inner tissues
Porifera
phylum of sponges
ecdysozoans
(eumetazoa, protostomia), sheds exoskeleton (nematoda, arthropoda)
diploid
What stage is dominant?
diploblastic
Having two germ layers
protostomes
invertebrates with bilateral symmetry, spiral determinate cleavage, schizocoelous, and mouth develops from blastospore
Blastocoel
Inside of a hollow blastula
deuterostomia
Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to which clade?
Asymmetrical
Have no real symmetry, like sponges
Protostomal Development
Spiral and determinate, schizocoelous, mouth fromblastopore
Ediacaran fauna
Earliest generally accepted animal fossils, dating from about 575 million years ago
gastrulation
phase in early development of animal cells; can recognize three germ layers; moves inward
larva
many animals have this stage; sexually immature and morphologically distinct from adult stage
triploblastic
The bilateria animals are what, in regards to germ layers?
lophotrochozoans and ecdysozoans
the two protostome sister taxa
cleavage
The zygote undergoes a series of mitotic divisions called what?
deuterostome
In what kind of development, the blastophore becomes the anus, and the second opening develops into the mouth?
Radial Cleavage
Planes of cell division (cleavage) line up
6 characteristics of animals
1. heterotrophs2. multicellular3. specialized tissue cells4. muscle and nerve cells5. sexually reproduce6. small mobile sperm fertilizes large egg.
ectoderm
The outermost of the three primary germ layers in animal embryos; gives rise to the outer covering and, in some phyla, the nervous system, inner ear, and lens of the eye
dorsal
Pertaining to the back of a bilaterally symmetrical animal
deuterostome development
In animals, a developmental mode distinguished by the development of the anus from the blastopore; often also characterized by enterocoelous development of the body cavity and by radial cleavage
embryogenesis
egg + sperm = zygote (vegetal pole [yolk] and animal pole [protein emphasis] zygote divides and becomes morula; morula --> blastula; gastrulation occurs
grade
group of animals that share a similar orginizational complexity, which may not be monophyletic.
Suspension feeders
Water exits the spongocoel through the osculum, there is a constant flow of water into and out of the sponge and they feed on suspended particles in the water
radial symmetry
Characterizing a body shaped like a pie or barrel, with many equal parts radiating outward like the spokes of a wheel; present in cnidarians and echinoderms
spiral cleavage
A type of embryonic development in protostomes, in which the planes of cell division that transform the zygote into a ball of cells occur obliquely to the polar axis, resulting in cells of each tier sitting in the grooves between cells of adjacent tiers
pseudocoelomate
An animal whose body cavity is not completely lined by mesoderm
gastrulation; gastrula
The process of what produces layers of embryonic tissues, resulting in what stage?
chordata (deuterostomes)
-4 things all have at one point:1. notochord2. gills3. dorsal hollow nerve cord4. muscular post anal tail
muscle and nervous
What kind of tissues are unique to animals?
2. Animals are multicellular (like plants and fungi) but they lack cell walls for support.
Instead, they’re held together by structural proteins like collagen.
How do animals differ from plants?
1. Animals differ from plants and fungi in their mode of nutrition.
deuterostomes
-radial cleavage-anus first-enterocoeleous formation (archemteron-hollow center- folds)
sponges
What lack true tissues?
•~ 100 species•COLLOBLASTS: adhesive patches on tentacles for catching prey•Eight rows of comb-like platesfor swimming•Complete gut—mouth and anus
Colloblasts
lophophore
feeding apparatus of ciliated tentacles, found in ectoprocts
cause Choanoflagellates resemble a typeof cell found in basal animals (like sponges)
Basal
archentron
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal
blastoceol
fluid filled space of a blastula
bilateria
the branch of eumetazoans possessing bilateral symmetry. Most animal phyla.
Jellies- All marine, polyp stage reduced, free swimming medusas up to 2m in diameter
Cubozoa
edicaran fauna
Earliest generally accepted fossils of animals, related to cnidarians and soft-bodies molluscs.
trochophore larva
some phyla of the lophotrochozoans, including annelids and molluscs go through a distinctive larval stage called what?
Box jellies, sea wasps- all marine, box shaped, some TOXIC
Anthozoa
pseudocoelom
mesoderm only on one side of the cavity
Cambrian explosion
When did animal phyla diversify? Half of all extant phyla and first animals with hard skeletons.
Reproduction in sponges (phylum Porifera)
Most are hermaphroditesindividuals produce both sperm AND eggs and almost all are sequentially hermaphroditicfirst one sex, then the other.
body plan
In animals, the set of morphological and developmental traits that define a grade
Cnidaria and Ctenophora
Basal members of eumetazoa include the diploblastic, radially symmetrical phylums (placed into the informal grade Radiata)
ecdysozoa and Lophotrochozoa
Protostomes are split into which two clades?
posterior
Pertaining to the rear, or tail, of a bilaterally symmetrical animal
Two body plans:•sessile polyp (cylindrical forms that adhere to the substrate)•mobile medusa (flattened free swimming form with mouth facing down)
Some alternation of generation include both forms.
Sea anemones, most coral, sea fans- all marine, medusa stage completely absent, sessile, many colonial
Most corals have a symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic protists
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