Joints 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Special Roatation?
Hand, pronation/supination
Interphalangeal joint?
hinge structure
flex=to bend
decrease in angle
Types of Joints
Bony FibrousCartilaginousSynovial
Peg-in-socket firbrous joint (tooth with its alveolar socket)
Ossification that uses hayline cartilage models
bones stuck together; immovable joints
ankle joint
dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, inversion, eversion
Cartilaginous Joints
hyaline or fibrocartilage
--Intervertebral disc
--Epiphysial plate in hip
--pubic symphysis
discontinuous joints
articular survaces, articular capsule, joint cavity
movement that tips the soles laterally
Radiocarpal joint?
Radius and Carpals (wrist) bone
Condyloid structure
The place where 2 bones meet
describe dislocations.

•Occur when bones are forced out
of alignment

•Accompanied by sprains,
inflammation, and joint immobilization

•Caused by serious falls or
playing sports 

Osteo continued
bone directily below articulating cartilage becomes dense and stiff-as disease progresses bone spurs tend to grow around the margins of damaged cartilages encroaching on the joint cavity & restricting joint movement-mornign wake up really stiff and cant move, then goes away-always pain when using joint--- makes crunching noise, as rough surfaces rup together-course of OA is slow and irreversable
Synovial Joint ROM:
movement in one plane
prevents the femur from sliding forward on the tibia (prevents it from going forward because it's holding it Back, hence POSTERIOR) (and preventing tibia from going backwards on the fibula)

important for rotational stability
Articular Cartilage
Hayline Cartilage covering bone ends at moveable joints
rotation of the palm to the anterior
further extension of a joint beyond the zero position
Chronic inflammatory disorder with an insidious onset
Rheumatoid arthritis
What is extension?
Increases angle of joint
ex) straightening up after bending over anteriorly
describe gliding movements.

•One flat bone surface glides or slips over
another similar surface 

Knee Info
Joint casule anteriorly consists of patella and extensions of quadroceps femoris tendon.
To draw inward toward the median axis of the body or toward an adjacent part or limb
metatarsophalageal j
ball and socket joints but restricted mobility due to collateral ligaments
Synchondrosis Joints
These joints are separated by hyaline cartilage that also allow for minimal movement.Example: Costochondral Joints of the ribs with the sternum
Ulnar flexion
tilting the hand towards the little finger
What are the rotator cuff muscles?
Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres minor
what are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints?



-occurs along only one plane of joint surfaces -intertarsal joints/ intercarpal joints
saddle joints
-both bones have a saddle shaped surface- concave in one direction and convex in the other-trapezoimetacarpal joint at the base of the thumb-biaxial
What are bursae?
*flattened, fibrous sacs lined with synovial membranes and containing synovial fluid
capped elbow
inflammation of bursa over ole cranon process
atlas/axis; radius/ulnafn: rotation
example of intermediate PIVOT JOINT - synovial joint
3. Condyloid (Ellipsoidal)
convex oval shaped projection of one bone fits into oval depression of another (biaxial- around 2 axes)
The more moveable a joint is it becomes (less stable, more stable)?
less stable.
Pivot Joint
between C1 and C2; rotation of one bone around its own axis; uniaxial
what are the movements of the knee?

•flexion and extension

•slight medial rotation

•lateral rotation of the leg in
the flexed position

Gouty Arthritis
-if rate of excretion is low, uric acid leves rise abnormally in blood and body fluids, and acid precipitates as solid crystals of urate in the synovial membranes-an inflammatory response follows as teh body tries to attack & digest the crystals producing an agonizingly painful attack of Gout. -first attach involves a singel joint usually in the lower limb ( big toe) -untreated can cause ends of articulating bones to fuse-more prominant in males b/c higher levels of uric acid
Tarsus(hock) joint
Distal end of tibia and the talus, calcaneus projects to form lever for attachment of achilles tendon (common Calcaneus tendon)
classification of synovial joints
axes, degree of freedom, number of articular survaces,shape:plane, hinge (ginglymus), pivot (trochoid), ellipsoidal, saddle (sellar), ball and socketfixed joints (amphiarthrosis)
what are the SITS muscels?
reinforce the shoulder joint to prevent
dislocation of the humerus

Structure of Synovial joints
1. articular cartilage= covers ends of opposing bones, made up of hyaline cart. =absorb compression placed on joint, and keep bone ends from crushing2. Joint cavity (synovial cavity)=potential space that holds a small amount of synovial fluid3. articular capsule= encloses joint cavity & is 2 layersouter layer= fibrous capsule= dense irregular connective tissue that is continuous w/ periosteum layer of joining bones*strengthens joint so bones are not pulled apart
shoulder is stabilized mainly by...
the biceps brachii muscle (anterior side of arm)
3 FUNCTIONAL classifications of joints:
1. Synarthroses – immovable

2. Amphiarthroses – slightly movable

3. Diarthroses – freely movable
What are the four parts of the general structure of synovial joints?
articular cartilage
fibrous articular capsule
Joint cavity
Reinforcing ligaments
what does a bursa act as?
it separates tendons, muscles and bones from other structures within a joint and serves to decrease friction
round ligament or ligamentum teres
arises at the fovea capitis and attaches to the lower margin of the acetabulum
fibrous joint or synarthroidal joint
no joint cavity allows little or no movementfibrous connective tissue holds bone together.
what are elastic ligaments composed of?does it regain its original length after stretching?
they are composed mostly of elastic tissueit does regain its original length after stretching
What are pivot joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
the cylindrical surface of one bone articulates with the ring of the bone and fibrous tissuerotation around a central axisjoint between the proximal ends of the radius and ulna
Articular cartilage
study of joints
Wrist (radiocarpal)
What is Plane movement?
flexion of fingers
curling them
What is Hinge movement?
flexion, extension
the shoulder joint has weak_______.
adduction of fingers
bringing them together
movement downward interiorly from the point of origin
broad, flat disc of fibrocartilage connects bones amphiarthrotic pubic symphysis
Delicate membrene on internal surfaces of bone
Which classification is named according to the degree of movement?
Functional classification
cartilaginous bones are joined by ______
tendon sheaths
elongated cylindrical bursae wrapped around a tendonseen esp in the hand and foot
gliding with slight rotation, and gliding possible in flexed rotation
joint type: does not move at all
Lateral movement of the foot, sole outward to the side
Strip or sheet of tough collagenous connective tissue (dense regular) that attaches muscle to bone.
Trochoid Joints
Common Name: Pivot or ScrewMovements: Rotational movement around a long axis; uniaxialExamples: Radius at the Distal Radioulnar joint, Proximal Radioulnar joint, Atlantoaxial joint (C1 and C2) (odontoid process)
Plane joint
a.k.a. gliding joint; the bone surfaces are flat or only slightly concave and convex. The bones slide over each other and have relatively limited movement.
what is the most common chronic arthritis?
moving a part around an axis(twisting the head from side to side)
the degree of movement with fibrous joints depends on the length and flexbility of the fibers. will longer or shorter fibers have more movement?
Lyme Disease
an inflammatory disease that often results in joint pain and arthritis esp. in knee joint -transmitted by ticks that live on deer an mice, contain a bacterial organisms called SPIROCHETES -skin rash, flulike symptoms and foggy thinking symptoms may prosist for years if untreated, although they eventually decline-sometimes they proceed t neurological disorders and irregular heartbeat.difficult to diagnose b/c symptoms vary-treated w/ antibiotics, but takes a long time to kill the bacteria
ligaments that support the coxal joint
iliofemoralpubofemoralischiodemoral ligaments
What is tendonitis?
-Inflammation of tendon sheaths typically caused by overuse
-Symptoms and treatment are similar to bursitis
Types of Synovial joints
ball and socket
Fibrous Joint
Synarthrosis - Bones are bound by collagen fibers that emerge from one bone and penetrate into the other. 3 types: sutures, gomphoses, and syndesmoses.sutures of the skull, gomphoses holding teeth into skullinterosseous membrane between ulna, radius.
sheet of DIFCT that covers the muscle and/or tendons.
bending of foot at ankle joint or talocrual joint in direction of dorsum (stand on heels)
Hinge joint
monaxial joints moving freely in one plane with very little movement in any other.EX: elbow, knee
Which classification is named based on the type of connective tissue that joins the bones together?
Structural classification
what are the 2 special movements of the radius and ulna?

(turning hand backward) Pronation
(turning hand forward)

- (luxation) occurs when the bones of a joint are forced out of allignment-usually accompanied by sprains, inflammation, pain an ddifficulty in moving the joint -result from serious falls or blows-jaw, shoulder, finger and thumb are most common-like fractures bone ends must be reduced = returned to proper positions by physician -SUBLUXIATION= partial dislocation of joint-a joint that dislocates once rns the risk of repeat b/c it streches the joint capsule and ligs.
flexion of vertebrae
foward bending movements, as in vertebral column
largest and most complex diarthrosis of the body
tibiofemoral (knee) joint
Functions of joints
Give the skeleton mobility

Hold the skeleton together
movement of thumb across the palm to touch the tips of the fingers of the same hand
metacarphophalangeal joints: synovial
ball and socket in shape but restricted; passive rotation of 50 degrees might be possible
a posterior movement of a body part in the transverse plane
what is joint cavity?
space filled with lubricating synovial fluid which has an eggwhite consistency that provides a slippery weight-bearing film that reduces the friction between the cartilages
plantar flexion
flexing the foot at the ankle toward the sole(bending the foot downward)
_____ is a site where two or more bones join (articulate)
ball and socket joint
rotations ex: hip and shoulder joints
plane (butt) suture
occur where two bones have straight, nonoverlapping edges
Where do you find bursae?
*Common where ligaments, muscles, skin, tendons, or bones rub together

*Tendon sheath – elongated bursa that wraps completely around a tendon
What is a sprain?
the ligaments reinforcing a joint are stretched or town
heal slowly due to lack of blood supply
completely ruptured ligaments must be repaired by surgery
what are the two types of suture?
squamous (bones overlap)serrate (jigsaw fashion)
pivot joints
rotation found in atlas and axis as u rotate your head
the accessory structures of a synovial joint
tendons, ligaments, and bursae
Posterior glide of the elbow joint
(hinge joint) for elbow extension
What are joints classified by?
according to the degree of movement they make possible and/or the type of tissue that binds the bones together at each junction
where are synovial joints typically found?
at the ends of long bones
Examples of synovial joints:
all limb joints, most joints of the body
What are fibrous joints? What are their possible movements? Give examples.
articulating bones that are fastened together by a thin layer of fibrous connective tissuenonesutures between the bones of the skull, joints between the distal ends of the tibia and fibula
what does the synovial fluid do?
it nourishes the joint cartilages and removes their wastes, it contains phagocytes that clean up tissue debris resulting from cartilage wear and tear
what are some factors determining the stability of a synovial joint?
1. shape, size and arrangement of articulating surfaces2. strength of the fibrous capsule3. presence and strength of ligaments4. presence of articular discs5. tone of surrounding muscles
what kind of joint is the knee joint?
primarily a hinge joint, also capable of slight rotation and lateral gliding
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