Japanese Religion midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sun
Gajin
Foreigners
person
heart
Wa
Harmony
Omamori
protective amulet
Kannushi
Shinto priest
Køhai
new generation/protege/junior
Ainu
aboriginal people
kanji
a Chinese character
Burakumin
the village people
hiragana
phonetic; Japanese origin
kamidana
a household Shinto shrine.
hotoke
literally, "Buddha." The Japanese word for both "dead person" and "Buddha"
Kyôha Shinto
Sect (Sectarian) Shinto
hakamairi
visiting the family grave
Shakubuku
Forceful proselytization. According to Nichiren Buddhism, one of two acceptable methods of conversion, the other being that of persuasion. It can be interpreted in a number of ways. "To break and suppress," "to defeat evil" and "browbeating" have all been used as translations to describe this conversion tactic which was implemented by some youths during the early part of Sôka Gakkai's first resurgence led by Toda.
Shinkan
Shinto priests with bureaucratic status. In the pre-1945 era, they worked at National Shrines and received pay.
Mukyôkai
the Non-Church Movement. Early Christian movement in Japan founded by Uchimura Kanzo stressed that being Christian does not preclude a Japanese individual from being patriotic. Uchimura stressed the notion of Japanese Christianity or a form of Christianity received form God and ministered to the Japanese without a foreign intermediary. The movement claims to be a non-exclusive expression of Japanese Christianity
Kaihôgyô
"circumabulating the mountain"; a practice of ascetic monks on of Mt. Hiei devoted to a seven year self discovery; become living Buddhas upon completion of 1000 circuits around Mt. Hiei.
Butsudan
Literally: Buddhist Altar. Buddhist altar kept in the home to enshrine the family's ancestral tablets.
Eirei
"glorious war dead," "glorious spirits" (soldiers who have died in a war for Japan and are enshrined at the Yasukuni Shrine)
Edo
Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.
Kamakura
Yorimoto's capital during his shogunate, destroyed in 1331
agglutinative
glue. combine grammatical morphemes with lexical stems
Universities
Degree-granting institutions of higher learning. Those that appeared in Latin West from about 1200 onward became the model of all modern universities.
O-higan
a Buddhist holiday exclusively celebrated in Japan during both the Spring and Autumnal Equinox.
Akitsu-Kami
Visible divinity; referring to the emperor as a god on earth
Haibutsu kishaku
"Dismantle the Buddha, destroy Shakyamuni," the destruction and plundering of Buddhist institutions by zealous proponents of shinbutsu bunri.
higan
the equinoxes. On this occasion, memorial rites areperformed twice a year by Buddhist monks where employees or visitors give thanks to the spirits of dead animals for their 'sacrifice' in the making of whatever the company produces, such as drugs.
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Jōmon Period
the earliest known Neolithic inhabitants of Japan, named for the cord pattern of their pottery. Believed in Animism.
Ware ware Nihonjin
We We the Japanese
Shintō
the ancient indigenous religion of Japan lacking formal dogma
Sengoku
"Warring States," period in Japan similar to feudal system in Europe
Indo-European
the language almost all other languages came from
Engi
stories that tell how shrines were founded, usually involving as important and well-known figure of that religion
Mizuko kuyô
memorials and offerings that are performed for those children who were aborted or stillborn.
Kiriyama Seiyû
born in 1921; founder of Agonshû
Misogi
Purification rite or ritual such as cold water ablutions
Kojiki
a national chronicle completed in 712 C.E. that includes a section on Japanese mythology, including a genealogy of the Japanese kami. The text contains important legends about the origin of Japan and its religious culture, such as the creation of kami.
Sôka Gakkai
Literally, Value Creation Society, one of the new religions, founded by Makiguchi Tsunesaburo
Uchimura Kanzô
a Christian schoolteacher that refused to bow to the Impreial Rescript on Education, Uchimura was subsequently removed from his position.
Tôitsu Kyôkai
"Unification Church"; a Korean New Religious Movement founded by Sun Myung Moon (born 1920) (hence it is often referred to as "the Moonies"). Moon claims to be the Messiah and the Second Coming of Christ.
Hirohito
The Shôwa Emperor who reigned from 1926 to 1988. After World War II, he renounced the idea that the Japanese emperor was a living divinity (ikigami).
Setsubun
A nationwide festival that occurs in February to mark the changing of the seasons from winter to spring.
Yamabushi
"those that lie down in the mountains," mountain ascetics, also called shugenja; practioner of Shugendô
bon odori
community dances held during o-bon, the summer festival
ikigami
A living divinity. People who are revered during their lifetime as divine beings. In the past, the emperor of Japan was considered a living divinity. In some New Religions, the founders are venerated as living kami or ikigami.
On
kindness, a favour, an obligation, a debt of gratitude
Austronesian
the family of languages spoken in Australia and Formosa and Malaysia and Polynesia
Japonic
a language family composed of Japanese and Ryukyuan.
kami no michi
The way of the gods.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Tokugawa Shogunate
shogunate started by Tokugawa Ieyasu; 4 class system, warriors, farmers, artisans, merchants; Japan's ports were closed off; wanted to create their own culture; illegal to fight; merchants became rich because domestic trade flourished (because fighting was illegal); had new forms of art - kabuki and geishas
Civilization
a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
Ise Shrines
Shinto shrine complex at which the mythical imperial ancestress Amaterasu is enshrined
Sect Shinto
religious Shinto that is declared so by popular belief and not supported by the government.
Yasukuni Shrine
Shinto shrine dedicated to the war dead who died in various military conflicts since 1868.
Hannya Shingyô
the most commonly used sutra that contains Buddhist teachings and is chanted in various situations, such as stressful events, due to its accessibility and convinience.
Norito
a prayer recited by a Shintô priest during ceremonies at a Shinto shrine
Okada Kôtama
(1901-1974); founder of the New New Religion Mahikari
saisei itchi
the unification of the government and rituals
Nagasaki
a city in southern Japan on Kyushu, Trading port, after Jesuit disputes, only the Dutch were allowed to reside here, and only for 2-3 months at a time
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
kokoro no yoridokoro
spiritual "crutch" place of support. From survey. high 80% said yes.
Karma (Japanese, innen)
The belief that repercussions are a result of all occurrences and actions.
Zen
one of the forms of Buddhism found in Japan; derived from Chinese Chan.
Great Promulgation Campaign
see Promulgation Campaign of the Great Teaching
hatsumøde
the first shrine visit of the New year in Japan
Archipelago
a group of many islands in a large body of water
Yamato Period
200-500 CE. Also know as the Tumuli period, beginning Japanese organized large-scale government. Shinto Shrines.
Amaterasu: the Sun Goddess
the supreme Shinto deity and mythical ancestress of the imperial house. She was born from Izanagi, from whom the Imperial line claims descent and therefore its legitimacy in Japan. The Ise Shrine is dedicated to this deity.
Religious Organizations Law (1940)
gave the state sweeping powers to regulate the activities of all religious associations.
Ring of Fire
a major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
Promulgation Campaign of the Great Teaching (also, in Hardacre
Great Promulgation Campaign): an early Meiji teaching campaign to establish a state doctine based on the obedience to, respect of, and love for the gods, the court and the emperor (Hardacre 42-43). It was characterized by a confusion of direction and was largely seen as a failure by intellectuals, though it had a strong impact on the spread and acceptance of Shinto.
New New Religions (Shin shinshûkyô)
Fourth period of the founding of the New Religions from about 1970, which shifted the emphasis from worldly-healing to the problem of meaningless and the idea of the loss of fulfillment in life.
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