Jazz History FINAL Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bud Powell
Herbie Hancock
W.C. Handy
St.Louis Blues
headhunters sax
benny maupin
East Coast Cool
Scott Joplin
piano/composer, A
Bunk Johnson
Jazz trumpet player
Fletcher Henderson
Godfather of swing
powell's prances pianist
richie powell
Jerry Mulligan used
no piano
Jelly Roll Morton
Piano, A
the collective individual music created by making up new melodies to fit the structure of a song
Accomplished through varying lengths of notes, combined with space, all in relationship to a steady pulse.
Artist of "Backstage Sally"
Art Blakey
Redlight District in New Orleans.
Bebop drummers initiated what significant changes in their playing during the bebop period? What two drummers were most instrumental in making these changes?
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A licensing agency. (BMI)
Lennie Tristano
pianist and composer; created alternatives to bebop; inspired by Art Tatum, Lester Young and Bach
Trummy Young
trombonist in the swing era
The Castles
Modern Dance 1910's, popularized dances from black culture
Don Redman
(1900-1964) saxophonist and arranger for Henderson's band
Syncopated right hand juxtaposed with the pounding of the left hand.
Ellington was compared with classical composers, appeared in films and was promoted by manager Irving Mills.
Paul Whiteman
Pianist, arranger and bandleader. Introduced idea of featuring vocalists with symphonic, jazz-style arrangements. Also demonstrated that jazz improv could coexist within tight arrangements designed for large, symphonic style ensembles.
traveling musician, poet and praise singer
Free in tempo. No steady pulse.
first jazz style to become popular
pulse rhythm
heartbeat - steady dance oriented. basic approach to rhythm used in jazz
- history in charge
- music strongly influenced by past
- jazz = "official" -- education, government
Billie Holiday
Jazz singer and songwriter. Nicknamed "Lady Day" by her friend and musical partner Lester Young
syncopation began with what?
the buck and wing
The stride style generally refers to what instrument?
Bix Beiderbecke
Offered listeners an approach that contrasted Armstrong's; Played the cornet; White guy from Iowa
Bubber Miley, a very important member of Ellington's orchestra, would become known as a master of the plunger mute.
Who is the "MOTHER of Jazz"?
Katherine Dunham
Lennie Tristano: style
alternative modernist style to bop:
-emphasis on melodic line
-classical influences: Bach, Bartok
-free jazz experiments
studnets: saxophonists Lee Konitz and Warne Marsh
Stan Getz had a big hit..
Desafinado-light tone
What changes occurred in the bass's role and performance style during the bebop period?
combo of classical and jazz elements
third stream
benny carter
-personified the history of jazz-was probably one of the two leading alto saxophone stylists of swing, the other was johnny hodges
"Moten Swing"
Bennie Moten Orchestra (Dec. 13, 1932)
focus on swing and blues, exclusion of all styles after 1960s, most like hard bop
The Blue Devils
- active in Kansas City
- used head arrangements
Johnny Dodds
New Orleans based jazz clarinetist and alto saxophonist
Jo Jones
Drummer in Count Basie's band who switched the beat from the bass drum to the hi hat
irregular meter
a meter featuring beats of unequal size (i.e., meter of 5 or meter of 7)
Joe "King" Oliver
(1885-1938) cornet player, master of mutes, started the Creole Jazz Band in chicago in 1923
"Fats" Waller
one of most popular jazz pianists; wrote "jitterbug waltz"; best at improvising in the stride style
In Bebop what has the melody?
sax and trumpet
What word did Sidney Bechet use to describe the music he played?
___formed concept of a straight line, percussive style w/ straong angular movements, sharp accents, rebounds, & turns.
Matt Mattox
What virtuoso trumpeter co-led a 1950s quintet with drummer Max Roach
Clifford Brown
Delta Blues
Took what they were singing (slave songs) with music that already existed in America
What was a territory band? Can you name several?
Harmonic Progression
A series of chords, or harmonies. Referred to as the changes.
"Knockin' A Jug"
Louis Armstrong's Hot Fives & Sevens (March 5, 1929)
- Louis Armstrong: trumpet
- Jack Teagarden: trombone
chromatic scale
the scale composed of the twelve notes in an octave with the interval separating each note a half step
Art Tatum
- THE stride piano virtuoso
- "God is in the House"
- speed, accuracy, harmony!!
- melodic paraphrase of Over the Rainbow (for example)
Nat King Cole
Soft Baritone Singer in jazz big bands, Accomplished Jazz pianist
atonal music
Music that doesn't have a tonic, or tonal center (also known in jazz as "playing outside")
Third Stream
A term coined by Gunther Schuller in 1957 to describe the combining of jazz and classical music into a new styler. Developed more formal structures than were typical in jazz tradition.
Which of the following musical traits best exemplified Louis Armstrong's influence that musicians/trumpet players continue to study and emulate.
Tone and phrasing
two players who "crystalized" bebop
charlie parker and dizzy gillespie
George Shearing Quartet
no horns, Latin rhythms. piano, bass, drums, vibe, guitar
To stop a note. The bridge of a tune.
1) To play above the pitch. 2) A chromatic alteration to a pitch
Bebop and Drugs
- post WWII: heroin popular with bop
- association with blacks as junkies
James P. Johnson
one of the most influential early jazz pianists
Pentatonic Scale
A 5 note scale that both blues and Jewish traditions relied on.
melody on the 5th finger of the right hand, block chords
george shearing
8. Keith Jarrett (Piano)
a. Early work with Charles Lloyd Quartet (1966-69) b. Solo piano in the 1970's (Edition of Contemporary Music {ECM} recordings) i. Highly eclectic style c. "Standards" trio (1980's to the present)
Ella Fitzgerald
Won a talent contest in 1934 and was a vocalist with Chick Webb until he died in 1939. Incredible range ability and taste and used scat singing.
The following musical elements were important aspects of Duke Ellington's style:
Use of dissonance and inventive harmonies, sound identities of his individual soloists, masterful and unusual approach to orchestration
Black, Brown, and Beige
What tune by Ellington was played at Carnagy Hall in 1943?
Discuss the improvisational tradition in jazz.
The roots of American jazz can be compared to any folk tradition - impromptu, spontaneous, and simplistic. These characteristics as well as rhythm, lyric and melody were of utmost importance in early vocal styles.
Introduction of brazilian music to america
(record, artist, date)
Jazz Samba - Stan Getz - 1962
Dave Brubeck Quartet songs..
Take 5, Rondo a la Turk (9 8 meter) fast tempo
Born in 1917 and died in 1996
When was Ella Fitzgerald born and died?
Name one specific way the 1959 album "Giant Steps" has influenced jazz.
It brondened and employed many usages of the scales ranging from pentatonic to blues.
Chick Webb- a drummer that had his own band
Who does Fitzgerald meet and who is he?
Sidney Bechet
Dexter Gordon
Chick Corea
Contrafact: Impressions
So what
John Coltrane
Sax, D
Cecil Taylor
piano, D
Eddie Condon
Jazz Banjo, Guitar
cab calloway
minnie the moocher
hora decubitis trumpet
richard williams
Art Ensemble of Chicago
Mary Lou Williams
Piano, B
Religious Music
uses call-and-response, melodic singing quite similar to African tradition; the rhythm used is freely generated
Bill Evans
Floating Pulse
No strict time
Bass/Drum dialogue
(Billy Strayhorn)
arranger for ellington's band
Area in New York City
Musical term meaning get softer.
speed/rate oa which beats pass
Benny Goodman
clarinet, 1930s
- Russian Jewish immigrants (parents)
- playing clarinet got him out of Chicago ghetto
- large band
- hired black arrangers (ex: Fletcher Henderson)
- breakthrough: 1935, in Palomar Ballroom in LA makes him famous
Miles Davis--trumpet begins with sax and drum set accompaniment. Starts with quarter note pattern.
free improvisation
improvising without reference to harmony, often in an atonal context. Usually the focus shifts to areas that can be masked in harmonic improvisation: timbre, melodic intervals, rhythm, and constant interactions among musicians.
original dixieland jass band
Creators of jazz
collective improvisation
Several musicians play improvised music at the same time (polyphonic texture)
____________ played the C-Melody saxophone in Goldkette's orchestra, with a light tone in a graceful manner.
Frankie Trumbauer
What was Charles Mingus' primary instrument?
List the musical characteristics that define Charlie Parker's revolutionary and unique style.
not an arranging style of Duke
A colloquial expression, meaning an added or "tagged" on ending.
Miles Davis
trumpet and bandleader, never limited to one style, played on Birth of the Cool, pioneered model jazz and fusion jazz
Territory Bands
local but important bands
work within "territory" (day's driving distance)
not known nationally
ex Andy Kirk and His 12 Clouds of Joy
Piano Legacy
Herbie Hancock, Keith Jarrett, Marcus Roberts, Ahmad Jamal
A general name for the overall framework that makes rhythmic contrast possible. Includes the jazz-specific concept of swing.
Joplin's opera that saw only one self-produced public performance that was not well received. It was finally reproduced in 1976 winning a Pulitzer Prize.
Shifting the accent from a stronger beat to a weaker beat
Many New Orleans musicians called the new music by the old name ragtime until their dying day.
Louis Armstrong
Cornet player. Revolutionized jazz by changing it from an ensemble style to a new form that would allow soloists to individually play their solo. Also popularized scat singing.
Miles Davis: style
50's style
-non-virtuoso style - favored trumpet's mid-range
-harmon mute w/stem removed
-emphasis on "singable" melodies
Name one preeminent vocalist from this period and describe her style.
ornette coleman was an important innovator in
free jazz
a short section (usually 2 bars) repeated over and over
call and response
a kind of conversation between musicians or singers in a song
scat singing
a vocal technique that uses nonsnse syllables to improvise a melody often to make the singer sound like an instrument
Minton's Playhouse
- musical evolution in bebop
- Harlem 1940 on
- to discourage beginners: fast tempos, unfamiliar keys, and modulating up a half-step each chorus were used
Eddie Daniels
early career spent as a tenor saxophonist/woodwind studio musician, in 1980's swith to clarinet, felt the clarinet was the most neglected instrument since the 40's, started at the age of 14 and recieved an MA from Julliard for clarinet performance, first album "street wind" showed the clarinet can be ingaging, in 1984 he premiered Concerto for Jazz Clarinet and Orchestra with the NAO in los Angeles, album Breakthrough was a mix of jazz and classical and he recieved a grammy nomination for it, live performances feature jazz and classical music, has "made a statement about jazz clarinet in the world"
Jazz was brought to America by who?
African slaves
keeping time
jazz slang for the process of maintaining a steady, unchanging rhythmic foundation
the boswell sisters
most influential female jazz vocal group
guitar softly as in a morning sunrise
george benson
While many factors gave rise to great swing era, it was most significantly "fueled" by the ___________.
what was unusal about Dave Brubeck's approach to rythm
unusual time
J.J. Johnson collaborated with another player, they created a group called..
K and J
Who is considered "the first lady of song"?
fletcher henderson and chick webb were bandleaders in
new york
"Singing the Blues"
Bix Beiderbecke with Frankie Trumbauer Orchestra (Feb. 4, 1927)
- Bix Beiderbecke, cornet
- Eddie Lang, guitar
free rhythm
elusive- can either speed up or slow down. often heard in introductions
Charlie Parker
- alto sax, bebop babayyy
- nickname = Bird
- born 1920, Kansas City
- role model = Lester Young (pick up a sense of the blues)
- with big bands until he went free-lance
- tragic life: heroin addiction & died early
chord substitutions
substituting one chord, or a series of chords, for harmonies in a harmonic progression.
Savoy Ballroom
A dance hall in Harlem whose clientele was majority black. There would be two bands playing a night and the social dancing was an intense, communal activity. The savoy dance style became known as the Lindy Hop.
Four Brothers
Zoot Sims, Stan Getz, Al Cohn, Serge Shalff
high hat
an instrument in the drum set that brings two cymbals together using a foot pedal
"God Bless The Child"
Billie Holiday (1941)
- Roy Eldgridge: trumpet
Symphonic Jazz
A style of jazz played by the Paul Whiteman Orchestra that incorporated heavy influences from European classical music.
When did Jazz become most popular?
After WWII in the 1920's
4 Great bop drummers
Roy Haynes, Kenny Clarke, Max Roach, Big Sid Kaplet
Walking Bass
A bass line or quarter notes on the pulse, that just "walks along." They can include steps (adjacent notes) or leaps (skips)
Original Dixieland Jazz Band (ODJB)
Popularized the New Orleans Style in the 1910's/20's.
Describe the instrumentation of a Swing Era big band.
3-4 saxophones, 2-3 trumpets, 2-3 trombones, 3-4 piece rhythm section
Blues (5 definitions)
1) a rhymed poetic form (AAB), 2) a sad feeling, 3) a genre of music, 4) a musical form with a set phrasing and chord progression, 5) and combination of the above
Innovations of Miles Davis
Had a trumpet style that was among the most influential in jazz throughout the 50s and 60s.
Born in 1899 and died 1979
When was Duke Ellington born and died?
Name some of the well-known "Harlem pianists."
James P. Johnson, Duke Ellington and Art Tatum
rhythm & blues; mainstream pop vocals; latin jazz
the three possible successors to swing music were _______, ______ and ____
New York to stay with her Aunt
Where did Ella Fitzgerald move at age 9?
List one aspect of the playing of the pianist mentioned in the previous question which helped define the modal orientation of the Coltrane "classic quartet"
The pianist used a lot of the pedal playing and gentle voicing across
Ed Thigpen
Jack Teagarden
James Miley
Downtown Creoles
Swing Feel
"Self-Pounding" African Instrument
Sonny Stitt
Baritone Sax
Billy Strayhorn
1915-1967 - Pianist
the Toonerville Trolly
newspaper cartoon
The Austin High Gang
Contemporary Jazz
1. Traditionalist/Mainstream2. Legacy of 70s Fusion3. Legacy of 60s avant-garde
Lester Young
Significant TENOR SAXOPHONIST/created a unique sound emulating Frankie Trumbauer/ "PRESIDENT OF THE SAX"
rhythmically placing or accenting notes away from the beat in unexpected places
Frankie Trumbauer
Known for his C-melody sax
Slave Music
• Music was multi-functional.
• In the early days it was more African than American gradually transforming into African-American forms.
• No distinction between sacred and secular music.
After Coltrane's death, developed a cult following
Earl Hines
Harlem Stride pianist/ imitated Armstrong on piano
____ shout chorus, where the whole band plays the same thing in unison or block harmony with the lead melody
a shorthand musical score that serves as the point of reference for a jazz performance. Often, only the harmonic progression is specified. Also known as a lead sheet.
What period constitutes the first era of expanding diversity in jazz?
Tried to censor stuff because people wrote "naughty" songs about sex and drugsG
Intricate web of rhythms heard among the different parts (cross-rhythms).
What was Miles Davis' Instrument of expertise
a shift from one key to another
Buddy Rich
Regarded as the foremost virtuoso on the drums
block-chord texture
a subset of homophonic texture in which the pitches of the accompanying harmony move in exactly the same rhythm as the main melody. Block-chord texture is typically found in big-band jazz, as, for example, when a saxophone section plays and simultaneously harmonizes a melody. See also soli.
What styles are associated with the expanding diversity of the 1980s and 1990s?
Latin jazz
New Orleans Stule Jazz
began in Storyville/ INSTRUMENTATION: front line: tpt, clar, trom and rhytm: pno, bass, bnj, COLLECTIVE IMPROV
Bebop: Principles/Ideas
Music grounded in improv. with focus on solos Important melodies “heads” compliment to improv Small groups over big bands Musical performances in jazz clubs, not large dance halls De-emphasis of commercial aspects of popular success → no dancers Rhythmic pulse is less obvious Rise in black consciousness reflected in music/titles
Plessy vs. Ferguson
1896 decision stating that separate facilities for clacks and whites were permissible, as long as they were equal. "Separate but equal"
Who was the ragtime-trained New Orleans pianist who became the 1st significant composer of Jazz
Jelly Roll Morton
a weak beat proceeding in the down beat
Work Songs
sung by a group of workers, usually with a tool of labor such as a pick, ax, hammer, shovel
consonance (adj.: consonant)
harmonies that are stable (i.e., that do not need to resolve to another harmony).
Who was the first "giant" of jazz (name, dates, style, instrument and contributions).
Louis Armstrong
Trumpet and Vocal
virtuoso soloist art form
Freddie Keppard
Top New Orleans Jazz musician/ did not want to be emulated/ never recorded/ played with a napkin
Tin Pan Alley
originally used to describe the sound of the many pianos plinking out melodies along 28th st between broadway and 6th avenues in the early 20th century that sounded like dishpans being struck. Eventually became catchphrase to describe entire publishing industry based in NY
What Kansas City swing band was known 4 its strong anchoring in the blues
Basie Band
Roy "Little Jazz" Eldridge
influenced by sax Coleman Hawkins and utilized varied tone qualities, sometimes warm, sometimes hard-edged and bright
What are the major characteristics of the period of continuing traditions and expanding diversity?
very experimental decade
musicians are exploring limits (free jazz)
expanding harmonic language
electronic technology evolves
Miles and Hard Bop
Used a sextet rather than a quintetPlayed standard tunes rather than originalsUsed Cannonball Adderley on Alto saxBye Bye BlackbirdStella by Starlight
Hard Bop: (Key Players)
Horace Silver - Sax - Norwalk, CT
Charles Mingus - Bass - AZ--> LA
Clifford Brown - Trumpet
Max Roach - Drums
Sonny Rollins - Tenor Sax - (From Brown/Roach Quartet)
When did big band become a hit 2 the public
List the three major musical sources for early jazz.
blues, ragtime and popular song
Benny Moten’s Band (Life)
From Kansas City. Became the Count Basie Band.
Pianist William "Billy" Taylor
Worked with guys above, says jazz is a good and equally available to all
Louis Armstrong on music and politics
Things he said about civil rights were heard by all because he was famous
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