Animal Nutrition Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Esophageal peristalsis
hind gut fermantors rodents
number of essential amino acids
enzyme that breaks down phytate
photosynthetic bacteria and higher plantsUse CO2 from atmosphere as source of carbon from which they construct all carbon-containing compounds (sugars)
Waste from the digestive tract expelled through the rectum
a gastric juice that contains pepsin
proteins are digested here into polypeptides by pepsin
Milk by products
Dried skim milk 34%protein
Mechanical mastacian in mouth and muscle contraction in stomach and intestine
Metabolizable Energy (ME)
GE-fecal E-Urinary E-Gaseous productsMost common method used for poultry
what are salivary glands?
parotid, sublingual submandibular
An organ located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
The first part of the large intestine.
Essential nutrients that do not yield energy, but that are required for growth and proper functioning of the body.
bulk feeders
animals that eat relatively large pieces of food (snakes, humans)
an enzyme in saliva that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
a fingerlike projection of the cecum that has a minor and dispensable role in immunity
Protien Supplements
Soybean Meal, Cottenseed Meal, Canola Meal, Sunflower Seed meal, sesame seed meal, peanut meal, linseed
wheat bran 10%fiberwheat germ meal is 3.5%fiberweat shorts 8.2% fiberwheat middlings 7% fibetr
south central states by products are for animal feed contains 2850 ME 13.3% proteinfeed to dairy cows
Starch Equivalent
Expressed energy values of feeds relative to net energy value of common feed constituent, starchSE= energy value of feed/energy value of starch
does amino acid transport require energy in protein digestion of the ruminant?
yes, sometimes
___ inhibitor is destroyed by mild heating (roasting)
The inactive form of pepsin that is first secreted by specialized (chief) cells located in gastric pits of the stomach.
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
The process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water
oral cavity
the mouth; where ingestion and the initial steps of digestion occur; presence of food stimulates a nervous reflex that causes salivary glands to deliver saliva
bile salt, lipase
enzymes generally used in the digestion of fats
Meat/bone meal
by products of meat processingfed to monogastric animals only sense 1997
Plasma protein
drid plasma is most expensive good source of protien for youth
1g= 4kcalmade up of 20 amino acids9 amino acids are essentalmust be broken down to amio acids then used for energyeasily converted to glucose
what forces the bolus down the tube and into the stomach/.
what is the essential amino acid in birds/ reptiles?
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that are needed, but cannot be made by the body and must be eaten in foods
gastrovacular cavity
this functions in digestion as well as in the distribution of nutrients throughout the body; found in animals with a simple body plan
Which nutrients provide energy to tissues?
Carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.
Benefits of Fat Supplementation
Increase energy faster than CHODust controlimrprovement of healthformula densitysource of essteintial fatty acids
First law of Thermodynamics
total energy in universe remains constant, but may change form
what are gastrovascular cavities?
place where food is digested partially by enzymes
what are the amino acids in the HILL part of (MATT HILL VP)
what do pepsin and HCl break down specifically?
peptides/ peptones
Complete Digestive Tract
A digestive tube that runs between a mouth and an anus; also called alimentary canal. An incomplete digestive tract has only one opening.
Soybean Meal
#1 source of protein in US two grades 44% w/hulls 48% w/o hulls high lysine content contains anti nutritional factors
where is digestion completed? what process?
inside the cell through endocytosis
if AA needs are below the requirement, then you can supplement with the synthetic aa __, ___, and ___ because they are generally the limiting 3.
State two important functions of vitamin A and name the chemical form of vitamin A required for each function.
Immunity: retinolNight vision: retinoic acid (lack rhodopsin in retina)
what does saliva do?
protects the soft lining of the mouth wit glyprotein, nutralizes acid in food, adds antibacterial agents, starts to digest with amylase-which converts to glucose and shapes food into a bolus, helps with shallowing-which moves food past the trachea, the epiglottis protects the trachea
what eventually happens to microbial fermentation of protein and microbial fermentatoin of NPN?
converted to bacterial protein and goes to the absomasum
In feeding productive ruminants, why is it important to consider the quality of rumen undegradable protein sources but not rumen degradable protein sources?
Because the bacteria in the rumen absorbs the degradable nutrients, so it is not as important as the degradable, which is absorbed by the animal tissues.
Gross Energy (GE) of Feed
heat henerated when a unit mass of feed is completely combusted in oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water under standard conditions of temp. and pressure.heat combustion measured by combustion calorimeter
what happens to insoluble proteins?
remain intact in the rumen and are digested in the abomasum
Name the two major classes of essential mineral and give an example of each
macro and micro minerals. macro is sulfur, microminerals aew copper and molymbdenum
what are the three fates of AA after absorption?
1. tissue protein synthesis
2. synthesis of enzymes, hormones, and other metabolites
3. deamination and transamination
what happens when corn is used to produce ethanol?
myotoxin levels increase. it is mainly used for ruminants
what is the fate of dietary protein or N in Ruminants?
1. rumen undegradable protein escapes breakdown in rumen goes to abomasum
2. microbial fermentation of protein
3. microbial fermentation of NPN
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