Animal Diversity Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ecdysis
molting
Kidney
Excretion/Osmoregulation
 
P: Chordata
kidneys/netaphrandia
Protogyny
female first
PHYLUM NEMATODA
ROUNDWORMS
Skin gills
secretes the shell
mantle
Embryonic Development
 
P: Chordata
triploblastic
deuterostome
intermediate, radial clevage
"velvet worms"
Phylum Onychophora
Excretion
P: Arthropoda
very diverse
Reproduction
P: Arthropoda
mostly dioecious
PSEUDOCOELOMATE
FALSE internal cavity
Nematoda
Round Worms
 
Bilateral Symmetry
Psuedocelomate
external skeleton
Cuticle aids survival
Complete Gut
Sexual Reproduction 
 
Circulation
 
P: Echinodermata
water vascular system
Which phyla are Ecdysozoans?
Nematoda
Arthropoda
Which class?
 
sea cucmbers
C: Holothuroidea
PHYLUM CNIDARIA
JELLYFISH, HYDRA, CORAL
Order CaudataWhat class?
salamandersClass Amphibia
Circulation
P: Mollusca
open except in Cephalopoda
Mantle forms girdle
P: Mollusca
C: Polyplacaphora
Classification
P: Arthropoda
 
S.P. Trilobita (extinct)
S.P. Chelicerata
S.P. Crustacea
S.P. Myriapoda
S.P. Hexapoda
Homolgy
similaarity caused by shared ancestry
Ectothermic Vertebrates
C: Agnatha
C: Amphibia
C: Reptilia
Digestion and Feeding
P: Arthropoda
complete
regional specialization
wide range of feeding strategies
 
Metazoa
multicellular animal, 36 distinct phyla of metazoa
TYPES OF SYMMETRY
Asymmetry, Bilateral, Radial
Medusa
The floating, flattened, mouth-down version of the cnidarian body plan
Cnidara
Jelly Fish, Anemones, Corals, Hydras
 
radial symmetry
diploblastic
2 life stages:
Sessile (polyp, immobile, Asexual),
Mobile (medusa, free swimming, Sexual)
Incomplete gut
Accelmate 
 
Post-Anal Tail Characteristics
facilitates mobility/propulsion in aquatic environments
associated with somatic body structure
Carapace
exoskeletal dorsal "shield" found in horseshoe crabs
Torsion
ratation of visceral hump brings mantle cavity anteriorly
twisting of the visceral mass through a 180 degree rotation during development
Extant "jaw-less" fishes
C: Agnatha
 
sucker-like oral disc
no scales or paired appendages
no stomach, only intestine
Analogous Structures
similar function but evolved independantly
 
(like insect wings)
Vestigial Structures
"remnants" of once functional ancestral structures
 
(Exampl: the human appendix, tail bone, goose bumps)
Flying birds have a _____ sternum
keeled
Bilateria
bilateral symmetry body design where body has top (dorsal) and bottom (ventral), left and right symmetry, and front (anterior) , back (posterior) ends
SPONGOCOEL
cavity in which water is filtered
Rotifera
Rotifers. Eumetazoa. 3 Germ layers. Bilateral symmetry. 2 Gut openings. Pseudocoelomate
Mollusca
Clams, snails, octopuses. Eumetazoa. 3 Germ layers. Bilateral symmetry. 2 Gut openings. Coelomate. Protostome
Gills
localized extentions of the body surface of many aquatic animals
special for gas exchange
Septa
cross-walls that divide fungal hyphae into cells
have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell (septum)
Gastrula
following the bastula is gastrulation (one end of the embryo folds inward, expands, and eventually fills the blastocoel, producing layers of tissue)
result from the process is the gastrula containing the endoderm and ectoderm
Urochordata
(tunicates, sea squirts)Tunic: only in adults; outside contains celluloseIncurrent and Excurrent Siphon: only in adult; gametes expelled from excurrent siphonPharynx: allows filter feedingEndostyle: 1 of 2 vertebrate characterisicts kept as adultPharyngeal Gill Slit: used for filtering food; 2 of 2 vertebrate characteristic kept as adult
Organisms of this Sub-Phylum exhibit all 5 Chordate characteristics at some point during their life
SP: Vertebrata/Craniata
Orders having hemietabulous metamorphosis
O: Odonata
O: Isoptera
O: Hemiptera
O: Homoptera
O: Orthoptera
Males with claspers for internal fertilization
C: Chondrichthyes
Which Class?
 
hagfish and lampreys
P: Chordata
SP: Craniata
C: Agnatha
Which class?
 
sea stars and star fish
C: Asteroidea
Tissues
collections of cells that have joined together and are specialized to perform a specific function
Heterotroph
an organism that takes in other organisms for food
TAXONOMY
The branch of Biology concerned with identifying, naming & classifying organisms.
CLASS TURBELLARIA CHARACTERISTICS
free-living (non parasitic), mostly marine, the "eyes" are light receptors that help them avoid bright light, have auricles.
Malpighian tubules
excretory organ of insects that empties into the digestive tract, removes nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and functions in osmoregulation
Viviparous
development in which the young are born alive after having been nourished in the uterus by blood from the placenta
Polyp
the sessile variant of the cnidarian body plan
Hagfish/Lamprey 4 main features
jawless fishesNotochord: no vertebraeNerve CordMouth: jawless with sucker-like oral disk and well-developed teethGill Slits: pore-like
Circular and longitudinal muscles can compress the body cavity in several phyla to form the
A. gut
B. Siphon
C. Hydrostatic skeleton
D. lung
C. tentacle
C. Hydrostatic Skeleton
What is the function of the chrometaphores?
 
color change
Which MollusK class does not have a Trochophore larvae?
Cephalopoda
Modes of defense in Cephalopoda
camoflauge, chromatophores, signaling, venom, and ink sacs
Orders of the Division Endpterygota
O: Diptera
O: Hymenoptera
O: Lepidoptera
O: Coleoptera
Comparative Embryonolgy
early embryos of diverse groups share many features.  As development proceeds, embryonic forms diverge and become more similar to adults of their own species
CLASS CUBOZOA
(box jellies and sea wasps) highly toxic Cnidocytes
CLASS CESTODA
parasitic flatworms, lack a mouth and digestive tract, made up of proglottids, has a specialized head equiped with hooks and suckers
Flame Cells
ciliated cells that waft fluid through branched ducts opening to the outside (an excretory structure to maintain osmoregulation)
Diaphragm
a sheet of muscle that forms the bottom wall of the thoracic cavity in mammals; active in ventilating the lungs
How many chambers in the heart of an alligator?
 
4
have an outer epidermis that is often modified into special structures like scales or feathers
SP: Vertebrata/Craniata
What shared feature of Arthropoda and Tetrapoda allows for the use of antagonistic muscles?
a. exokeleton
b. endoskeleton
c. segmentation
d. jaw-like structures
e. jointed appendages
e. jointed appandages
Elytra
top pair of wings is modified into an armor-like covering
 
present in the Coleoptera
Halteres
2nd pair of wings is reduced and used for balance
 
present in the Diptera
Haploid-Diploid sex determintation
queen -> eggs -> fertilization -> females (diploid)
 
queen -> eggs -> no fertilization -> males (haploid)
Radial symmetry
symmetry in which an organism can be divided along any plane through a central axis (starfish, hydra)
What is the classification of the beetles?
P: Arthropoda
SP: Hexapoda
C: Insecta
SC: Pteryota
Div: Endopterygota
O: Coleoptera
Indirect flight muscles
pull body wall down and wings get uplifted by default
Which of the following is NOT a part of the Echinodermata water vascular system?
A. Madreporite
B. Stone canal
C. Radial Canal
D. Aristotle's Lattern
E. Tube Feet
 
D.  Aristotle's Lattern
5 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF SPONGES
The feed by filtration, they have collar cells, tissues are loosely organized with no internal organs, internal meshwork made of microscopic crystals or fiber, they are sessile.
KEEP POTS CLEAN OR FAMILY GETS SICK
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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