Japanese history Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Midway
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Anglo-Japanese Alliance year
1902
1894-1895
First Sino-Japanese War
1931
Invasion of Manchuria
Who wrote Naomi
Tanizaki Junichiru
Commodore
A Japanese naval officer
1989
End of Showa Period
Sat-Cho Alliance
against the tokugawa shogunate
1600 - 1868
The Tokugawa Shogunate
Bakufu
The shogunate government, Japanese word. One bakufu or another had been in place since the end of the Heian period, and was still in power until very shortly after the arrival of Commodore Perry and his Black Ships.
Kabu Nakama
merchant guilds/wholesalers authorized by the bakufu to act as a chartered trade association by dealing with major macro-economic activity such as commodification rates and monopolistic control over commodities
Genroku Culture
1680-1730 (during the Tokugawa Shogunate) old ways begin to fall, daimyo begin to be soft men warriors adopted ways of the commoners,
What does Bakufu mean?
government or shogun
Zaibatsu
Large family banking and industrial groups that owned many government companies in Japan before World War II
Daimyo
the lords of han prefectures. Equivalent to the lords in feudal Europe who answered to the king. These lords ruled over their own domain, collected taxes over their own domain.
Kokugaku
Nativist studies in Japan, national revivial in thought to re-focus Japanese scholarship on early Japanese classics instead of Chinese, Buddhism and Confucianism
Choshu
another powerful domain that revolted against the bakufu, joined the Satsuma domain to form the Satcho Alliance
Who were the 3 unifiers?
Oda Nobunaga
toyotomi hideyoshi
tokugawa ieyasu
Genro
The political leaders of the Meiji restoration that ruled in the emperor's name
The LDP
A centre right, conservative political party in Japan. It ruled for nearly 54 years since its founding in 1955. It ruled through the entirety of the economic miracle, and through the reverse course.
Ihara Saikaku
The author of "The Calendar-maker's wife." He focused on themes of love and life. His characters frequently try to live rather than try to commit suicide in the face of something that they can't bear. He also focuses on the mundane here-and-now; the floating world. Tokugawa period: represents a different direction for Japanese ideas, and more of a focus on individualism.
toyotomi hideyoshi
General under Nobanga; suceeded as leading military power in Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constucted a series of military alliances that made him the military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
kabuki
A popular type of Japanese drama combined with music and dance, it is the type of theatre in Japan(Played buy all male actors)
Motoori Norinaga
kokugaku (nativist) thinker active in the 18th century
Seiyukai
political party formed in 1900 by Ito hirobumi
What was Meiji constition?
1. Emperor was central symbol
Sino-Japanese War
(1894-1895) After Korea was opened to Japanese trade in 1876, it quickly became the area for war between China and Japan as China wanted to take the control of Korea away from Japan.
Between the 12th and 19th centuries
The Feudal Systems
Bushido
The system of Samurai values and mores that were codified in Tokugawa Japan
tokugawa shogunate
Japanese ruling dynasty that strove to isolate it from foreign influences
Emperor Meiji
new emperor of Meiji Period, first emperor restored to power after the Tokugawa period
Sakuradamon Incident
murder of bakufu tairo, or great chancellor, by ronin samurai of the Mito domain
21 demands
1915, japans 21 demands on China. USA and england didnt like them so they wanted to protect the rights of China. After that alot of people were Anit-Japan
What was the Meiji Restoration
road to industrialization of Japan
westernization of Japan
got many ideas from the west
The Manchurian Incident
(1931) Japanese army officers blew up tracks on a Japanese owned Railroad line and claimed the Chinese did it .
Still going along with their lie, they 'got back' at the Chinese government by attacking the Chinese forces without the consent of the Japanese government
The Feudal System
Between the 12th and 19th centuries Japan had a very strong 'status' system
1) Emperor
2) Shogun
3) Daimyo
4) Samurai
5) Peasants
6) Artisans
7) Merchants
8) Eta (outcasts)
Natsume Soseki
One of the foremost novelists of the Meiji era. He wrote the speech "My Individualism." He was very interested in Western ways, and was a proponent of following an individualistic way rather than following loyalty and the group mentality.
Minseito -
One of the main political parties in pre-war Japan. It advocated fiscal restraint, conciliatory foreign policy, and signed the London Naval Agreement, which limited Japanese shipbuilding ability. It could only recover its place in the diet after losing them by adopting a pro-military stance.
Commodore Perry
The commander of the black ships who insisted that Japan open its ports. He left an ultimatum that sent the country more or less into turmoil, and opened the way for all sorts of economic problems, and then economic benefits, due to the opening of the nation. Prints of the time depict him as looking like more or less a "foreign devil"
The Ryukyu Islands
These were gained by Japan after attacking China over an incident of Taiwan killing Okinawan sailors. These islands were a point of contention for Japan and China, and were officially annexed a while later.
samurai
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
Dai Nihon Shi
"Great History of Japan" by Mito School, huge composition and considered one of the major works of the Edo Period
What was Deshima?
The only port that the Dutch could trade with Japan
Harris Treaty
In 1858, Japan opened the ports of Edo (now Tokyo) and four other cities to America for trade and let them be exempt from the local law.
The Choshu-Satsuma alliance
came about to bring down the Tokugawa Bakufu. Eventually, it became the Meiji Oligarchy, which essentially ruled the country, though through no official charter, throughout the years of the Emperor Meiji
Liberty and Peoples Rights movemntq
political and social movement in the 1880, revision of the unequal treaties
What were the four Tokugawa Control Mechanisms?
1. reassinment of land
2. alternate attendence
3. closed country except korea and dutch
4. ideology
What were the 7 effects of Urbanization
1. stabilized local areas
2. cut ties of samurai to the land
3. developed local administration
4. helped bring large merchant class
5. developed market economy
6. improved transportation
7. diverse urban culture
The Habiya anti-treaty riot of 1905
A riot protesting the peace treaty of the Russo-Japanese war, which did not gain Japan any territory. During these riots, people were saying that if they were to pay for the empire, and die for it, their voice should be respected in politics. This is not to say that they did not support the emperor and empire; they did, they simply believed that they should have a political system that would respect the shared wishes of the people and the Emperor.
1868
Meiji Restoration
1904-1905
The Russo-Japanese War
1947
Peace Constitution created
What does Han mean?
domain
Treaty of Portsmouth year
1905
1854
The Treaty of Kanagawa
Saigo Takamori
led the Satsuma Rebellion
Kanagawa Treaty of FriendShip Year
1854
Seppuku
Ritual suicide of a samurai
1890
Signing of the Meiji Constitution
Satsuma
tozama han/domain that revolted against the bakufu and its authority, played a major role in the Meiji Restoration
Kwangtung Army
protect Japanese Intererst in Manchuria
September 5 1905
The Treaty of Portsmouth
kyoto
the capital city of medieval Japan
kokutai
"sovereign"- political term used to describe "national identity" or "national character"
Hiraga Gennai
"the farting man", rangaku scholar,flamboyant, write a critique of intellectual life in Japan
Satsuma Rebellion
revolt of satsuma against meiji government, last challenge to the new meji order. led by saigo takamori.
Shidehara Diplomacy
japans liberal forign policy during the 1920's
Shogun
The head of the Japanese military government in the time of the samurai
oda nobunga
Brutal & Ambitious Daimyo, 1568 defeated some enemies, took Kyoto. Died by seppuku when a general turned against him in 1582.
edo
the capital and largest city of Japan
Mitogaku
schools of scholar that worked and lived in the mito domain
What was the Treaty Of Portsmouth?
after Russo-Japansese War
matsukata Deflation
helped with inflation during the meiji government,
Inner Daimyo
Daimyos that supported the shoguns in the Battle of Sekigahara (the battle that started the Tokugawa Shogunate system) were classified as inner daimyo. They had a larger choice of rights and less rules than the rest of Japan.
The Red Wave Society
The first socialist women's association. It condemned capitalism, arguing that capitalism turned women into slaves and prostitutes. This was related to women's work in factories, with highly-regulated life in dormitories. It also focused on suffrage and women's rights.
Unit 731
The military doctor unit that did vivisections.
tokugawa leyasu
appointed shogun by emperor; laid down a 4 class system, people were restricted to only marry to members in the same class (warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants); closed off Japan for 250 years (except to Dutch and Chinese); later persecuted christians and forbade christianity (he wanted their own culture/religion); centralized government so all the power was in the hands of the shogun; he made it so that it was illegal to fight even if you were a samurai; domestic trade fourished because it was safer
Richardson Incident
affair that led to the Anglo-Satsuma war. Samurai assaulted and killed foreign merchants from Britain traveling through Japan because the Satsuma samurai felt disrespected.
"Naoism"
joji is in love with naomi who he thinks symbloizes the west
The Russo-Japanese War
(1904-1905) A war between the Japanese and Russian Empire
The Japanese defeated Russia gaining international recognition and a small area of China.
REASON FOR THE WAR: Japan wanted to expand its empire into China and Korea (to be able to own both countries)
Japan also wanted to test its new military and navy on another country. Russia thought that it could easily defeat an Asian country and therefore started the war.
The Tripartite Pact
the pact between Germany, Japan, and Italy during WWII.
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
An author born to a samurai family during the Tokugawa period. He wrote "the love suicides at sonezaki," which emphasizes Japanese tradition and the conflict between love and loyalty. In this way, his works epitomize the samurai, bushido ideal of the time.
Oshio Heihachiro
former chief of police of osaka that revolted against authorty for the poor conditions of the peasantry after the many economic and natural disaster crises of the time
shi shi means?>
men of spirit, describes the men that would lead the meiji restoration period
What year was the battle of Sekigahara and who won?
1600, tokugawa ieyasu
"Good wife, wise mother"
Product of late Meiji period that resurfaced after the Reverse Course. In the late Meiji, this was restrictive, yes, but it wasn't entirely so; this "good wife, wise mother" implied that women were in need of schooling, unlike the idea in the Tokugawa period that women were entirely unteachable. Also, this ideal meant that women's work at home was a valued form of service to the state.
alternate attendance policy
This Policy said that every other year the Daimyo would come live in Tokyo, and when they left, they'd leave behind their families, as their families lived in Tokyo.
What was the harris treaty?
more ports were open for trade, japanese tarrifs were placed under international control, foregn residents would be tried under their own courts
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Harris Treaty)
ratification of the Convention of Kanagawa.
- Opening of Japanese ports to trade
- ability of foreign citizens to live and trade of those ports
-extraterritoriality
-fixed low import-export duties
What was the industrial Policy Debate
What helped more to est economy? both private and governemtn
Iwakura Mission Year and what?
1871-1873 80 % of gvnt went to the US and europe to get ideas for new gvnt.
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