Jazz History 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
"Trane"
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J.J. Johnson
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Art Blakey
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W.C. Handy
memphis blues
Baseball
Carla Bley 1999
played vibraphone
lionel hampton
Bud Powell
piano, C
Warren 'Baby' Dodds
Jazz Drummer
Ma rainey
mother of blues
autumn leaves drums
paul motian
beat
the unit of pulse
Earl "Fatha" Hines
piano, A
Billy Strayhorn
Ellington's co-composer
- pianist, joined band in 1938
- Ellington's equal = exotic and chromatic style
- homosexual
- dark, rich timbres
Rubato
No regular tempo, moving slowly.
Artist of "Havana Cafe"
Paquito D'Rivera
Changes
jazz term meaning harmonic progression.
RECORDING: "Every Tub" by _____
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Crescendo
Musical term meaning get louder
creole
new orleans natives who are descendents of african french and sometimes spainish heritage
Jimmy Yancey
American pianist, composer, and lyricist, most noted for his piano work
microtones
melodic intervals smaller than a half-step, used expressively in jazz as part of blues notes.
Headhunters
Hancock's post Miles band
Hired funk players
Dance grooves
Studio technology
(Don Redman)
arranger for fletcher henderson's band
Duke Ellington was a prolific composer, writing over 1000 pieces, including ballads, uptempo swingers and suites.
True
John Coltrane: general
-long apprenticeship (w/Dizzy Gillespie, Johnny Hodges)
-work with Miles Davis quintets and sextets
comping
A performance practice used to describe improvised harmonic accompaniment typically governed by those chords set forth in a prescribed chord progression. Any instrument capable of playing chords can "comp."
Biederbecke from 27-29 played with
Paul Whitman
Timbre
Tone color. Caused by relative strength of the overtone series
Weather Report
band played acoustic fusion, free collective improv and jazz funk styles
Swing Bands
- Jimmie Lunceford
- Chick Webb
- Artie Shaw
- Cab Calloway
- Glenn Miller
Bob Wilber
jazz clarinetist, saxophonist and band leader
Bessie Smith
Powerful, influential blues singer in the 1920's, "Empress of Blues"
Clarify the meaning of call and response and discuss the heritage of this term and practice.
BLANK
original dixieland jass band
first jazz band recordings
chicago musicians
1. transplanted new orleans african musicians
2.black new orleans musician's white counterparts
3.young white chicagoans who imitated their elders
New Orleans was a multi-racial city that reflected various aspects of Spanish, French, German, and African settlers.
True
soli
When a group of instruments (often from the same family) perform in a featured, soloistic fashion.
What were two conventional aspects of Ornette Coleman's music when he first presented it to NY audiences in the fall of 1959?
--------
Lester Young was who's role model?
Stan Getz
Can you explain how Louis Armstrong influenced two female jazz singers?
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modal jazz uses a lot of chords
false
bud powell
considered finest of the bop pianists-right hand bop piano style-father of modern jazz pianonew yorker
"Maple Leaf Rag"
Scott Joplin (1916)
- Originally published 1897
Organ Trio
Organ, Guitar, Drums - Hammong organ (electric)
Dizzy Gillespie
- trumpet, bebop
- born in South Carolina
- worked for Cab Calloway orchestra as soloist & arranger but was fired
- 1944/45 bebop movement
Buddy 'King' Bolden
Cornetist, Early New Orleans Ragtime to Jazz
Cootie Williams
Trumpet player in Ellington's band who played with a raspy sound
double-time
a technique in which members of the jazz ensemble, especially the rhythm section, play twice as fast while maintaining the overall cycle (or chorus)
Jelly Roll Morton
(1885-1941) creole piano player, pimp, and hustler, who had a band called the Red Hot Peppers
what is contrafact?
taking standards and writing new melodies on top
In 1924 Armstrong married the Oliver band's pianist _________________, who urged him to go out on his own.
Lil Hardin
Who was granted 17 honorary doctrates in her lfietime?
Twyla Tharp
With whose quintet did Miles Davis establish his reputation in NY in the 1940s?
Charlie Parker
What he wrote
What was Duke Ellington famous for?
Why did jazz flourish in Kansas City just as it had in New York and Chicago?
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Chromatic
Notes that are "foreign" to a given key, and the free utilization of altered notes. Notes that lend color to the sound of a chord or scale. (from Chroma).
"Tiger Rag" (1917)
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
- Nick LaRocca: cornet
tonic
the "do" note in a scale that music insists on returning to
Billie Holiday's Career
1935-42 Big-band singer w/ Count Basie Band
-- juke box recordings
-- "A Sailboat in the Moonlight" with Lester Young
1940-50 gigs at Cafe Society
-- political figure (liberal) = Popular Front
-- "Strange Fruit" about lynching 1940
1950-59 - physical decline
-- heroin addiction
-- deteriorating voice & heartbreaking musicality
-- reunion with Lester Young in 1988 "Fine and Mellow"
Charlie Christian
Electric guitarist from OKC who was a part of the Benny Goodman sextet and was discovered by John Hammond. Bebob guitarist.
head arrangement
an arrangement for big band that is collectively created by the band and not written down. Typically consists of block-chord riffs and a set order of solos.
Kind of Blue
Put together in two separate sessions with no rehearsing ahead of time. Highly influential to jazz musicians and an easy listen for casual fans. Best selling jazz album of all time.
Fletcher Henderson band
A dance band that was extremely influential on how this music got its foothold. Employed more soloists that were exploring improvisation. Redman was in this band. Henderson's biggest contribution was selling his arrangements to Benny Goodman.
Orchestration of west coast jazz
miles davis's "Capitol" sessions orchestration. One of each instrument
In Bebop what is the rhythm section?
piano, bass, drums
Blue Note
A note, part of a particular scale, that gives a "bluesy" quality to the musical line. Includes the notes flat 3,5, and 7. Also, a very famous jazz club in NYC.
"I Can't Get Started"
Bunny Berigan's Big Band (1936)
- Berigan: trumpet
Doggin Around
Done by Count Basie in 1935. Used the Brass vs. Reeds concept.
Soul Jazz
A popular sub style of hard bop that drew heavily from R&B and soul music influences.
Cotton Club
It was a club in Harlem that was thought to represent the height of NY sophistication but it actually exploited tired minstrel cliches. This was where Duke Ellington's ensemble acted as house band starting in 1927.
Oscar Peterson Trio
Oscar Peterson (P), Ray Brown (B), Ed Thigpen (D)
Call & Response
A generic term used in composition and improvisation, it originates from black church music.
the film industry promoted jazz and snazzy partner routimes with dancers such as who?
Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
12-bar blues form
1. 2.5 measures for the singer and 1.5 for instrumental response=12 bars.
2. In most basic form, uses only 3 chords, beginning on the tonic, or I chord.
3. It features a distinctive, asymetric three-line stanza.
Stan Getz called his groups
"Herds", Woddy Herman band (a cool band, 4 brothers)
When a singer scats, what are they doing?
Using nonsense syllables while improvising a melody vocally.
4 more Gil Evans-Miles Davis collaborations
1957- Miles ahead, or Miles +19
1958- Porgy and Bess
1960- Sketches of Spain
1962- Quiet Nights
The definition of Country Blues is:
A form of a musical style often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only guitar or banjo
What was J.J. Johnson known for?
fast technique, made it more of a solo/modern instrument, got rid of corny sounds with mute, high range
Work w/ Gil Evans for Columbia Records
1957 - Miles Ahead
1958 - Porgy and Bess
1960 - Sketches of Spain
1962 - Quiet Nights
Can any piece of music be played in a jazz style? Explain your answer
Any music can be played as jazz because it is the way of playing and interpreting the music.
Processional
Wynton Marsalis
Charles Mingus
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Charlie Parker
Saxophone, Composer
60s organist
jimmy smith
Artie Shaw's Band
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Sarah Vaughan
Singer, B
melodic
pertaining to teh melody
Paul Whiteman
King of jazz
Artist of "Boplicity"
Miles Davis
street woman drummer
billy higgens
European influence in jazz
harmony
melody
succession of pitches - vertical
dynamics
refers to volume, or loudness
Papa Jack
1st white jazz musician-
bebop trumpet
fats nivaro kenny dorham
Paul Desmond played with
Dave Brukbeck
Eric Dolphy
Bass clarinet/alto sax, C
dissonance
something that disturbs the harmonic sound - unstable- away from tonic
Art Tatum
Virtuoso pianist, Nearly Blind, Insanely good
King Porter Stomp, Jelly Roll Morton
1939
What woodwind instrument popular in early jazz bands has fallen somewhat out of favor in more modern times?
Clarinet
the savoy ballroom
place of interracial dancing
bebop tenor sax
sonny rollins, dexter gordon
Horns
Instruments that produce sound by moving air.
chord
three or more notes played together
Tag
A colloquial expression, meaning an added or "tagged" on ending.
Oscar Peterson
canadien pianist, managed ella fitzgerald
atonal
music that recognizes no key center and sounds dissonant
syncopation
a rythmic accent or an unexpected beat
Sitting In
Roy Eldridge and Chu Berry, 1938
Chu Berry
Tenor sax player. Swing Era soloist.
brass instruments
wind instruments played with a cup-shaped mouthpiece: trumpet, cornet, trombone, tuba etc.
Artist of "Mirrors (For Steve Lacy)"
Dave Douglas
Bix Beiderbecke was known for his lyrical, concise solos, a warm tone, and the capacity to adapt to different musical circumstances.
False
Standard
A permanent addition to the jazz repertory.
Jazz generated thirty two bar AABA tunes.
what year did Parker and Gillespie begin to regularly record?
1945
Diabetes
What did Fitzgerald develop in the 80's which led to death later on?
What tenor saxophonist was heralded as the leading tenor saxophonists of the postbop school?
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Meter
The groupings of these pulses or beats. It can be caused by accenting certain beats. Top number indicates number of beats/measure Bottom number indicates what unit receives 1 beat.
Dave Brubeck
one of the most commercially successful jazz musicians of the 50's and 60'spianist-composer
"Shaw Nuff"
Dizzy Gillespie (1945)
- Charlie Parker: alto
Free Jazz
improv solos free of preset chord progression and meter; "swirly" sound when several improv at once
Ellington's Revival
As big bands collapse, Ellington keeps going
- Extended pieces (many after WWII)
- representing worldly sophistication (black man voice is the creative voice)
AABBACCDD
Form of music which is considered to be Military March form. It is used in Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag."
motive
a short melodic or rhythmic idea used self-consciously by a musician in the course of a solo.
Call and Response
An African-originated pattern used in jazz and in some religious music in which a call (by a solo vocalist or instrumentalist) is answered by another vocalist or instrumentalist, or by an ensemble of vocalists/instruments.
Bebop
A style of jazz characterized by fast tempo and improvisation.
Ragtime
Popular turn of the 20th century style of written piano music involving pronounced Syncopation
Chick Webb never recorded a hit even though he discovered the vocalist Bessie Smith.
False
Tin Pan Alley
Nickname for these well known buildings on a well known street in NY. It was a place where song writers began to flourish as an important part of the musical process and it began to be noted as a profession.
articulation
A general term to describe the length of notes in performance. Ex: short or long or somewhere in between.
Songwriter's whose songs were typically made into contrafacts
Harold Arlen, Rogers, Hammerstein,
ostinato
a brief pattern that is repeated in the bass line
Mute
An accessory to a brass instrument, it changes the sound, making it brassier, softer, etc... Types include: straight mute ; cup mute; harmon mute; plunger mute.
AABA
Form of many standard tunes. 32 bars long. 4 sections of 8 bars each. Includes a BRIDGE.
"Yardbird Suite"
Charlie Parker (1946)
- Miles Davis: trumpet
- Lucky Thompson: tenor
Spirituals
a name given to a type of religious folk song of African Americans, usually of a solo-and-refrain design
Duke Ellington
Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club
dance music
1900-1920's this type of music grew in popularity
The essence of Jazz dance is its bond to ___ music.
Jazz
Birth of the Cool Nonet
-writers collective
-came from Gil Evans' informal "salon" ("hangs")
-Miles Davis nominal leadership
-innovative arrangements of Gil Evans, Gerry Mulligan, John Lewis, reduce sound of Claude Thornhill's orchestra to 9 instruments
-emphasis on linear flow and counterpoint
Sam Cooke
Got his start with Gospel music, found murdered in his office
Who was the bassist that served as a link between swing style bassists Jimmy Blanton and Slam Stewart and the more modern, soloistic demands of the bebop style?
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Rhythm
The pattern that goes on top of the beat (pulse)
Fusion - Whats Jazz about it?
virtuoso, ability demanding, improv, modal, harmony
major scale (or mode)
the most common of the seven-note scales commonly used in Western musical culture.
Miles Davis was the first to make
a cool jazz recording
Prohibition Act
A United States law, also known as the Volstead Act, passed on January 16, 1920, declaring the importation, exportation, transportation, sale and manufacturing of alcoholic beverages as illegal activities punishable by law.
Electric Guitar & Hard Bop
- hard bop! basic sound
- Wes Montgomery -- played with thumb, harmonic substitutions "Twisted Blues"
Bud powell's main contribution
freeing up the left hand's rhythms to "comp"
what did Jerome Robbins choreograph?
An American in Paris and West Side Story
Duke Ellington's music can be generally placed in several categories and name one tune that serves as an example.
'Ko-Ko' would be placed as jungle music.
Armstrong Late Career
1930s - moves to NY & is a hero to black community, overcoming racial divides
1947 - after WWII, big bands start to collaps & they rebound to New Orleans style jazz = Armstrong Allstars
1940s-60s - loses black audience & is seen as old-fashioned by the civil rights audience (post his trip to Africa)
TODAY - reclaimed by current generation/seen as inventor of jazz
"Dippermouth Blues" bears some of the characteristics associated with many pieces of this period. What are they?
Same chord scheme found in Bessie Smith's "Lost Your Head Blues," and W.C. Handy's "St. Louis Blues."
What is the first recorded song to feature a scat solo and when was it recorded?
The first recorded song was "Heebie Jeebies" in 1926.
What led to the decline of the Chicago jazz era?
Most musicians were moving to NY because there were more opportunities.
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