Jazz History midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mainstream
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The Prez
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Paul Chambers
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Jelly Roll Morton
Professor
gig
A musical engagement.
stock market crash
1929
Benny Carter
sax/arranger, B
Meade Lux Lewis
Boogie-woogie Pianist
scott joplin
piano banjo composer
moanin pianist composer
bobby timmons
music
organized sound or silence
Lester Young
Tenor Sax, B
Boogie-Woogie
1920s Southwest
Kansas City and Chicago
bluesy piano style
8-beat groove
--left hand: rhythmic ostinato "chains"
--right hand: variable bluesy patterns, rhythmic contrast (varies texturely)
- declined during The Great Depression
What wind instrument commonly associated with jazz is rarely heard in a classical music context?
Saxophone
Artist of "So What"
Miles Davis
Birdland
Josef Zawinul, Weather Report 1977
"Lonely Woman" - Ornette Coleman "As Long As You Know You're Living Yours" - Keith Jarrett
...
Diatonic
found naturally in given key
solo
when one musician usually improvizes within the structure of the exsisting song
Trumpet Legacy
Terance Blanchard, Nicholas Payton, Jon Faddis, Roy Hargrove, Wallace Roney
"coon songs"
ragtime songs with racist stereotypes
Count Basie
one o'clock jump- 10 chorus
front line
Trumpet: main melody Clarinet: harmonic/melodic embellishment Trombone: bass line in "tailgate" style (lots of slides)
Later research has complicated the story of where jazz was first practiced and who the first players were
False
Thelonious Monk: style
equal improvisation and composition
-repetition of short motives
-asymmetry of phrases
-jarring, skeletal use of harmony
ESSAY: Compare and contrast musical styles of big band swing and bebop. Include in your essay a discussion that includes the following topics: style of the characteristics including instrumentation, harmonic/melodic/rhythmic content, performance practice/
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charlie parker and gillespie were pioneers of
bebop
Syncopation
A temporary shifting or displacement of a regular metrical accent; emphasis on a weak or unaccented note so as to displace the regular meter
Wynton Marsalis
trumpet player, an "imitator" a neo-traditionalist
Miles Davis Nonet
trumpet
younger bebop generation (cool jazz)
Charlie Parker's trumpet player in bebop
Roy Eldridge
Jazz Trumpet Player Nicknamed; 'little jazz'
embouchure
the position of the lips, facial muscles, and jaw necessary to play a wind instrument
Minstrel Show
Early touring variety shows popular during the mid-1800s.
rhythm section
tuba, spring bass, drums, banjo, piano
Benny Goodman
Clarinetist, most prominent of all improvisers in 30s & 40s
______________, a young black electric guitarist, was hired by Goodman in 1939 and would be a major force on his instrument for decades to come.
Charlie Christian
Before the popularity of the trumpet, early brass men played ______?
cornet
Charlie Parker's got his saxophone playing style from what city?
Kansas City
Bill Evans had a..
special tone, overdubbing/voiceings -traditional chords reshaped to trademark voiceings
What does the "All American Rhythm Section" refer to and what was its significance to jazz?
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how many sax in a big band
five
Miles Davis
trumpeterbirth of cool jazz, modal jazz, fused jazz and rock--called music "fusion"
"Chelsea Bridge"
Duke Ellington Orchestra (1941)
- Billy Strayhorn: composer, arranger
- Ben Webster: tenor sax
transation
the music that a composer writes to create seamless movement from one secton to another
Basie's band
- 1936
- discovered by John Hammond
- breakthrough as national band
"1:00 Jump"
--old blues tune
--simple head arrangement
-- 12-bar blues
--riffs, call/response
Johnny Hodges
alto saxophonist, best known for his solo work with Duke Ellington's big band
Who became a well known choreographer and performer, and successfully combines technical training with street funk?
Paula Abdul
downbeat
the first beat of a measure or bar.
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
combines European tradition w/ African w/ Caribbean rhythms
Harlem rent party
tenents of over-priced slum apartments would throw parties before the rent was due to earn money for rent; usually a stride pianist would play
Dave Brubeck Quartet
first major quartet. paino, bass, drum, alto sax (Paul Desmond)
Jelly Roll Morton was a humble band leader who avoided the spotlight and recognition
False
Levee District
Area in the south side of Chicago.
What new method of structuring jazz improvisation was popularized by Davis in his 1959 recording "Kind of Blue"?
Modal improvisation
George Russel wrote a book..
"Lydian..Concept" 1st theoretical contribution, modal jazz
Who was Tom Pendergast and what was his significance to jazz and where?
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louis armstrong left N.O. to chicago to play with
King Oliver
"Parker's Mood"
Charlie Parker (1948)
- John Lewis: piano
bridge
the 8 bar "B" phrase in a pop song
Black, Brown, and Beige
Ellington's 1944 concert in Carnegie Hall
- assimilation of black americans into the american system (also red, white, and blue)
Charlie Parker
"Bird" played the sax and named Lester Young as one of his role models. Used fast harmonic improvisation. Bebop sax player.
harmonic substitution
a technique by which a jazz musician may bypass certain chords in a harmonic progression in favor of other, "substitute" harmonies.
Call and Response
Technique with one lead singer issuing the call, and the rest of the participants providing the response.
Breaks
The part where the band is not playing so that the listener can only hear the soloist.
Creole Jazz Band
Created by Joe "King" Oliver. Louis Armstrong joined in 1922.
"Four Brothers"
Sax section in Woody Herman band: Stan Getz, Zoot Sims, Herbie Stewart, Serge Chaloff
3rd stream is
combined jazz and classical, use of counterpoint, instruments from classical orchestra
Blues
A feeling. Also a form of music. 12 bars, 3 sections of 4 bars each. Text is Statement, Statement, Commentary I got to keep movin, Blues fallin down like hail. (statement) I got to keep movin, Blues fallin down like hail. (statement) I can't keep no money with a hellhound on my trail. (commentary)
"One O'Clock Jump"
Count Basie Orchestra (July 7, 1937)
- Lester Young: trumpet
Huddie 'lead belly' Ledbetter
folk and blues musician, notable for his strong vocals, 12 String Guitar, Played other intsruments eg. accordian, piano, harmonica
Musical Styles of Duke Ellington
Jungle Style: Characterized mainly by the growling trumpet style of Bubber Miley.
Jazz reflects American Historical events, Cultural Changes, ___ & ___
Ethnic Influences and Evolution of Music & Dance
bop was a conscious revolt against swing, but cool jazz was...
a development of bebop
Solo Break
A spot in the music where the band stops playing in order to let the soloist get a good start.
The minstrel show grew out of what?
whites in mimicry of blacks
What instrument did Sidney Bechet prefer over the clarinet?
Sidney Bechet preferred the soprano saxophone over the clarinet.
Manteca, and Night in Tunisia are
Afro-Cuban rhythms, both written by Dizzy Gillespie
Describe the essence of the ragtime style, discussing why it was influential to early jazz.
Ragtime, the rhythms and syncopation, come from the African influence but the harmony and melody are influenced by European music. It was influential to early jazz because of the rhythm.
When did miles collaborate with gil evans?
1949 for Birth of the Cool
Name a few of the "Harlem pianists."
James P. Johnson, Duke Ellington and Art Tatum
RECORDING: Daahoud by Clifford Brown
Hear lots of hit hat from the drums. Trumpet plays for most part. Reminds me of theme song of early game shows. Trumpet, piano and drums solo.
How did coleman hawkins' body and soul influence bebop?
Double time in solo provided second level of superimposed harmonic motion.
Where was Tin Pan Alley and what was its significance to early jazz?
Tin Pan Alley was located in New York. Many publishers were concentrated in this area to employ pianists by day to perform their latest publications in hopes of attracting sales.
King Oliver
1923
Dizzy Gillespie
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Wayne Shorter
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Sonny Rollins
Saxophone player
Appollo
A Legendary theater
Ornette Coleman
saxophone, D
Ella Fitzgerald
Voice, B
Fats Navarro
Bebop trumpet player
avantgarde alto sax
ornette coleman
Boogie Stop Shuffle
Charles Mingus
William "Count" Basie
piano, B
Body and Solo
Coleman Hawkins 1939
Ornet Coleman
Loved or Hated
Controversial
Clear Message
Storyville
red-light district in New Orleans
arrangement
A reconstruction/adaptation of a musical composition for a specific ensemble of instruments. In a written arrangement, the arranger has written down the specific notes he wants each instrument to play. Also, a particular setting or interpretation of a precomposed piece of music.
Chops
Technical facility, or endurance (Slang)
"Carolina Shout"
James P. Johnson (1921)
Glenn Miller
trombonist, "square"
very popular in the 1940s!
"In the Mood" - big hit
aimed towards white American middle class
played with the armed services
Daahoud
Clifford Brown and Max Roach Quintet--Starts with trumpet intro, then with sax accompaniment. Sounds like jetsons theme song at points
interval
the distance between two different pitches in a scale.
Duke Ellingtion
pianist, composer, arranger, and bandleader born in Washington DC
Louis Armstrong influenced every jazz musician; no matter what instrument they played.
True
clifford brown
trumpeter
downbeat - 1954
died - 1956
contrafact
New melodies composed over chord progressions borrowed from other songs. This was a popular approach during the bebop period.
count basie and duke played the
piano
Scale
a series of acoustical relationships that divide the octave into tones and semitones
Gerry Mulligan
baritone sax in C.T. Orchestra, founded West Coast Jazz - used piano-less quartets with light, simple sound
Bebop
- Modern Jazz whattuppp
- BEFORE bebop was big bands
- popular culture
- small combos, alternative art music
- Charlie Parker's "Now's the Time"
Confirmation
Charlie Parker--Sax solo with drum set backup and
Tin Pan Alley
Heart of Pop song industry
Meter
Defines the number of primary beats, or pulses, in each measure of music, and is an expression of the organization of rhythms.
Paul Whiteman
bridge gap btwm classical and jazz
Duple meter
one strong followed by a weak
Louis Armstrong starting playing cornet as a young musician and continued on this instrument throughout his career.
False-switched to trumpet
Fletcher Henderson
Represented the black arts community. A pianist and an arranger that gave many bands its DNA. He was extremely influential on how music got its foothold.
riffs
A short repeated musical phrase played by a soloist or a group.
in swing the rhythm section doesn't emphasize beat 2/4
true
Triplet
three notes, played such that they equal two notes of the same value. Three equal notes played within one beat, two beats, or four beats.
syncopation
classical music term - when a strong accent contradicts the basic meter
dirge
a slow march played during a funeral session
Lennie Tristiano
- blind pianist, cool jazz
- composer, teacher, theorist
- bebop tunes: experimental, emotionally aloof, complex harmonies, rhythm section restrained, like polyphonic and dense textures
Young Lions
players support a revival of an earlier jazz era, must earn recognition in the realm of exisiting players, knowledge is both theoretical and historicalproducts of formal training
the 1960's brought about choreographers who are known for their technique and pedagogy such as who?
Luigi and Gus Giordano
AABA Form
The Standard 32-bar form for many popular songs. AABA refers to the melody and harmonic progression (not the lyrics). Each portion of the form is 8 bars long, with the bridge serving as a point of contrast. A = Statement; A= Repetition; B= Contrast; A = return
to rag
to syncopate- stressing of the off beat or weak beat
chick corea & return to forever percussionist
airto moreira
Creoles of Color
They were mulattos (blacks usually mixed with french or spanish), who had a lot more power and superiority while black African Americans did not. They received decent education, were typically bilingual, owned property and some took part in the slave trade.
Who was undoubtedly the most prolific jazz composer from the swing era?
Fletcher Henderson
Miles Davis: important events
-Birth of Cool Nonet (1949-1950)
-first Great Quintet w/John Coltrane": 1955-57
-modal experiments on "kind of Blue" 1959
-studio orchestra recordings w/Gil Evns
-"Second Great Quintet" w/Herbie Hancock - piano, Wayne Shorter - tenor sax, Tony William - drums: 1964-68
- hard bop abstractions
rhythmically complex group style
What two drummers are considered to be the best representatives of the explosive new drumming style that emerged in the mid-1940s and complimented what the bop horn players were doing melodically and rhythmically? In what ways did these two drummers modif
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first band to be integrated in public
benny goodman
"Potato Head Blues"
Louis Armstrong's Hot Fives & Sevens (May 19, 1927)
- Louis Armstrong: trumpet
- Johnny Dodds: clarinet
block-chord texture
all harmonies played at the same time and same tempo (a homophonic texture)
Lester Young Style
- elusive rhythm
- light and simple timbre
- discontinuous
- ironic
- unpredictable
Kenny Clarke
Drummer who shifted the beat from the bass drum to the ride cymbal. Bebob drummer.
Frontman
The main player in the band who gets to play solos.
What white bandleader was the first to hire black performers for public performances by his small groups?
Benny Goodman
Birth of Jam Sessions
Minton's in Harlem. Thelonious Monk started them here
Lick
similar to a riff - a pattern of notes, in all keys, used as the basic vocabulary of jazz.
"East St. Louis Toodle-oo"
Duke Ellington Orchestra (Dec. 19, 1927)
SOLOISTS
- Bubber Miley: trumpet
- Harry Carney: baritone sax
- Joe Nanton: trumbone
Modern Jazz Quartet
Black Cool Jazz quartet - have a classical demeanor - often wear tuxes
Free Jazz
A jazz style from the 1960s that is characterized by a willingness to break conventional rules and norms.
___ and ___ are a combination of movement from the Irish Jig and English Clog
Buck and Wing
Mary Lou Williams
Jazz pianist in NT. Her house served as a crash pad for jazz musicians. Composed the zodiac suite.
gospel jazz and funky jazz are a part of
hard bop
minor scale (or mode)
one of the most common of the seven-note scales in Western music culture. Often associated with different emotional responses than major scale (e.g. sadness)
RECORDING: "Black Bottom Stomp" by Jelly Roll Morton's Red Hot Peppers
Ragtime feel. Trumpet alternates with full ensemble. Clarinet solos. Piano solos in stride style.
Variants on a theme of Thelonious Monk
John Lewis and Gunther Schuller
• Papa Charlie Jackson (1885-1938)
o One of the first country bluesmen
o Played a variation of the banjo (more like a guitar)
o Moved to Chicago after WWI to record - one of the first blues players to do so
Ella Fitzgerald and her Orchestra
What was the band that Ella Fitzgerald was a part of renamed after Chick Webb dies?
Were black or white big bands more popular? Of the two, which seemed to do more artistically to move the music forward?
White big bands were commercially popular. But I believe that black big bands were the ones to artistically move the music forward.
7. Bill Evans (Piano & Leader)
a. Early Career w/ Miles Davis ("Kind of Blue") b. Trio w/ Scott LaFaro and Paul Motian i. Dialogue orientated, non-walking bass function ("equal voiced" concept) ii. 1961 Village Vanguard recordings iii. Influence on subsequent jazz pianists
What was Bud Powell known for?
lots of space in his left hand, great technique, played part of chords
how did the use of the tuba in Claude Thornhill's band and in Miles Davis "Birth of the Cool" nonet differ from the use of that instrument in earlier jazz?
in early jazz it was used more rhytmically, for time keeping as an example
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