Classic mythology 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Basic action in libation bearers
Orestes returns secretly and in disguise/ uses Electra's slaves to trick Aegisthus/ kills Aegisthus and is driven mad by furies
Basic action of Eumenides
Orestes pursued by furies to Delphi/ seeks advice and purification from Apollo/ they go to Athens for Athena to solve problem/ Athena sets up jury trial on Areopagus/ citizens of Athens deadlock: accused goes free/ furies established as Kindly Ones
Orestes myth version differences
Homer: Clytemnestra is accomplice only/ Hesiod: Clytemnestra is mostly responsible/ Stesichorus: Clytemnestra is mostly responsible, Apollo sets Orestes on matricide, Orestes gets pursued by Furies and protected by Apollo
Aeschylus' additions
Beacons/ purple tapestries/ pervasive dismal mood/ democratic legal solution
Three uses of Aeschylus' myth
Exemplifying proper conduct to horribleness of crime/ human choice and action are over achieved
Unavenged liminality
Those who are unavenged are in a liminal state/ ex: Clytemnestra and Aegisthus
Prologue of libation bearers
Orestes leaves a hair at tomb
Famous scene of recognition in libation bearers
Electra recognizes her hair/ recognition scene like in Oedipus
Hero in libation bearers
Religious term/ Agamemnon is appeased in his tomb even though Clytemnestra didn't like him as a human
Parados in libation bearers
Chorus and Electra bring libations to tomb because of Clytemnestra's dream
Family relationships in libation bearers
Electra is full of hatred against Clytemnestra/ over attached to Agamemnon/ her grief is understandable but excessive
Episode 1 of libation bearers
Electra prays for Orestes/ Orestes revealed and tells of Apollo
Choral ode 1 in libation bearers
Chorus sings to Agamemnon to worship him and to help Orestes/ chorus reveals that funeral was ill-done
Episode 2 in libation bearers
Orestes prays to Agamemnon for help and hatches tricky plot
Choral ode 2 in libation bearers
Mythic exemplars of murderous moms/ wives as "the worst"
Episode 3 in libation bearers
Orestes tells Clytemnestra fake news/ chorus suborns nurse
Choral ode 3 in libation bearers
Chorus sings to Zeus/ wants vengeance to be great and tells Zeus to use Hermes if need be
Episode 4 in libation bearers
Orestes kills Aegisthus/ Clytemnestra pleads and the threatens
Choral ode 5 in libation bearers
Compared justice coming to priams house with justice coming to Aegisthus house/ hooray!
Exodus in libation bearers
Orestes reveals bodies to audience but also new furies/ Orestes exits impure and insane
Basic plot of Eumenides 5
Orestes pursued by furies and is at Delphi for advice and purification/ they go to Athens for Athena to solve problem/ Athena sets up jury trial o Areopagus/ citizens of Athens deadlock: go free/ furies renamed the kindly ones
Point from actual history 5
Before peloponesian war: Athens vs Sparta tension/ democratic a reaction against aristocrats: treaty with Argos, democratic changes to court system, Ephialtes: the Areopagus court, cp. 458 when Oresteia was performed
Prologue A for Eumenides 3
A Delphic prophetess sees the Furies/ historically real/ not real: that prophetess can see Furies and other humans can't/ Orestes sits in supplications
Prologue B in Eumenides 3
Orestes and Apollo/ Apollo lays out issues: disgusted with Furies/ reminds of justice of Zeus (via Apollo) versus older justice
Prologue C of Eumenides 2
Clytemnestra's ghost talks to furies/ she claims they have dishonoured her
Parados of Eumenides 3
Chorus: Furies/ Furies awake and singing/ they are enforcers of natural justice
Episode 1A in Eumenides 4
Apollo argues with Furies/ violence of Furies is old fashioned/ Aeschylus handling a political theory theme in terms of divine "prerogative"/ contrast: father vs. child, mother vs. child
Episode 1B in Eumenides 4
At Athens, Orestes supplicates/ Furies call him their prey/ Orestes insists he has been purified which Apollo strategized/ miasma: pollution, causes people to not associate with you
Chorus 1 of Eumenides 1
Furies don't really accept the purification, fear for prerogative
Episode 2 of Eumenides 2
Athena respectful of Furies/ Furies think she is just
Chorus 2 of Eumenides
Furies praise traditional justice based on fear
Episode 3A of Eumenides
Athena establishes homicide court
Date of first jury trials
458 BCE/ similar seating for plays
Civic role of tragedy 2
All citizens present/ group control of traditional story
Episode 3B of Eumenides
Orestes is acquitted, as jurors deadlock
Chorus 3 of Eumenides 2
Furies become Eumenides/ cosmic security for Athens
Cypria variation
Iphigeneia gets saved and Heracles dies/ Euripides invented the errand of Orestes to fetch the statue of Artemis, thereby coincidentally finding his sister
Euripides author 5
Last of 3 big tragedians (contemporary of Sophocles)/ controversial for "realism": women and slaves and counter-culture, diminished role of chorus/ plots not realistic: deus ex machina/ connected with Socrates and the New Thinking: counter-culture/ a "mythologist": collected variants, experimented
Deus ex machina 4
Goddess from the machine/solution to plots action is where the actor gods literally drop down and save the day/ plots not realistic/ Problems must be fixed by gods in the end of the plot
Euripides theology 4
The gods can suddenly save or destroy you/ gods act so unpredictably, and so oblivious of mortals' sense of right and wrong, as for their motivations to be utterly inscrutable/ gods are less anthropomorphic than in earlier treatments of myth/ marks a big change in how people think of gods
Euripides controversial for "realism" 2
Women and slaves are less important because of convention only/ Iphigenia: expresses that a woman does not matter as much as a man (irony of Euripides)
Euripides Orestes (humanist) 2
Orestes reacts to his suffering by stating that he's worn out, not by accepting it as a mythic hero/ Humanistic: not honour-based
Sources for Euripides myth 2
Euripides uses the Iphigenia myth to put a twist on the whole house of Atreus myth/ ex: Iphigenia about to sacrifice her brother unwillingly just like her father did to her in original myth
Double consciousness in Iphigenia
Sees Orestes and does not recognize him as her brother and is about to sacrifice him and praises him
Cultural relevance of Iphigenia 3
Etiological myth for how statue arrived in front of Artemis' temple (through Orestes errand)/ Euripides combines innovation with another: Athena as deus ex machina/ Artemis is not deus ex machina because she doesn't help but hinders heroes
Euripides presentation of Artemis 4
As a double-edged sword, terribly ambivalent in her relations to mortals/ Artemis takes pleasure in human sacrifices/ Greeks find human sacrifice as perverse / Euripides is painting people and gods as more realistic
Iphigeneia and Artemis irony 1
Iphigeneia is asked to be sacrificed and saved by Artemis but she doesn't know that Artemis is the one who wanted her to die in the first place
Euripides finds fault with mortals 2
He thinks they have the Wong view of divinity (not just divinity themselves)/ iphigeneia reports a dream that she interpreted as signifying the death of Orestes
Cultural relevance of Iphegenia 3
Posthumously produced/ written during bad years at end, war, focuses on brutality of ones side in war/ thus, focus on horror of human sacrifice and idea that only deus ex machina could resolve the situation
Artemis' character 2
Unruly, dangerous, ambivalent/ asks for sacrifice and saves iphigeneia
Apollo's character 2
Ambivalent, dangerous, powerful and respected among gods/ strong stride
Apollo in other texts 3
Apollo gives oracle to Oedipus/ Apollo plays grown up rule to Hermes in hymn to Hermes/ Apollo goes to court for Orestes at Athens
Apollo in Homeric hymn 3
His honour gives his mother Leto status (as daughter of titans, she is a lesser divinity)/ among mortals, very prominent due to Delphi/ connection with Dionysus
Two parts of Homeric hymn to Apollo 2
Delian part: founds sanctuary, temple and festival on Delos (story of his birth serves a purpose/ Delphic part: founds sanctuary, temple and priesthood (story about spring, snake, dolphin and Cretans
Apollo in the Iliad
Prophecy/ healing and disease/ add more
Arrows of Apollo 3
Pestilence/ sickness/ shoots from afar and humans don't see him
Agamemnon and Apollo 2
Agamemnon gives daughter back to priest Chryses because of Apollo's plague/ sacrifice to Apollo to propitiate: pray, prepare oxen, eat it, drink wine
Patroklos and Apollo 3
Patroklos wears Achilles armour/ people fear him/ Apollo challenged patroklos and patroklos withdraws
Hektor and Apollo 2
Apollo tells Hektor to try to kill patroklos because Apollo will help him/ Hektor kills patroklos and gets Achilles helmet
Delian part of homeric hymn 2
Leto and her difficult birth/ Hera plays a big role: she will not allow Eileithuia (her daughter only) to go to Delos, only after all other goddesses conspire does she come
Contrast to opening of Delian part 3
Hymn just restarts about Deli randomly/ everyone likes Apollo instead of being afraid of him/ more dancing and feasting and partying
Krisa 1
Town near Delphi
Parnassos 1
Mountain overlooking Krisa and on which Apollo founds Delphi
How Hera plays a big role at Delphi too 2
She gave birth to Typhaon, sent him to be nurtured by Pytho/ birthday Typhaon in anger at Zeus for giving birth to Athena, to be rival to him in power
Apollo gets priest
As a dolphin, he hijacks a ship/ he pulls them up at the town Krisa/ he turns into Apollo again and questions them and tells them the dolphin was him/ he establishes them as his priests
Marsyas from hyginus 3
Father of satyrs/ marsyas wants his hubris and challenges Apollo to a contest of music/ Apollo wins because he plays his lyre upside down
Artemis 6
Twin sister of Apollo/ archer (hunting bow, not warfare/ unruly/ female beauty and fertility (chaste and virginal)/ contrasts Aphrodite who is fertility goddess and not a virgin/ protector of nature/ known as Diana by Romans
Artemis and Niobe 2
Niobe boasts that she has more children than Artemis' mother Leto/ Artemis kills her six children
Artemis and Actaeon 4
Actaeon accidentally violates Artemis' sacred spot while hunting/ Artemis tires from hunting and has a bath in her sacred spot/ Actaeon stumbles upon her and violates her "virginity" accidentally/ she throws water at Actaeon and he turns into a stag and is killed by his hounds
Artemis and human sacrifice 2
"Sacrifices" niobe's children / trespassing on sacred gown dishonours her
Lucretius: Mighty Aphrodite 2
Begins with invocation to Venus (Aphrodite)/ nothing in nature wants to reproduce without Venus
Aphrodite as fertility mother
Similar to Ishtar from Gilgamesh/ except that she actually wants Gilgamesh
Ares and Aphrodite in Homer 2
Ares and Aphrodite have a sexual fling when Aphrodite is married to Hephaestus/ Aphrodite is attracted to mortal Aeneas and proud of it
Aphrodite in Homeric hymn 4
Aphrodite's power and it's limits: can boast that she never has loved a human mortal/ Zeus then makes her fall in love with Anchises/ Aphrodite in disguise seduces Anchises/ she reveals herself and he is scared
Aphrodite's two versions of birth 2
Sprung from sea-foam or aphros: Uranian Aphrodite/ daughter of Zeus and Dione: Dione just feminine version of Zeus's name: Aphrodite Pandemos
Aphrodite and honour 2
Ridicule is a form of disgrace for gods/ ares and Aphrodite commit adultery
Folktales vs. myth differences 3
Talking animals/ nothing religious or historical/ "once upon a time"
Similarities between myth and Folktales
Gods included/ oral tradition: no single known author/ face to face societies/ family centered societies
Levi Strauss ideas on myth 6
Structural law of myth: something deep/ deep to culture, deep in human mind/ focus on structure, not one one version/ analyze into parts: "mytheme"-story elements/ interpret and then assemble/ Levi Strauss focused on contrasts between mythemes
V. Propp ideas for morphology of Folktales 3
Morphology: systematic but not as deep as Strauss/ focus on versions: how to write a good version/ analysis into parts: functions
Four theses propp has about Folktales 4
Functions of characters serve as stable elements, independent of how and by whom they are fulfilled/ number of functions known to the fairy tale is limited/ sequence of functions is always identical/ all fairy tales are of one type in regard to structure
Main terms of propp 2
Function/ move (number of different tales that are fundamentally similar
Basic sequence 4
a or A, then K, then W/ a: lack/ A: villainy/ K: liquidation of initial misfortune or lack/ W: wedding--the happy ending
Propps claims for Folktales 3
They reduce to very limited number of structures/ functions (acts by character) form sequences and moves form sequences/ moves may be interwoven together
Sequence example 4
Villainy:A/ lack: a/ misfortune: K/ Wedding: W
Psyche as a hero
Seeker or victim?
Venus and sisters' role
Villain
Cupid and Pan's role
Donors
Propps Hero definition 2
Hero of fairy tale is that character who either directly suffers from action of villain and who agrees to liquidate the misfortune of another person/supplied with magical agent or makes use of it or is served by it
Move 1 of Cupid and psyche 2
a: lack/ psyche lacks suitors because too beautiful and sexually appealing
Move 1 pt. 2/ 2
K: misfortune or lack is liquidated/ original lack is fulfilled when psyche is happily semi-married to Cupid
Move 1: pt 3/ 2
W: wedding/ Cupid marries psyche because he is not overawed by her hotness
Move 2 of psyche and Cupid 2
A: villainy/ Venus sends Cupid to make psyche fall in love with somebody gross
Move 2, 3
K: initial misfortune is liquidated/ when psyche discovers that her husband is not gross/ Cupid serves as donor of himself
Move 2, 2
W: wedding/ after an intervening new move, she regains Cupid after he revived her
Move 3, 2
A: harm/ sisters trick psyche into losing Cupid
Move 3, 3
K: misfortune is liquidated/ psyche performs various tasks for Venus and receives four magical agents/ F: Persephone serves as false donor
Move 3, 2
W: wedding/ Cupid to the rescue and revives psyche
Plot: problem and funeral/wedding4
Psyche born too beautiful to live as mortal/ Venus answered and uses Cupid to punish her/ father sends to apollos oracle, who tells him to sacrifice her: wedding as funeral/ psyche dies but marriage is consummated and she becomes adult
Plot: sisters and advice 3
Psyches sisters: husband warns psyches about them, for sake of keeping HIS secret from Venus/ sisters feel envy and trick psyche into using knife and lamp/ it's not a snake, it's Cupid
Plot: psyches suicide attempt and journey 4
Psyche attempts suicide/ reaches Venus' house who gives her for tasks/ each task is aided by magical agent/ psyche opens the box, suffers Sleep of Innermost Darkness
Plot: rescue and wedding 2
Cupid to the rescue: reboxes sleep of death/ Cupid makes things official with Jove: proper wedding
Kouros 3
Young man/ statues: grave marker/ generic representation of body, not of deceased person
Anthropomorphism 3
Men must attain a super body like their gods/ athletics become important/ exercise naked
Polytheism and competition 5
Zelos: envy/ nike: victory/ kratos: strength/ bie: force, power/ winning team of Zeus and ideals for Greek athletes too
Ancient Olympic Games: Panhellenic 3
Ancient Olympic festival/ religious festival in honour of Zeus/ Panhellenic: all of Greece
Timeline of games 2
Heracles establishes games in myth right before he becomes immortal/ his labours become the esteemed ideal: accomplishes labours through brute force and intelligence
Mythical founding of Athens 2
Athena and Poseidon have a contest/ Athena wins because olive tree (symbol of prosperity) and city is named Athens
Theseus
Father was Aegeus
The labours of Theseus 2
Aethra, his mother, gives Theseus the sword and sandals/ six labours on the way to find his father
Six labours 6
Periphetes: the clubber/ sinis: the pine bender/ crommyonian sow: kills giant pig/ scriron: forces people to wash his feet and kicks him off a cliff/ cercyon the wrestler/ Procrustes the innkeeper: forced short to sleep in long beds and long people to sleep in short beds and would stretch or cut people to fit the beds
Theseus arrives at Athens 1
Aegeus wife Medea immediately recognizes Theseus; aegeus does not until Theseus takes his sword out to cut the meet and aegeus knocks poison out of his hand before he drinks it
Son of Minos 2
Killed out of jealousy for winning too many events at panathenaic festival/ Minos gets vengeance by attacking Athens and Megara and sacrificing tributes
Theseus and labyrinth 3
Theseus volunteers as tribute/ Ariadne falls in love with Theseus and she she gives him thread to find his way out of the labyrinth/ Theseus kills Minotaur and escapes using thread and abandons Ariadne on island and she dies
Theseus and pirithous 8
Friends/ p is son of Zeus/ t is so of Poseidon/ help find eachother brides/ had to be daughters of Zeus/ t wants Helen/ p wants Persephone/ get trapped in the underworld until Theseus alone is saved and neither men get brides
Cultural significance for Athens 7
King Darius of Persia invades Greece/ coalition of Greek city states led by Athens helps being victory/ Darius son xerxes invades Greece again/ greek coalition led by Spartans/ form Delian league with Athens as the leader (get tributes of money for protection of other city states)/ Theseus becomes a symbol of Athenian power/ him and his ancestors are associated with overcoming tyranny
Nature vs. culture 2
Almost all buildings built during this period have depictions of four major battles/Greeks are civilized and educated whereas barbarians are savage
Gigantomachy 2
Battle between Olympian gods and the giants/ important myth for Athenians because shows nature vs. culture
Trojan war 2
Also depicted on the Metopes of the Parthenon/ very important to Greek culture
Amazonomachy 5
Theseus accompanies herakles in his war against the amazons/ Theseus kidnaps the Amazonian queen as spoil of war/ has a son hyppolytus with her/ amazons try to take revenge against Theseus by attacking Athens/ Theseus repels amazons
Centauromachy 5
Theseus is invited to be king of lapis best man/ centaurs are also invited because they're related/ centaurs get drunk and rowdy and try to kidnap bride/ Theseus helps the king kill the centaurs/ centaurs are barbarians because drunk, violate guest-friend relationship
Medea story 1
Medea's story is the final part of the story about Jason, the argonauts and the quest for the Golden Fleece
Locations for Medea's story 5
Lolcus: pelicans sends Jason on quest/ Lemnos/ Colchis: GF and Medea/ lolcus: Medea has Pelias's daughters kill him/ Corinth: where the play is set
Saga of Medea 2
Along lines of Trojan war or Caledonian boar hunt/ Folktales elements weave in and out throughout the tale, not least in the Medea part (she's a witch)
Golden Fleece 4
Golden sheepskin/ Boeotian prince Phrixus--about to be sacrificed/ his mother had a golden (flying) ram from Hermes/ Ram takes Phrixus to Colchis, where he sacrifices the ram to Zeus and gives the fleece to Aeetes (Aeetes puts GF under guard of dragon
Jason
Is Pelias's nephew and rightful heir to throne of Iolcus
Pelias's 3
Pelias takes throne instead of Jason's father/ Pelias has problems with Hera: killed his mothers stepmother at Heras altar, refused ever to honour Hera and heras angry at dishonour/ perhaps Hera ultimately sent Medea against Pelias
Pelias wary of Jason 4
Jason grows up in exile, raised by centaur, returns at age 20/Pelias oracle: beware of man with one sandal/ on way back to Iolcus, Jason carries old woman across river: loses sandal, woman is really Hera/ Pelias asks Jason how to respond to oracle
Argo 2
Ship, purpose-built by Argus "swift"/ Athena helps out: wood from Dodona adds special feature
Argonauts 4
Generation before Trojan Warriors/ includes Meleager and other boar hunters/parents of Trojan warriors: Peleus, Telamon, Oileus, Laertes/ some had special gifts or super powers--> probably helped Jason in certain tasks
Medea plot 7
Argonauts leave Iolcus and have many adventures at different places around the Greek world/ arrive at Colchis and obtain Golden Fleece/ Medea falls for Jason/ Aeetes makes him perform labours before he gets Golden Fleece/ Medea gives potion and tells secret/ Jason has to steal Golden Fleece/ Medea helps again
Jason and Medea move to Corinth 6
Jason marries kings daughter/ Medea kills Glauce and own sons/ flees to Athens and marries Augeus/ plots against Theseus/ flees to Persia with son Medos/ returns to Colchis and restores throne to Aetes
Euripidean sentiments 3
Women & salves/ Medea is female and non slave foreigner/ Euripides points out uncomfortable fact that she is also human, even if law and custom give her no rights
Medea and gender roles 5
Plays upon expectations for male vs. female roles: switches between roles/ women are soft and emotional vs. men are hard and reasonable/ female: cleverness/ male: kills children/ motivated by honour
Nurse 3
Complaint against heroic quest/ sympathy for Medea/ recounts Medea's passionate temper
Tutor and nurse 4
Children first appear on stage/ rumours build sympathy/ Jason fails to defend his family/ fears for the children
Medea and nurse 2
Medea's passionate cries and curses/ nurses fears: wild beast and smouldering anger
Episode one: Medea's intelligence 3
"I have come outside"/ battle is easier than childbirth/ secured support and silence of chorus
First episode: kreon 2
Protecting his child/ Medea's speech softens him by "you are a father"
First episode: after Kreons exit, tone changes 2
Medea says: "I shall make corpses of three of my enemies."/ is concerned about what city will accept her
First chorus: tunes change 3
Men are deceitful and women heroic/ pity for Medea as an exile without rights/ chorus models audience response
Second episode: Agon 2
Jason arrives offering support/ Medea calls him the "vilest of traitors"
Jason's defense 7
Sophistic reasoning/ credits Aphrodite and Eros/ claims to have helped Medea/ she has no need for more children/ accuses her of sexual jealousy/ wishes for another way to have sons/ chorus side with Medea
Second chorus: the dangers of erotic love 3
Wish for Aphrodite (love) in moderation/ wish never to suffer exile/ sympathy for Medea, criticism of Jason
Third episode: Medea gains her refuge 5
Aegeus a noble man and king of Athens/ sympathetic to Medea and condemns Jason/ his problem is child likeness and Medea can help with that/ ritual supplication and swearing of oath/ Medea's idea
Third episode: Medea reveals ALL her plans 2
Robe and crown/ heroic code: hurt enemies
Third chorus: pity turns to horror 1
Praise of Athens
Fourth episode: Medea performs gender role 4
Medea soften Jason by exploiting his biased expectation of her gender/ persuasion of Jason to carry out her plan of gifts/ struggle against maternal feelings/ compare scenes with Kreon and Aegeus
Fourth chorus: "no hope any longer" 2
Pity now for the children, Jason and his bride/ pity also for Medea's grief
Fifth episode 3
Expressions of maternal love and grief/ resolve wavers over beauty of children/ desire for revenge and fear of enemies laughter prevails
Sixth episode: messenger speech 2
Those who believed Medea's stance of helplessness and good will are now destroyed/ prediction of Medea's punishment
Sixth episode: forget mother
"For this one day forget you are a mother"
Fifth chorus
Choral song of horror as Medea attacks her children offstage
Exodus: Jason's undoing 3
Jason arrives to save his sons lives/ rushes to punish Medea, who is beyond his reach/ reversal of roles between Jason and Medea
Deus: ex machina 4
Humanity lost/ supernatural aid/ monstrous: "a lioness not a woman"/ institution of ritual and festival
Chronology 7
700s: Homer, Rome founded/ 600s: Hesiod/ 500s: Homeric Hymns, Roman republic begins/ 400s: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides/ 300s: Plato and Alexander/ 200s: ride of Latin language and literature in roman republic/ 00s: republic into principate, Livy and Virgil
Myth moves to Rome 4
2 big historical distinctions/ Rome ruled by kings from Romulus to last Tarquinius who raped Lucretia/ republican Rome: not kings but consuls/ book 1 of Livy is story of founding to election of consuls
Myth moves to Rome 2
Myth played a very different role in roman society/ Greek myth came to dominate it in literature
Myth moves to Rome: difference between Greek and roman myth 4
Roman gods not as anthropomorphic/ oral traditional stories about them were not as powerful and artistic/ lack speculative and cosmological aspect/ gods lack personalities and soap opera lives
Myth moves to Rome: changes in language 2
Poet Ennius imports Greek gods names and stories and establishes the classic equivalences of their names/ by the time Ovid writes metamorphoses, poets are simply transplanting greek stories and of course embellishing and elaborating them
Rome: legends of founding::Greek: epic heroic tradition 3
Livy's goals/ idealized past of Rome/ exemplars of morality in the past as if these values accounted for Rome's greatness
Two myths: Aeneas and Romulus 2
One is Italian and one is greek/ Aeneas begins the pattern of leaders exemplifying moral or other virtues later Romans used for self-conception
Vestal virgins 3
Worshipped vesta/ never let official hearths fire go out/ remain virgin during service
Livy: violence against women and the political progress of the state 2
Rape of Sabine women: Romulus strategy for getting wives/ rape of Lucretia: roman republic replaces kingship because they hated the king who did that
Violence against women
Defacing liminal boundary
New theme: roman heroes as mythic exemplars 2
Models of and models for roman virtues/ simplicity, self restraint
Romulus is another model for roman virtues 4
Piety: always observes religious rites, as before going after the Sabine women/ courage in combat and in the expansion of new city/ forceful/ apotheosis: becomes divine
King 2: numa pompilius 4
Set religious rites in order/ founded religion/ character: Greek education is beneficial but bad/ moral: good example by being religious and not violent
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus 3
Runs for office of king/ appeals to formal kings as exemplars for his own qualification/ of course Augustus and other roman leaders fall into this tradition
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