Jazz History Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Duke Ellington
1927
Ella Fitzgerald
-
Horace Silver
-
Charles Mingus
Jazz Bassist
2nd stream is
jazz
Miles Davis
Trumpet, C
Thelonius Monk
Piano, C
quartet
Ensemble of four musicians.
James Reese Europe
ragtime ambassador
autumn leaves bass
scott lafaro
Now's the Time
Charlie Parker
Meade "Lux" Lewis
piano, A
Bessie Smith
"Lost Your Head Blues"
W.C. Handy
father of the blues
Bar
The line divides into measures
Lee Konitz's primary instrument
alto sax
ASCAP
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A licensing agency. (BMI)
"A Monday Date"
Earl Hines (1928)
Bebop Attitude
"progressive" approach to music, fashion, intellectual life (whih is music)
- Howard McGhee said "With bop, you had to know; not feel..."
Moon dreams
Miles Davis--trumpet and sax beginning. Slow, melodic. Sax solo.
meter
the organization of regular pulsations into a pattern. Most jazz uses duple meter, or music organized by 2's. More rarely, jazz musicians use triple meter, or irregular meter.
Duke Ellingtion
exponent of the swing style
Scott Joplin
The most important ragtime composer
Military band music greatly influenced early jazz instrumentation
True
Arranger for Claude Thornhill Band
Gil Evans
Was there a discernible difference between Midwest, Southwest, and East Coast bands? If there was a difference what was it?
-
great arranger of cool period
gil evans
Attack
To start a note. Different shapes
ECM
a record company started in Germany that has a floating time sound
Louis Armstrong Brought..
- bluesy sound
- improvisation
- scat-singing
- repertory
- rhythm
Mind and Time
Ornette Coleman--full band. Strange melody. Most are playing same part.
Bix Beiderbecke
German American middle class, played the trumpet
Orchestration
The ways in which instruments are assigned to play certain roles in a musical arrangement. To orchestrate is the act of orchestration or assigning instruments to certain notes and musical lines in a score.
BIng Crosby
most influential and popular early singer
Bill Evans had a..
special tone, overdubbing/voiceings -traditional chords reshaped to trademark voiceings
The music called jazz thrives on freedom and innovation
True
tailgate
Refers to a New Orleans-style of trombone playing in which the musician smears notes together using the instrument's slide to perform glissandos. This technique was forced by limited space on flatbed, horse-drawn wagons that forced trombonists to sit on the "tailgate" as the band paraded through the streets.
Sarah Vaughn started as a _____ player.
Piano
Creole
French or Spanish speaking person born in the New World (used in New Orleans)
Who was the tenor saxophonist given much of the credit for incorporating Parker's bebop alto style?
-
type of jazz that stresses interaction and playing
free
Meter
The groupings of these pulses or beats. It can be caused by accenting certain beats.
dorian mode
a scale halfway between major and minor - only includes the white keys on piano
twelve-bar form
a musical composition whose form is based on 12 measures the blues is the most common example
Savoy Ballroom
1926 in Harlem
- social dancing
- huge Swing place
- Lindy Hop
Wynton Marsalis
at 14 he played Hayden's Trumpet Concerto with the New Orleans PO, joind Art Blakeys Jazz Messangers, 1984 he was the first musician to win Grammy awards for both a jazz recording and a classical recording, 1987 he established a jazz program at Lincoln Center of which he is the artistic director and which in 1995 was redefined as an autonomous jazz division and today is housed in its own $168 million dollar facility, among his compostions are 3 ballets, an oratorio, a large scale suite, and a string quartet
The Egyptian
art blakey and his jazz messangers 1964
Paul Whiteman
played jazz as dance music, "symphonic jazz" in the 1920's. Famous NY Concert in 1924, Experiments in Modern Music (played Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue). Brought in Bing Crosby on vocals.
the basie style
riff based arrangement, sparse piano playing, 4 beat propulsive rhythm
stride piano
jazz piano style with ragtime roots (mm-bop left hand and crazy right hand)
chick corea & return to forever sax
joe farrell
Ragtime
The term came from "ragged time", a colorful description of African American polyrhythm. Some people considered it to be a style of music, some a dance, and others a piano style.
Sidney Bechet
Soprano sax and clarinet player. Known as a woodwind doubler.
dizzy gillespie organizes big band (date)
1945 - unsuccessful
In Bebop what has the melody?
sax and trumpet
Perhaps the most famous band to emerge during the peak of jazz activity in Kansas City was led by _____. The band was later reformed under the leadership of _____.
-
john coltrane
came out of miles davis' group, recorded album "love supreme", -avante garde style
"Organ Grinder's Swing"
Jimmie Lunceford Orchestra (Aug. 31, 1936)
- Sy Oliver: trumpet
Classic Modal Quartet
J. Coltrane (sax). M. Tyler (piano), J. Garrison (bass), E.Jones (drums)
Jazz Messengers
- history of hard bop
- founded in 1953
- Art Blakey (drums) & Horace Silver (piano)
codified hard bop = blues/gospel simplicity + bebop complexity
1956 becomes Art Blakey and his Jazz Messengers
JJ Johnson
Managed to play bebop on the the trombone
Ride Cymbal
Generally the larger cymbal in a drum kit on which a steady, somewhat repetitive pattern is played usually by the right hand, helping to establish the tempo.
Benny Goodman
Played clarinet - led best known big band of late 30's; "king of Swing"; first jazz musician to play at Carnegie Hall
Country (Delta) Blues
It was dominated by male musicians (accompanied themselves) and the form was losse and imporvised.
Who is considered the first important jazz composer-arranger?
Jelly Roll Morton
3 Great bop bass players
Milt Hinton, Tommy Potter, Mingus
rhythmic style
the manner in which the rhythm is played (jazz, blues, latin etc)
benny goodman's band got it sound from annargements by
fletcher henderson
"Body & Soul" (vocals)
Coleman Hawkins (1939)
- Hawkins: tenor sax
Lester Young
Tenor sax player who was known as "the pres.' Also the inventor of cool - always wore crushed hats and used private slang. Played with light timbre and simplicity. Swing Era soloist.
Decline of the Swing Era
American Federation of Musicians ban members from recording now Instrumental music Popular singers take the place of instrumental music By 1942, all efforts of common citizens went to war effect
Name 3 characteristics of Jazz Dance:
bent knees, isolation, and syncopation
4 Albums made in 1959
Kind of Blue- miles
Giant Steps- coltrane
The shape of jazz to come- ornette
Mingus ah um- charles mingus
swing era sax with big sound and first modern soloist
coleman hawkins
duple meter
a kind of meter in which the bar is divided into groups of two. (i.e., "1,2,1,2,1,2,1,2..." or "1,2,3,4,1,2,3,4...")
What affect did Prohibition, the Depression, new technologies, and the underworld have on jazz in the mid- to late- 1920s?
These events all contributed to musicians' desires to continue finding joy in their music. Gangs and mobs supported the music for entertainment.
RECORDING: Moanin' by Art Blakey
Call and response between piano and brass section. Trumpet comes in real hot.
What was Charlie Parker known for?
first major alto sax soloist, great improv, extended chords, books of his improv
What a Wonderful World in 1968
What was Louis Armstrong's most famous hit?
New businesses and technologies in the '20s supported the growth, dissemination, and rapid spread of jazz. Discuss these innovations and how jazz was closely intertwined with them.
Jazz was influential on those seeking freedom of choice and personal expression. Nightclubs, radios, theaters and more allowed performers and composers to entertain people looking for fun.
4 Periods of Career of Coltrane
1 - learning with Miles Davis, 2 - hard bop and solo work, 3 - Classic Modal Quartet, 4- Free Jazz
RECORDING: Afro Blue by John Coltrane
Blues feel to it. Piano solos and has contrafact.
play jazz for its own sake; focused on prevailing public tastes
a gap grew between those who wanted to ______ and those who _____
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