Jazz History Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Frankie Trumbauer
Saxophone
Charlie Parker
-
Wes Montgomery
-
Big Band Swing
...
Contrafact: Groovin' High
Whisperin'
Bill Evans
Arranger/Piano, C
Lester Young
Tenor Saxophone, Clarinet
Don Redman
Chant of weed
cool jazz pianist
dave brubeck
motive
a short melodic fragment
James P. Johnson
piano, A
Cool Jazz
lighter, relaxed timbre
flexible, "laid-back" rhythm
calm, stable dynamics
understated, economical phrasing
- extends/refines bebop & is a highly intellectual form of music
- more restraint (ex: using brushes with drums)
- socially ambitious, wants respect
Cool
Slower tempo's
Softer
Less emphasis on improv
Weird instruments
Artist of "Pad Thai"
Steve Coleman
head charts
Arrangements. Impromptu arrangements that were improvised by members of a band and often performed from memory rather than from notated scores.
Crescendo
Musical term meaning get louder.
movement and relationship of intervals and chords
harmony
interval
the distance be tween two notes
Neoclassical
"new" expressions of classical jazz, jazz has joined classical music as an art form
comping
playing chords in a rhythmically unpredictable fashion as accompaniment for an improvising soloist. Comping is an important way for the harmony instruments in the rhythm section (e.g. piano, guitar) to add a contrasting rhythmic layer.
cab calloway
bandleader, singer, drummer, in NY
Hot,Sweet,Crossover BB
Hot band- Afro-American musicians; Driving swing; More improvisation;Count Basie Orchestra Sweet Band- White musicians ; Stiff swing feel ; More arrangement; Glenn Miller Orchestra Crossover BB - AA musicians integrated into white band
Sidney Bechet played the traditional role of the clarinet in a typical New Orleans band from the 1920s.
False
What instrument did Coltrane popularize after 1960 which had previously been associated with "traditional" or Dixieland jazz?
Soprano Saxophone
Compare and contrast Ella Fitzgerald and BIllie Holiday's style.
-
jazz messangers were led by
art blakey
Shake
An instrumental effect sounding like a trill but with a wider intervallic range. Produced by "shaking" the mouthpiece against the lips.
Floating Time
associated with Bill Evans, rhythms didn't directly state the beat, no walking bass
Saxophone Legacy
Tenor: Joe Lovano, Joshua Redman, Chris Potter, Jerry Bergonzi, Alto: Kenny Garrett
chart
a shorthand musical score that serves as a point of reference for a jazz performance. Often, only the harmonic progression is specified. Also known as a lead sheet.
Meringue
A fast, Latin or Afro-Cuban two-beat dance rhythm originating from the Dominican Republic.
maple leaf rag
AABBACCDD, prototypical weak and form
Tempo
How fast is the rate of speed
New York's black community developed ____________ pianists who derived their art seamlessly from ragtime.
Harlem Stride
Jimmy Noone
New Orleans jazz musician transplanted in Chicago.
Lennie Tristano: general
innovative pianist, composer, and teacher
verse
in many older standard songs, an introductory section, often rubato, that leads up to the 'chorus' or main strain, which is the tune as generally recognized. Jazz players usually omit the verse, though singers like to use them.
Compare and contrast the styles of Lester Young and Coleman Hawkins.
-
who is not a bass player
tony williams
Tonality
Key area. Certain chords have more strength and "pull" than others, setting up a hierarchy or chords.
"Livery Stable Blues"
Original Dixieland Jazz Band (1917)
front line
the primary melody instruments in a New Orleans band:refers to the trumpet the trombone and the clarinet
Swing Era
1935-1945
- New Orleans jazz = small combos, collective improv, polyphonic, separate from pop culture
- Swing: big bands, written arrangements, homophonic, integral to pop culture
Robert Johnson
Blues Singer, Guitarist, Deal with the devil, Gold digger
what utilized body isolations, handclapping, and foot stomping? when?
the Charleston, the 1920's
block-chord texture
a subset of homophonic texture in which the pitches of the accompanying harmony move in exactly the same rhythm as the main melody. Typically found in big-band jazz.
Louis Armstrong
transformed jazz into a soloist art form
Migration to Chicago
musicians traveled to chicago where there was work, leads to speakeasys and the jazz ago
chick corea & return to forever bass
stanley clarke
It was not until the 1930's that musicians were interested in "the propulsive feeling of forward motion" that would be known as "swing"
False
Savoy
Radio networks ran a wire to this ballroom so that they could broadcast live the performances of name bands.
John Coltrane: style
-"sheets of sound": complex scalar sweeps
-permutational approach to scales/chords ("Giant Steps")
What was special about Bill Evan's trio?
everyone contributed
Who is considered the true father of the modern bebop style of drumming?
-
so what is in which album
kind of blue
"These Foolish Things"
Billie Holiday (1936)
- Teddy Wilson: piano
blues scale
a difficult to define scale in which notes without fixed intonation
Swing Rhythm Section
- 1920s: piano, drums, banjo, tuba (brass bass)
- SWING 1930s: piano, drums, acoustic guitar, string bass
- Four-beat dance rhythm
Jimmy Blanton
A bass player who only played with Ellington a few years, but helped move the bass to a solo instrument
boogie-woogie
a blues piano style in which the left hand plays a rhythmic ostinato (repeated pattern) of eight beats to the bar.
Blues
A form characterized by the use of a 12-bar chorus and an AAB lyrical verse that can be incorporated into jazz, rock, and other styles. Also, a separate style in and of itself that comes in many different forms (Classic and Country).
Harmonic Substitute
Replacement of a chord with a more complicated or chromatically altered chord.
Joe "King" Oliver
Cornet player from New Orleans. Mentor to Louis Armstrong. When Storyville closed, he moved to Chicago to establish the Creole Jazz Band.
which piano player freed up the left hand to comp?
bud powell
What was the name of Bill Evan's album?
"Conversations" overdubbing
Chorus
One pass through the form of the tune. Similar to going around the board in monopoly. Most people play too many choruses. See VERSE.
"St. Louis Blues"
Bessie Smith (Jan. 14, 1925)
- Louis Armstrong: trumpet
Wynton Marsalis
since 1994 he has hosted a number of educational series including "Marsalis on Music", in 1997 he recieved the pulitzer prize for "Blood on the Fields"
Bitches Brew
The first song that showed a change in direction in Miles Davis' band. Often called the first jazz-rock fusion and most controversial album. The album attracted a younger crowd and was thought of as "pop music" by many. Rejuvenated Davis' career and won a Grammy Award.
Jazz Dance developed from what two systemized training?
Ballet & Modern Dance
unique point of orchestration for miles davis's birth of the cool
only one of each instrument`
Pentatonics
A five note scale, with no 4th or 7th scale degree. Used by many players as basic vocabulary for the jazz language. Very useful in playing the blues.
Foot stamping and tapping, hand clapping, and rhythmic vocal sounds were kept alive by what?
intermingling of African and American cultures
What characteristics made Louis Armstrong a true innovator?
Armstrong was able to play higher notes, play double time solo breaks, use unique choice of notes, use rhythmic style that swung harder and popularize scat singing.
two beat
notes on 1 and 3 (on bass) instead of walking bass
What was the significance of minstrelsy to early jazz?
Provided a means of employment for many early jazz musicians. By traveling, it allowed musicians to be influenced by the various rhythms.
Gospel Music and The Blues
What were the two different styles of Soul Music?
What cities other than New Orleans supported the early growth of jazz?
Chicago and New York also supported the early growth of jazz.
RECORDING: So Danco Samba by Stan Getz
vocals at the beginning. Listen for saxophone.
Personnel and info on Birth of the Cool
Columbia records
Made as a result of freedom from 3 minute recordings
Gunther Schuller- Horn
Bill Barber- Tuba
Max Roach and Kenny Clarke- drums
Gerry Mulligan- bari
Lee Konitz- alto
Jay/Kai- Trombone
why was bebop less popular than swing music?
bebop was not a dance music, so it was not as popular
Artie shaw
nightmare
Joao Gilberto
-
Clifford Brown
-
2nd stream is
jazz
staccato
short, abruptly seperated
Get happy
Bud Powell 1950
moanin tenor sax
benny golson
RECORDING: "Koko" by ______
-
W.C. Handy
father of Blues
Jimmy Dorsey
jazz clarinetist, saxophonist, trumpeter, composer, and big band leader
Bennie Moten
New moten Stomp ABAA
Paul Desmond played with
Dave Brukbeck
the foundational time for bebop
39-45
eric dulphy played the
bass clarinet
"Honey Suckle Rose"
Fats Waller (1934)
Benny Moten
bandleader and businessman
top Kansas City territory band
but then he died :(
Manteca
Dizzy Gillespie-Bouncy. Sax and drums and piano.
ragtime piano
rhythmic contrast: left hand (foundation layer), and right hand (variable layer)
Triple
One strong followed by two weak
Rhythm Section
Group of instruments providing harmony, bass & percussion in a jazz ensemble.
Gil Evans
Arranged for claude thornhill band.
Who was the preeminent bebop pianist?
-
duke ellington is a legacy band
false
Riff
a short repetitive figure usually played by a section behind a soloist
Hard Bop
associated with Silver, Blakely and Adderly; darker and more aggressive, driving feeling, more diverse piano comping than bebop
Ella Fitzgerald
career 1940-90s
- won talent contest 1934
- vocalist with Chick Webb
- solo singer
- incredible range, voice, ability, and taste! (bridge the gap between pop and jazz)
- scat singing! "Air Mail Special"
Glen Miller
Classic American trombonist who had the most popular band of the 1940's
cadenza
a virtuoso passage for a single instrument, usually monophonic
Jubilee
Quicker in tempo, more rhythmic and generally more high-spirited featuring hand clapping. A high-spirited song of praise and celebration.
down home blues8
fletcher henderson and ethel waters
Modern jazz Quartet included..
piano (John Lewis-pianist/leader), bass, drum, vibes
Ellington believed that jazz should be presented in a concert hall as well as the ballroom.
True
Creole
The result of intermarriage created by merging any combination of French, Spanish and African-American descent. This race is associated with the New Orleans Delta area
Third Stream
Gunther Schuller, Miles's horn player on BOTC, had an interest in jazz after that recording and created a fusion of classical composition and american jazz.
Mingus and Teo Macero also did this
swing
a rhythmic concept (known as a groove); 1) it needs a steady tempo or beat, 2) a coherent group sound, 3) a rhythmic lilt 4) a musical group spirit and feel 5) in the jazz sense only - an abundance of syncopation
timbre
The quality of a sound that distinguishes it from other sounds and dictated by the number of overtones (harmonics) present in the sound. By comparison, a pure sine wave has no overtones. Each instrument has its own unique set of overtones and timbre.
teddy wilson was in duke ellingtons band
false
Jam Session
an informal gathering of musicians, playing on their own time and improvising on one or two numbers. After hours. Not found anymore
pedal point
a bass line that does not move
register
where the notes of an nstrument sound high medium or low
Bebop Generation
1945-49 bop is popular with young musicians
- J.J. Johnson, trombone (unusual for bebop!)
- Fats Navarro, trumpet
- Art Blakey, drums
- Max Roach, drums
- Bud Powell, piano
Lil Harden
Pianist in King Oliver's band who married Louis Armstrong
cyclic form
the tendency to base the overall structure of a musical performance on repeated cycles.
Irving mills
music publisher, manager, and agent of duke ellington, cab calloway
Perhaps Armstrong's most influential recordings, The Hot Fives and Hot Sevens, were recorded for Columbia from 1935 to 1938
False (Recorded for Okeh)
Minstrel Shows
Performances by white people in black face, acting out exaggerated stereotypes of black people (the way they danced, spoke, acted, dressed, etc.).
drummer who modified swing drumming to fit bebop
kenny clarke
field hollers
a method devised by workers for communicating in the fields using highly varied pitches and rhythms
What kind of repertoire did bop bands concern themselves with?
-
Jimmy Harrison
one of the most significant trombone players of the 1920's and early 1930s who greatly advanced the technique of the instrument
"Body & Soul"
Benny Goodman Trio (July 13, 1935)
Swunk
a mix of swing and funk; produced by Pastorius
Count Basie
- The Blue Devils (in it)
- stride piano
- setting riffs on piano & horns harmonize to help soloist
- did Vaudeville to get out of town
- c. 1930, went Southwest to join The Blue Devils
- in 1931, joined Benny Moten's band
full cadences
cadences that end with the tonic (I) chord
Who is considered the "empress of the blues"?
Bessie Smith
Coleman Hawkins
"father of the jazz tenor saxophone" ; nickname = the bean; interested in chord progression; complicated style
Sideman
A member of the band that is employed by the bandleader, isn't featured and doesn't get a solo.
Red Hot Peppers
Created by Jelly Roll Morton, that only performed in Chicago.
Woody Herman big band/ "herds"
Arrangements allowed for greater freedom of improv and put elements from bebop school into arrangements. Close harmony sax section.
equal temperment
the division of the octave into 12 equal pitches called semitones (half-steps)
duke ellington worked at the ____ as the house band
cotton club
"Dead Man Blues"
Jelly Roll Morton (Sept. 21, 1926)
- Jelly Roll Morton: piano, composer
ad lib
To improvise or create on the spur of the moment. The term can relate to the work of musicians, comedians, actors, and visual artists, though all do not improvise.
Tin Pan Alley
Area of New York that publishers were concentrated. Employed pianists by day to perform their latest publications in hope of attracting sales.
Bird Blues
Imaj7| viio iii7b9 | vim7 b6m7 | Vm7 I7 |
IV7 | IVm7 bvii7 | iiim7 | biiim7 bvi7|
iim7 | V7 | I7 VI7 | II7 V7 |
Benny Goodman
got swing REALLY going in 1935 in the Palomar ballroom. teenagers loved itclarinetist, father of swing
What is meant by swing?
Swing is when some performers are playing things on beat while other are simultaneously play syncopated accents on other portions of the beat
Explain what arrangers do when they create music for a big band.
Write specific arrangements for players/soloists that can play their instrument a certain way.
hot; sweet; borrowed from each other
by the 1930's, perceived dichotomies of ____ vs. ____ were in place, but bands on each side still _____
What was the significance of Frankie Trumbauer?
Influenced 'cool' school players with his well crafted solos.
trading fours/trading eights
two people (or more) trade 8 or 4 bar solos back and forth
What was the first Chicago style white jazz band to record?
The New Orleans Rhythm Kings (NORK).
Name some of the identifying or salient characteristics of jazz, regardless of substyle.
Jazz has an ability to absorb aspects of other music styles and transform them into something entirely new and different. Emerging in the first decades as an unpolished folk music, jazz reflected diverse influences.
Discuss the various aspects of the blues and its significance to jazz.
At this point, it was more of a function than an art. There was less improvisation and more larger ensembles. Musical dialogue occurred between soloists, the rhythm section and ensemble.
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