Jazz Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lil hardin
lionel hamton
stun; amaze
sounds darker
Bob Brookmeyer
Miles Ahead
Miles Davis
Honeysuckle Rose
Fats Waller
M.D born
north carolina
to the back
Sarah "Sassy" Vaughn
in 'n out
joe henderson
new chords, old melody
easy going; laid back
blue in green
miles davis
art blakey's group
jazz messengers
My favorite things
John Coltrane
complementary melodic part played along with the main melody
Ma Rainy
Mother of the blues
benny goodman @ palomar ballroom
Frank Sinatra
Singer rock and roll
order of keys?
flat natural sharp
Solo: Any one player's improvisation
 over one or more choruses of the tune (occasionally, especially in 
ballads, less than one chorus). A sharp distinction is made between soloing, and playing the head.
A large, low-pitched brass instrument with an intricate nest of tubing ending in an enormous bell. Often used in early jazz groups as a bass instrument because of its powerful volume.
so what
AABA form, abandons chords progressions in favor of scales
New Orleans 6
Original Dixieland Jazz Band
one time through the 12 bars(voice)
McCoy Tyner
piano for John Coltrane Quartet
the dialogue that occurs between soloists and rhythm sections in the idioms of free jazz and post bop; ex. drummer Williams
Duke Ellington
roots, compositional style, important soloists in the band, musical examples, played at the Cotton Club in Harlem, jungle sounds, voiced across sections of the band, multiple versions of pieces, Proportion in music, Fibonacci series, golden section, .618
..., temporary irregularity in musical rhythm
Miles Davis
Trumet characterized by lyricism - Focus on melody and timbre - Played fewer (and longer) notes in the middle register, which created relaxed, tuneful melodies/ instigated Cool style
Pat Metheny
Electric guitar virtuoso that is frequently mentioned as the most influential guitarist to appear on the jazz scene in the past 20 or 30 years.
A wind instrument consisting of a slim, cylindrical ebony-colored wooden tube that produces a thin, piercing sound
Minuet and trio
They are always in threes
Singing Cowboys
Actors who would sing in Western's
album recored in 58 by Miles Davis
the blending of two cultures: western european classical and african.
type of jazz that stresses interaction and playing
Birth of the cool was recorded in
Bebop artist
Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker (self taught)
a straight leg position to the back
call and response, piano tenor sax drums trumpet bass
funeral parade
New Orleanssongs were being played during a funeral, first sad and than joyfull. Resulted in Second Lines
Billie Holiday
Started singing in Harlem clubs and began recording with John Hammond. Had a rough childhood and during the 1940s started to spiral downward.
timbre variation
The tendency to vary timbre for expressive purposes. In jazz, this may involve special technique, including the use of mutes and growls. The Duke Ellington band of the 1920s relied heavily on _____.
Cecil Taylor (piano)
-fusion of classical and jazz improv
-approach to rhythm="sound energy"
-"Rick Kick Shaw"
the shaping and positing of the lips and other facial muscles
In the mid 1960s, white and black musicians start forming ___.
act of composing and performing at the same time
New Orleans was built by the French and 150 enslaved africans.
-Was given to spain, and returned to the french in mid 1700's
Dan Emmett
1843- first appearance of the virginia mintrels.
solidified the "three act" show.
Joseph Lamb
White rag pianist, was unfamiliar with black culture but wrote rags characteristic of black rags
Ella Fitzgerald
discoverd by Chick Webb
"A fine romance"
walking bass
regular quarter note movement in the bass
a type of popular music prevalent in the U.S. from the late 19th century to the end of WWI
Sonny Rollins
-Tenor Sax
-Use tone color as a structural device
-Improvs - motivic and thematic development
Front Line
In New Orleans or Dixieland jazz, the group of melodic instruments that improvise on a melody, supported by the rhythm section
A brief passage (usually 2 to 4 bars) in which the prevailing texture (whether homophonic or polyphonic) is interrupted by monophonic texture.
2. Jazz Pedagogy
jazz education, w/ books, and CD's about jazz have exploded since the 70's
-colleges offer jazz degrees
call and response
a compositional technique in which one section states a theme as a question and another section states another theme as an answer to it
Element: Gesture
It involves using you body as an expressive instrument to communicate feeling and ideas in pattern of movement.
A term used to describe the 1960s jazz substyle that overturned many of the traditional elements of jazz
John Phillip Sousa (1854-1932)
The "March King"
-conductor of marine bands
-he didn't like "recording" - its looses human contact.
-americas first "super group"
-copyright reform and royalty payments.
Music at the begining of a song but not part of the main melody
Ball Change
A change of weight between both feet. Change weight and do a stamp-stamp.
jazz split
a half split position on the floor; the front leg is straight and the back leg is bent
Jean Goldkette Orchestra
In 1926, Bix starts touring into with the ___ band.
Pique Turn
Releve with leg in figure 4 then cut away.
Bill Evans Trio
bass - Scott La Faro - virtuostic; drum - Paul Motian; "group improvisation" not free jazz
Charlie "The Bird" Parker
o Saxophone player
o Lived in New York
o Played at a club called "Bird Land" (named after Parker)
- Died at an early age: overdose
Earl Hines, trumpet style
Louis Armstrong adds ___ to his Hot Five group, who introduced the piano playing technique ___.
Four Female Classic Blues Singers
Ma Rainey, Ida Cox, Mamie Smith, Victoria Spivey
how did duke respond to the statement that he had debassed one of his early recordings by re recodring it
he wanted freedom of expression
Who of swing used sectional writing? voicing across sections?
Count Basies big band used "sectional writing"
Duke Ellingtons big band used "voicing across sections"
Charles Mingus
gil evans
Kid Ory
dizzy gillespie
stride piano
Eubie Blake
Ragtime Pianist
Clifford Brown nickname
Chick Corea
Piano Fusion
her mom
dont know
third stream jazz
One O'Clock Jump
Count Bassie
Chick Web
King of drums
ex. outro. Final words
Father of cool-school
Lester Young
it's easy to remember
john coltrane
groupings of patterns
most common= duple meter--> beats grouped into patterns of two or fours
groove, conveyed by the performance
consummate genius of ragtime
scott joplin
music that is written down
Instrument John Coltrane Played
Tenor Sax
Count Basie
Blues, one o'clock jump, pianist
The relationship between melody and harmony in a piece of music. Different types include homophonic, monophonic, and polyphonic texture.
Ability to blend with other choirs
Who experimented with time signatures
Dave Brubeck
Jimmie Lunsford
Choreography, tailored suits, talented soloists.
MJQ Personnel
Milt Jackson- vibes
John Lewis- Piano
Connie Kay- drums
Percy Heath- bass
Coleman Hawkins
(Swing-Tenor saxaphone) outlined the notes of each chord up and down. Added a lot of waves to pitch like an opera singer. Involved with some Dixie stuff, for a time played for Henderson. Made his mark as a soloist, small bands
birth of the cool session
1949- 1950
Ron Carter
-an American jazz double-bassist
-came to fame via the second great Miles Davis quintet in the early 1960s
Cab Calloway
bandleader and drummer, "minnie the moocher," hipster - wrote book on being hip
a textural technique that has one layer, its in unison
New Orleans theaters also featured ___ singers.
Reed Instruments
mouthpiece is inserted between lips and then the reed vibrates to produce sound
single reed most common
Jazz Traits
Indigenous American Art, Swing the time/pulse, spontaneity, music reflects individuaity of performer
Congo Square
African Folk traditions (call & response, rhythmic contrast, variable intonation, improvisation), black and white musicians came together every Sunday for a round of music making, black and white musicians came together every Sunday for a round of music making
Lucille Wilson
Louis Armstrong's 4th wife was ___.
Stephen Foster (1826-1864)
First full-time professional song writer in the US.
-Wrote 200 songs between 1840 and 1860.
-master at creating a "hook"
Step Touch
This movement can travel forward, backward and sideward. Step with one foot and touch the floor with the other foot. (no weight is placed in this foot)
Aural tradition
involves passing music from one generation to another through memory of live performances
cecil taylor
free jazz played in home concerts
Don Redman
..., arranger for fletcher henderson's band
Who brought charlie parkers soprano ideas to tenor sax
sonny rollins
Jane Ira Bloom
Soprano saxophone player that is perhaps the most important performer since John Coltrane. Incorporated movement on stage as part of her improvisations. Sometimes uses a variety of electronic effects on stage.
Monophony is marriage or two people at the same time.
Field Hollers
A secret means of communication among slaves while they worked in the fields.
Chant Of The Weed
Don Redman and His Orchestra
Dave Brubeck
American jazz pianist. Regarded as a jazz icon, he has written a number of jazz standards, including "In Your Own Sweet Way" and "The Duke".
Struttin with Some BBQ
collective imrpov; trombone glissando; banjo; Armstrong polyrhythm; High note w/ vibrato
Charles Mingus
..., bass; later band leader; bebop (also in avant garde)
Who is a composer/pianist & Bebop Originator but not typical
Thelonious Monk
"to chase," one foot chases the other, step-together-step
Sidney BIchet
From New Orleans. Was a clarinetist, creole, improviser and played the saprano sax.
Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong
Struttin' with some Barbecue, Weather Bird - extroverted player, used marijuana and referred to it as "an insulator against the pain of racism", FBI file due to Little Rock 9, His managers were affiliated with the Mob
New orleans and jazz
fr, sp, fn, americanmusical omninpresenceembracing of afro am artspassion for dancing
Sly and the Family Stone
-Bassist Larry Graham
-Electric bass (slap bass) influenced other funk players and fusion electric bassist Stanley Clarke, Alphonso Johnson, Marcus Miller and Jaco Pastorius.
The first note or "degree "of a scale: "do" in the scale "do re mi fa so la ti." Represented by the roman numeral I. In tonal music, the tonic is the note that melodies and harmonies will return to for a sense of closure.
Thelonious sphere monk
bebop exponent founder born in NC, pianist and composer
Sleepy Time Down South
What is Louis Armstrong's theme song?
Who was inducted into Down BEat Jall Hall of fame in 72
Clifford Brown
Brass bands
began for funerals and on the march back from the burial began to get rowdy and was the beggining of Mardi gras
Cootie Williams
..., was a member of duke ellington's orchestra (1929-1940) then went to benny goodman's orchestra (1940)
Ornette Coleman
was a major innovator of Free Jazz, along with John Coltrane., played the alto sax
King Joe Oliver
Who was a trumpet player that started a band and added Lil Harden and Louis Armstrong?
Low pitches are a to the right on the piano keyboard.
brown verses board of education
stirred up fightds everywhere, equal facilities
three step turn
three steps: back, side, front (can be linked together with a connecting side step)
Progressive Jazz
began in New York City, also known as cool Jazz, developed primarily on the West Coast in the late 1940's and early 50's
special music from Down Beat
In 1952, Parker and Gillespie receive ___ awards on television.
IIII, IV IV II, V V II(chord progression)
Blues; Twelve Bar Blues
Jazz Drag
A jazz walk or hip walk with a drag in it. Sort of a dragging jazz walk.
what qualities did jazz and american life share
they both had freedom, and the ab ability to express yourself
Dizzy Gillespie
stephane grappelli
Jazz Age
chet baker
John Coltrane nickname
salt peanuts
bop-dizzie gillespie
straight leg kick
charlie parker
alto saxophone
-(Drummer Tony Williams)
-1969-Emergency! w/Mclaughlin, Williams Young-organ
Scott Joplin
King of Ragtime
kid ory played the
work on tricky rythms
Lonely Woman
-Omette Coleman Quartet
Jungle Music
Ellington's growling bluesy compositions with Bubber Miley.
determined by its frequency (vibrations per second)
ride cymbal
regular pulse, swing feeling
Artie Shaw
King of the Clarinet
show what your made of
nickname klook a mop
Kenny Clarke
Kansas City blues singers whose powerful delivery helped project their voice over the volume of the band (sometimes used megaphones).
art blakey
drums, hardbop, drums always active,
Technique in which performers take liberty with a steady pulse by speeding up or slowing down musical flow. i.e Art Tatum
Who had a Pianoless Quartet
Gerry Mulligan
Minstrel Shows
Originally american form of entertainment. Vaudeville, Burlesque, Musical comedy.
Based on Negro, Dance, and Music.
"Black Face"
Davenport, IA
Dixieland came here on riverboats.
Buddy Bolden
dixie player, played the cornet
bop trumpets
dizzy gilespie and miles davis
little vibrato
Bop, not concerned with beuty
beginning of american pop music and american theater
many variations of the melody being played at the same time
AACM-Diversity of Intent=trademark
-emphasis on collective improv
-wide range of tone colors
-exploration of sound structures
-suspension of fixed rhythmic support
-incorporation of musical styles from all over the world
Enter Jazz
name was derogatory, dance music, original Dixieland Jazz, New Orleans -- Grandmother of Jazz
Brazilian jazz
bass notes are always on beat
Thelonius Monk and Kenny Clark from the house band at ___.
Wynton Kelly/ Bill Evans
piano for Classic Quintet
the simultaneous sounding of two or more pitches
jam band jazz
Extended improv, long performances, crossing styles
Jazz not considered post 1960's Fusion
Latin Jazz
Spiritual Music started by John Coltrane
Avant-Garde music
by Herbie Hancock. One of the first fusion hits on MTV.
gerry mulligan
sax, cool jazz, white, played with chet baker
A style is a collection of similar characteristics.
Ragtime Piano
Scott Joplin, Eubie Blake, Joseph Lamb -- had no respect, East Coast Jew, White,-- heavy syncopation, no blues elements
Such Sweet Thunder
written by Duke Ellington, cowritten by Billy Strayhorn. About one of Shakespeares pieces
landmark recordings
so what (1959), my funny valentine (1956 and 1964), esp (1965)
1939 Worlds Fair; 1946 6000 tv sets sold in U.S.; 1948 3 million; 1951 12 million
Stride: LH function? Improv? Swing? Blues?
LH fxn: note/chord
sight lines
the angle of visibility from the audience. when you are back stage, you always want to make sure that you are hidden from the audience until you are supposed to be seen on stage. the general rule is "if you can see a chair, the chair can see you"
Roy Eldridge
"little jazz" bc short. Link in trumpet playing between Louis Armstrong & jazz. Had very good technique.
Billy Strayhorn
..., was an American composer, pianist and arranger, best known for his successful collaboration with bandleader and composer Duke Ellington lasting close to three decades.
Brass Bands
became important because of the love of parades.New Orleans
Musique concrete
Refers to the recording of sounds made in nature or created by man and arranging them into a collage
full cadence
A musical stopping point on the tonic that marks the end of a phrase.
charlie bird parker
bebop exponent/ founder, one of the greatest improvisers in jazz
inspire, divide
Avant garde music continued to ___ and ___ people in music.
John Coltrane 'Giant Steps'
referred to as sheets of sound
two beat style
important to march; bass changes every two beats
Alan Freed
DJ - Cleveland, NY; white teens liked R&B; dance show - 1954 cancelled by black/whites dancing together; 1958 arrested for inciting riots; popularized "Rock N Roll"
Jazz Fusion
Rock and roll and jazz fuze together, Rock Rhythm, Electric guitar and synthesizer come into play
Walter Page
..., added notes to walking bass & changed it up. Played w/ basie 36-49. Played w/ strong pulse - Basie stopped stride
New Orleans
Buddy Bolden - cornet king, Kid ory - trombone and tailgate, melting pot, port city, storyville, Jelly Roll Morton - storyville professor, transition jazz piano player
Solo Break
A spot in the music where the band stops playing in order to let the soloist get a good start.
what was charlie parkers great dicoverery at the chili house in 1938
played outside the chord progression
a fixing of the eyes on one spot as long as possible during turns to avoid dizziness.
What was Billie Holiday turned down for at first?
For being a dancer
Sidney Bechet, Charlie Parker
In 1949, Miles Davis goes to Paris like ___ and ___.
when Ragtime popular
from 1893 up to the beginning of World War 1
Styles of Jazz from the 50's
East coast jazz, West coast, the progressive jazz( Cool, Third stream, modal jazz) and Hard bob (funky, soul, gospel Jazz)
what was new in thelonious monks piano style
used sudden stops and starts, very unpredictable
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