Animal Form And Function Flashcards

Terms Definitions
mastication
chewing
Skeletal Muscle
voluntary movement
peritoneum
transparent membrane covering organs
T wave
represents ventricular repolarization
septum
interior dividing wall in heart
nephrostomes
ciliated, funnel-shaped; gather waste products into the nephridia
earthworms
have five hears of hearts
Insectivores
insect eaters-soft insect eaters: teeth are simple pegs, or no teeth at all. Have long tongues instead.hard insect eaters: sharp cutting edges in a V or W design on the surface
auricles
flap-like pouches of the atria
Mammalian temperature regulation
increase insulation, negative feedback- hypothalimus acts as a thermostat
ctenidial filaments
verticle tubes in the gills
Intestinal digestion
uses pancreatic juice: amylase, trypsin, lipase
carnivores
meat eaters-either conical teeth to prevent prey from escaping and/or large triangular teeth that are laterally compressed with sharp, serrated edges
tunica vaginalis
the double-layered sleeve of peritoneum that lines the scrotum and inguinal canal (parietal layer) and invests the testis, epididymis and spermatic cord (visceral layer)
Cartilage
form is collagenous, strong and flexible. form skeleton, resists compression.
Thermoregulation
the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range.
Interventricular sulcus
diagonal, fatty division between the right and left ventricles. In this division, embedded in fat, lie the coronary arteries and veins
primary lamellae (gill filaments)
comprised of secondary lamellae
spermatic cord
the slender elongated structure that emerges from each testis
ureters
The long, narrow duct that conveys urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder or cloaca (whitish gray)
P wave
represents depolarization of the atria which leads to atrial systole
ctenidium
gills, where oxygen is extracted and carbon dioxide is released
electrocardiogram
detects and records signals of the heart via electrodes place on the skin
Connective tissue
basic support of body, providing attachment sites and protecting organs. characterized by a sparse cell population
Negative Feedback
a change that triggers a control mechanism to counteract further change in the same direction.
dorsal spiracles
modified gill slits that serve as external openings through which water flows into the gill chamber (gill pouches or branchial chambers)
ostia
openings in the heart (permit only the entry of blood/fluid in the heart
cardiac cycle
one set of atrial and ventricular contractions
cilia
on the gills and mantle, maintain the flow of water on the gills
tidal volume
air inhaled and exhaled with each resting breath
incurrent aperture (siphon)
brings in water from the environment
kidney
either of a pair of bean-shaped organs in the back part of the abdominal cavity that form and excrete urine, regulate fluid and electrolyte balance, and act as endocrine glands.
tracheal system
air enters the body through openings in the exoskeleton called spiracles and is distributed throughout by tracheal tubes
anterior, middle, mediastinal, and posterior
4 lobes of lungs
Nerve defination
a cluster of processes belonging to several neurons. Conducts messages from CNS ( brains/ spinal cord) and from sensory receptors back to the CNS.
renal pelvis
in the medulla of the kidney, the collecting place of urine that will leave through the ureter
urogenital opening
the opening outside the body from the rectum
base
in the heart, the upward, flat end of the heart where most vessels are located
umbilical vein
vein supplying blood to the fetus from the umbilical chord.
uterine horns
one of the pair of tubular extensions from the uterine body. Amongst the domestic species they are largest in those that bear many young (polytocous)
renal hilum
on the concave side of the kidney where the ureter comes out
MR determined by animals
-endotherms have a higher MR than ectotherms-smaller animals have a higher MR per gram-maximum MR is inversely related to the duration of the activity
right AV valve (tricuspid)
the valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle
first heart sound
lubb-produced by the closing of the 2 atrioventricular valves together
second heart sound
dupp-produced by the closing of the 2 semilunar valves together
4 major categories of tissue are
epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous
external iliac arteries (right and left)
paired arteries the supply the hindlimbs
Neurons's 2 types of processes within
dendrites, which receive and transfer messages. Axons transfer messages away from cell body.
minute respiratory volume
amount of air you move into and out of your lungs each minute
holobranch
2 gill filaments
piscovores
fish eaters-long, conical, sharp-pointed but straight teeth to pierce or hold prey that are swallowed whole
ovary
where egg/ova is produced
gill rays
cartilaginous structures which supports gill tissue
ventricle
thick-walled, muscular chamber that applies pressure for blood flow in an organism
cloaca
opening for wastes in dogfish
renal corpuscles
another word for glomerulus
Homeostasis
steady state, internal balance. An interplay between outside factors that change internal environments and internal factors that oppose such changes.
Biosynthesis
growth, reproduction, storage- fat and glycogen
lamellae
2 folds of the gills (ctenidium)
pulmonary circuit
blood to lungs and back
secondary lamellae
actual structures of gas exchange
systemic cicuit
blood to body and back
absorption
when small molecules like glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids diffuse out of the small intestine (not starch)
septa
separate each segment of an earthworm
cartilage rings
support the trachea in mammals
Bioenergetics
the flow of energy through an animal-food -> atp -> cellular work or biosynthesis
hemoglobin
protein in red blood cells for carrying oxygen
right subclavian
comes from brachiocephalic artery and sends blood to the forelimb
urethra
the membranous tube that extends from the urinary bladder to the exterior and that in the male conveys semen as well as urine, and in females is bound by connective tissue to the vagina
renal capsule
the thin membrane surrounding the kidney
omnivores
mixed plant and animal diet-both low crowned teeth with simple, short cusps that crush or grind food items and still handle some other foods.
gill chamber
located between the external and internal gill slits (whole flap)
papillary muscles
conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.
brachiocephalic artery
the first branch off the aorta
alimentary canal
complete digestive tract between two openings
atrium
thin walled chamber that pumps blood into ventricle
coelomic cavity
area where organs lie in earthworms
genital arteries
paired arteries which supply the gonads
Endothermic
main source of body heat is generated by metabolism
dorsal blood vessel
carries blood from posterior to anterior in earthworms
sperm sac
contains seminal fluid that will allow the sperm to pass safely to the female and fertilize the ova
chordae tendineae
the chords that regulate the activity of the cusps in the AV valves
systole
period where a chamber(or two) of the heart is contracting
vas deferens
The main secretory duct of the testicle, through which semen is carried from the epididymis to the prostatic urethra, where it ends as the ejaculatory duct.
inguinal canal
an opening in the abdominal wall connecting the abdominal cavity and the scrotal cavity
gill rakers
filter water and propel incoming food particles toward the esophagus
homodent
teeth are all similar in shape or design
epididymis
A long, narrow, convoluted tube in the spermatic duct system that lies on the posterior aspect of each testicle and connects with the vas deferens.
tracheoles
special cells which serve as the site of gas exchange
Loose connective tissues
most common type. cells are fibroblasts. form is loose, collagenous fibers. it functions as a flexible framework around organs.
Andipose tissue
form is a specialized loose connective tissue
Metabolic Rate
the amount of energy and animal uses in a certain unit of time
vital capacity
maximul amount of air that can be moved into and out of the lungs
archinephric duct
a tube that carries waste from the kidneys to the cloaca (is used for sexual reproduction in males-they have accessory urinary duct)
clitoris
a small body of erectile tissue on the ventral portion of the urogenital sinus, both males and females have it-but it is easier seen in males
pulse rate
number of pulses that occur in one minute
Blood
fluid matrix ( plasma), it is still a connective tissue.
branchial hearts (gill hearts)
pump deoxygenated blood to the gills in squid
pulmonary semilunar valve
A valve with semilunar cusps at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle of the heart.
renal veins (right and left)
paired vessels tha drain each kidney to the inferior vena cava
Bundle of His (or AV bundle)
consists of modified cardiac muscle fibers that do not contract, and instead transmit an action potential to the right and left bundle branches
Fibrous connective tissues, is ligaments.
cells are fibroblasts. form is dense masses of collagen. irregular fibers are impact resistant.
common iliacs (right and left)
paired vessels that drain lower limbs and join to form the inferior vena cava
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