Joints 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Diathroses
Freely Movable joints
Complete the sentence: Connective tissue that binds bones to other bones is a/an ____.
ligament
Complete the sentence: Another term for a joint is a/an ________.
articulation
Give the term: Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles.
fascia
amphiarthrosis
joint is slightly moveable allows sum movement due 2 the limited flexibility of the cartilage
Name the term: inflammation of a tendon sheath ______.
tenosynovitis
Complete the sentence: The membrane that lines the joint cavity is the ___________.
synovial membrane
Name the term related to joints: connective tissue binding bones to other bones; supports, strengthens, and stabilized the joint.
ligament
Complete the term: inflammation of a sac of fluid near the joint _______itis.
bursitis
Complete the sentence: Sac of fluid near a joint is a/an __________.
bursa
Give the meaning of the combining form: chondr/o
cartilage
Name the term: increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb
extension
Name the disorder related to joints: displacement of a bone from its joint.
dislocation
Types of Fibrous Jionts
1. Sutures2. Syndesmosis3. Gomphosis
Name the term: inflammation of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body (hyperuricemia)
gouty arthritis
Complete the term: suture of a tendon: ten______.
tenorrhaphy
Name the term related to joints: smooth, glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint.
articular cartilage
Name the term: The surgical suture of the divided ends of a tendon.
tenorrhaphy
Name the term: decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so that the foot bends backward (upward). opposite of stepping on the gas pedal.
dorsiflexion
Give the meaning of the combining form burs/o
bursa
Give the meaning of the combining form ten/o
tendon
Name the term: As applied to the hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up.
supination
Give the meaning of the term chondromalacia
softening of cartilage
Name the term related to joints: space between bones at a synovial joint; contains synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane.
synovial fluid
Name the disorder related to joints: inflammation and painful swelling of joints caused by excessive uric acid in the body.
gouty arthritis (gout)
The area where 2 bones meet 2 form a joint is called? 
articulation (articulate)
Give the meaning of the term polyarthritis
inflammation of many joints.
Give the meaning of the term arthrodesis
surgical fixation of joints
Give the meaning of the term articular cartilage.
lining covering the bone.
Give the meaning of the term synovial joint
a freely movable joint.
Name the term: circular movement around an axis (central point).
rotation. toward miline is internal rotation. away from midline is external rotation.
Give a short meaning: podagra
pain in a big toe from gouty arthritis
Give a short meaning: laminectomy
removal of a portion of the vertebral arch (lamina) to relieve pressure from a protruding intervertebral disk
Give a short meaning: sprain
trauma to a joint with pain, swelling, and injury to ligaments
Give the meaning of the term bunion
enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe.
Give the meaning of the term hydrarthrosis
abnormal collection of fluid in a joint.
Shaft
Diaphysis
Angular movements ?
FlexionExtensionHyperextension
Intertarsal joint?
Tarsals
 
plane structure
Bony Joint
an immovable joint
Ligament
Collagenous connective tissue (dense regular) that attaches one bone to another.
Diarthrotic
Describes a freely movable joint
Hinge
between humerus and ulna; uniaxial
what is an immovable joint?
synarthrosis
Extension
increase in angle between bones
knee joint
largest joint supporting body weightside supporting ligaments: colateral igaments & external ligaments
Sutures
immovable or only slightly movable fibrous joints that closely bind the bones of the skull to each other; they occur nowhere else. There are three kinds: Serrate, Lap (Squamous), or Plane (butt)
Atlantoaxial joint?
Atlas and Axis bone
 
Pivot structure
Bursa
fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid; occurs between bones and muscle tendons, where it acts to decrease friction during movement
define subluxation.
partial dislocation of a joint
Osteoarthritis
-most common type- a chronic degenerative condition that is often called \"wear and tear arthritis\"-most common in aged & related to aging process-more common in women than men but 85 % of americans can develop it-affects the articular cartilages, causing them to soften, fray, crack, erode-when ever strain on a joint is repeated or excessive too much of the cartilage destryoing enzyme is released-badly alligned or overworked joints are suseptable
Flexion
— bending movement that decreases the angle of the joint
Retraction
movement of an anteriorly projected body part back to the anatomical position
Ligaments
Band of regular fibrous tissue that connects bones
Synovial Fluid
Lubricant rich in albumin and hyaluronic acid. Nourishes joint cartilages and removes their wastes. Contains phagocytes that clean up tissue debris.
Fibrous Joints
DFCT, either regular or irregulareg: sutures, syndesmosis, gomphosis, interosseous membrane
hyperadduct
when ankles are crossed or hyperadduct the shoulder by clasping hands
gliding movements
simplest joint movement. Occurs when one flat bone surface glides over another (back and forth, or side to side). ex:intercarpal and intertarsal joints.
What are three factors that affect stability?
size
 
shape
 
arrangement
describe pivot joints.


•Rounded end of one bone conforms to a
“sleeve,” or ring of another bone

•Uniaxial
movement only 





elbow joint
Articulating bones= ulna & radius w/ condyles humerus ** close gripping of the humerus by ulnas trochlear notch that forms hinge & stabilizes jointstructural type= Synovial; hingeMovements allowed= diathrotic; uniaxial; flexion & extension of forearm
inversion
foot movement that tips the soles medially, somewhat facing each other
2 types of cartilaginous joints
synchondroses and symphyses
Articular capsule
Double layered capsule composed of an outer fribrous capsule lined by synovial membrane; encloses the joint cavity of a synovial joint
knee joing movements
phases of knee extension1. initial phase: rotation in suprameniscal compartment2. intermediate phase: femur glides forward in inframeniscal compartment3. terminal phase (screwed home)medial rotation, light collateral ligaments, obligatory terminal rotation of about 5 degrees
Amphiarthrodial Joints
These are joints that allow for minimal movement between bones. There are three types.1)Syndesmosis2)Symphysis3)Synchondrosis
hyperabduct
putting your arm over your head and reaching towards the opposite side
What is ball and Socket movement?
multiaxial
 
flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, and rotation
what are the 3 types of fibrous joints?


•Sutures

•Syndesmoses


•Gomphoses






Ankylosing Spondylitis
-end stage of rhumtoid arthitis when the scar tissue eventually ossifies and the bone ends fuse together immobilizing the joint -often produces bent, deformed fingers
lateral excursion
side-to-side movement to the left or right of zero position
articular disc
separates the two bones and divides the joint cavity into two spacescartilage grown inward from the joint capsule
What are plane joints?
-Articular surfaces are essentially flat
-Allow only slipping or gliding movements
-Only examples of nonaxial joints (in between carpals)
(Bone) Jack Spavin
Degenerateness joint disease of the distal intertarsal and tarso-metatarsal joints, aka true spavin
Syndesmoses
A joint in which the bones are united by a ligament or a sheet of fibrous tissue
3. Pivot
rounded or pointed surface of one bone with ring formed partly by another bone, and by a ligament. (monoaxial- movement around its own axis)
General structure of a synovial joint
articular cartilage, synovial(joint) cavity, articular capsule, synovial fluid
Cartilaginous Joints
NO JOINT CAVITY; bones are united with each other by cartilage
what is the most easily dislocated joint in the body?
temporomandipular joint (TMJ)
Elbow joint muscles
-tendons of several arm muscles cross the elbow joint and provide stability -ie. biceps brachii & triceps brachii
pronation of the foot
combo of dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction-toes are elevated and turned away from the other foot and the sole is tilted away from the other foot
Fibrous capsule have heavier
fibrous sleeve adjacent to synovial membranes may thicken in some area to form extracapsular ligaments to stabilize joints
Plantar Flexion
bending of foot at ankle joint in the direction of plantar or inferior surface (stand on tip toes)
Movements of synovial joints? (p. 298-304)
Flexion and extention, hyperextention, abduction and adduction, elevation and depression, protraction and retraction, circumduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, supination and pronation
Rheumatoid Arth. cont.
along w/ pain and swelling of joints its manifestations include osteoporosis, muscle weakness, and problems w/ the heard and blood vessels -it is variable--- it may develop gradually or in spurts that are years apart-marked by flairups and remissionsTreatment= most drugs are anti-inflammatory, or antibiotic or they block immune response---given for long periods of time, and are only partly successful
what are the classifications of sutures?
serrate, lap, and plane sutures
3 joints in single knee joint cavity
Femoropatellar joint
Lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints
What is gouty arthritis?
when blood levels of uric acid rise, urate crystals are deposited into the joints and cause inflammation
 
can be destructive and can fuse articulating bones together
what three things do all synovial joints have?
1. joint cavity2. articular cartilage3. articular joint capsule
Stability of a joint is determined by:
Articular surfaces (shape determines what movements are possible)

Ligaments (unite bones and prevent excessive or undesirable motion)- not very stable
1. gomphosis
gompho= bolt or nail
fibrous joint in which a cone shaped peg fits into a socket (root of teeth)
where are capsular ligaments located?
theyare a part of the fibrous capsule and are an extension or thickening of the fibrous capsule which strengthens it and connects it to structures around the joint
SADDLE JOINTS ( SYNOVIAL JOINT)
AN EXAMPLE OF A SADDLE JOINT WOULD BE THE JOINT BETWEEN THE METACARPALS AND THE CARPALS
Range of motion p. 295; What is range of motion determined by?
1.Structure of articular surfaces of bones - movement limited by shapes of bone surfaces2.Strength/ tautness of ligaments and joint capsules3.Action of the muscles and tendons -- opposition of antagonist musclesmuscle tone: state of tension in resting muscle
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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