Animal Plant Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Thigmo
Touch
posterior
end
sessile
not moving
Deuterotomes
radial and indeterminate
invertebrates
Animals without backbones
Arthropods organs
for gas exchange
radula
a rasp-like feed organ
character. plant king.
multi cellular,autotroph,eukaryote
Zeitgeber
'Timekeeper,' or Rhythmic environmental cue which resets an internal cue
stamen
The pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
proglottids
segments of a tapeworm
Gnathostomata, II
ossified(bony) endoskeleton; gills; swim bladder(buoyancy), most numerous vertebrate, eternal fertilization
Mesoderm
Middle layer of a gastula
Ethene
Plant growth regulator which stimulates fruit ripening
cones
seed bearing structures of gymnosperms
gemmae
small multicellular spheres that contain many haplod cells - liverwarts use these to reproduce asexually
sporophyte
-diploid - the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
Chondrichthes
fish - Jaws and cartilege
archenteron
teh endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal
Commensalism
An interspecific relationship where one organism benefits, but the other is unaffected.
Archegonium
female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses, liverworts and ferns
blastopore fate of deuterostomes
becomes the anus
structures in plants?
embryo,seed coat surrounding it(embryo)
Biotic
Non environmental factors such as predators, parasites and competitors
r Strategies
Concentrates its resourceson producing as many offspring as quickly as possible
monocot
has one cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3
incomplete metamorphasis
type of insect development characterized by a similar appearence throughout all the stages of the life cycle
bird
reptilelike animals that manintain a constant body temperature. outer covering of feathers. two legs that are covered with scales. two front limbs modified into wings.
gill
respiratory organ of aquatic animals that breathe oxygen dissolved in water
Deuteromycota
imperfect fungi - extremely varied. never seen reproductive cycle
choanocytes
specialized cell with flagellum that moves water
zooflagellates
animallike protists that swim using flagella
buds
contain undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves
ovules
Structure that develops within ovary of seed plant and contains female gametophyte.
pedipalps
longer cherlicerae used to grab prey
gastrula
an embryonic stage in animal development encompassing the formation of the three layers
IAA, IBA
Indoleacetic acid, indolebutyric acid (two auxins).
Cnidocytes
Unique cells that function in defense and the capture of prey
Annelida
segmented worms, have body composed of series of fused rings, earthworms eat their way through extracting nutrients as they move through the alimentary canal which help till farms, one opening, decomposers, coelomates, ventural nerve cord in front not dorsal, breath through the skin must remain damp
Antheridium
the male sex organ of spore-producing plants
Pseudocoelomate
have a body cavity only partially lined by tissue derived from mesoderm
Terrestrial colonization
Vascular tissue meaning xylem and pheolm, the seed and the flower
characteristics angiosperm&gynosperm
1)flowering plant,seeds in layer of tissue 2)naked seed,seeds directly on surface of cones
Niche
Total of an organisms requirements and its relationships within its habitat including the organisms role.
ectoderm
the outer germ layer that develops into skin and nervous tissue
nodes
where leaves are attatched to the stem
root cap
thimble-shaped mass of cells covering and protecting the growing tip of a root
endoderm
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
Chlorophyta
Green Algae - share many plant characteristics, including photosynthetic pigments and cell wall composition
chitin
complex carbohydrate that makes up the external skeletons of arthropods
placenta
formed when the embryo's tissues join with tissues from within the mothers body
trichocysts
Small bottle shaped structure that is used for defense
Phaeophyta
Brown Algae - contain chlorophyll A and C as well as fucoxanthin
sepal
a leaflike structure that encloses the bud of a flower
gymnosperms
plant which produce seeds which are "naked" - seeds on cones - gnetophytes, cycads, gink0goes and conifers
Entrainment
Forcing the free running period to follow an external pattern.
Kinesis
A whole-body response of animals where the response is independent of the stimulus direction, but may depend on the intensity of the stimulus.
Hierarchy
When animals are ranked. A linear hierarchy is where every animal is above or below another; there are no equals.
Biological clocks
Internal timing systems that continue without external clues, and control (to some extent) the timing of activities of plants and animals.
sea cucumbers
lack spines and their endoskeleton is much reduced
Angiosperm life cycle
double fertilization occurs when a pollen tube discharges two sperm into female gametophyte within ovule, one sperm fertilizes the egg, while the other combines with two nuclei in the center cell of the female gametophye and initiates development of food-storing endosperm
periferia
as known as sponges, sessile and have aporous body, hermaphrodites, choanocytes
cnidarians are carnivores
use tenacles to capture prey, tentacles are armed with cnidocytes
Evolution of pollen
develop from microspores which mature inot male gametophyte; resistant and airborne for a terrestrial environment; eliminate water(sporopollen coats)
byrophytes need water why?
sperm swim to egg ,fertilization
Parasite
The feeding of an organism on another which is harmed but usually not killed
Stratification
This is the vertical pattern in the distribution of species in a community.
stigma
the apical end of the style where deposited pollen enters the pistil
veins
vascular tissue of xylem and phloem in a leaf
taproot
primary root found in some plants that grows longer and thicker than other roots
germination
series of events that results in the growth of a plant from a seed
larva
an immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult
osculum
A large opening on a sponge through which filtered water is expelled
petal
part of the flower that produces sweet smelling nectar and attracts pollinators
swim bladder
in aquatic osteichthyans, an air sac that enables the animal to control its bouyancy in the water
Personal distance
The close-up distance round an animal that is never invaded except for mating or fighting.
Batesian mimicry
A harmless animal looks like a poisonous one.
general groups of seedless vascular plants
Pterophytes, lytophytes, horsetails, moss, ferns
Life cycle of ferns
sporophyte undergoes meiosis to make haploid spores-->wind takes spores to gametophyte-->fertilization occurs b/w egg&sperm-->embryo undergoes mitosis until maturity-->leaves gametophyte, turns into sporophyte
Monogamy
Male mates with only one female in a given breeding season
cellular slime molds
Types of slime molds that typically exist as individual cells and reproduce with binary fission; during stressful times, many of these cells will come together to form a fruiting body.
Short-day Plant
A plant that flowers in short days, during autumn or winter.
Ecosystem
All the living things in an area plus the physical factors.
Rule among seed plants
Seed plants evolved from plants that had megasporangia, produced megaspore that give rise to female gametophytes, seed plants evolved from plants that had microsporangia, which produce microspores that give rise to male gametophytes
seed
embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective structure surrounded by a food source
Derived characteristics of amniotes egg
amniotes are named for the amniotic egg which contains specialized membranes that protect the embryo
Gause’s competitive exclusion principle
If two species have the same niche they cannot remain for long in the same habitat. One will lose out and be eliminated (or at least reduced to a very small population.)
A mature section of a root has an...
outside later, the epidermis, central cylinder of vascualr tissue
diverso(a)
diverse
huerto
orchard
sider-
iron
amygdal-
almond
foca
seal
ripples
little waves
el jaguar
jaguar
el pingüino
penguin
la rana
frog
la semilla
seed
la araña
spider
pine
pinus silvestris
petal-like (adj)
blüttenblattähnlich
Ctenphora
jellyfish no stinges
une fleur
a flower
Pterosaurs
First flying Vertebrate
terr-
the earth; land
cancerous (adj)
= krebsartig
fangs
teeth in a snake
Lotus
Associated with godess laxmi.
noct-
night; during the night
Protostomes
blastopore forms the mouth
plumage
the mass of birds feathers
carnivorous plants
Plants that trap food
Vertebrates
cartilaginous fish, bony fish, amphibians and amniotes
irrigation (n)
1) Bewässerung

2) (medicine) (Darm)Spülung
exogenous rhythm
controlled by external environmental stimuli
Millipedes
segemented bodies, eat plants and decaying material, 2 pairs of legs per segment
seedling
a young plant..........After a seed germinates, it will grow to be a tiny SEEDLING before it turns into a full grown plant.
Where does gas exchange occur?
the stomata
Bilaterians
two main groups: protostomes and deuterostomes
aridity (n)
= Trockenheit

arid (adj) = trocken
tiny structures of plants that contain the cell that will become sperm cells
Pollen
Style
(botany) the narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma
Genus
a group of closely related living things. First part of organism scientific name
Cells
The basic unit of all living things
Rotifers
ciliated corona sweeps food into mouth (tiny)
pelvis
the basinlike structure formed by the hipbones and other bones that form a ring near the base of the spinal column
competitor
a person, team, company, etc., that competes; rival.
Flunder Fish
this animal blends in with its home
Blastopore
a depression formed when cells of the blastula move inward
leaves
take in air and sunlight to make food
Sun flower
Cooking oil is obtained from this flower
photosynthesis
plants use the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates
Method
A description about how to carry out an experiment is included in the...
invertebrate
an animal that does not have a backbone or skeleton inside its body, such as insects, spiders, worms, snails, clams, crabs, and squids
vengeance (n)

('wenschens)
vengeance (on / upon sb) (formal)
the act of punishing or harming sb in return for what they have done to you, your family or friends
SYN = revenge

e.g. a desire for vengeance
e.g. to take vengeance on sb
e.g. He swore vengeance on his child’s killer

= Rache
= Vergeltung
illuminate (v)

(i'luminäit)
1) to shine light on sth
e.g. Floodlights illuminated the stadium

2) (formal) to make sth clearer or easier to understand
SYN = to clarify
eg. This text illuminates the philosopher’s early thinking

3) to decorate a street, building, etc. with bright lights for a special occasion

4) (literary) to make a person’s face, etc. seem bright and excited
e.g. Her smile illuminated her entire being.
territories
an area that is marked or defended by an individual. other members of the same species are excluded from the area
Radial Symmetry
body plan in which body parts repeat around the center of the body
nurture
to help to grow and develop; to take care of
amphibian
an animal that begins life on land and moves onto land as an adult
tibia
the inner and larger bone of the human leg between the knee and the ankle; shinbone
justification (n)
justification (for sth / doing sth) a good reason why sth exists or is done

e.g. I can see no possible justification for any further tax increases

e.g. He was getting angry—and with some justification
endangered
A plant or animal that is in danger of dying out.
sporophyte
sporophyte
the stage in the life cycle of a plant in which the plant produces spores for reproduction
dive (v)

('daif)
1) to jump into water with your head and arms going first
e.g. we dived into the river to cool off
= ins Wasser springen

2) to swim underwater wearing breathing equipment, collecting or looking at things
e.g. to dive for pearls
= tauchen

3) to go to a deeper level underwater

4) to go steeply down through the air (birds, aircraft)
e.g. The seagulls (=Möven) soared then dived.

5) to fall suddenly (prices)
SYN: to plunge
e.g. the share price dived from 49p to an all-time low of 40p

6) to move or jump quickly in a particular direction, especially to avoid sth, to try to catch a ball, etc.
e.g. We heard an explosion and dived for cover (= got into a place where we would be protected)
e.g. The goalie dived for the ball, but missed it
Characteristics of Seedless Vascular Plants
vascular tissue- xylem and phloem, no seeds, i.e. ferns
discourse (n) / (v)
noun:

1) (formal) a long and serious treatment or discussion of a subject in speech or writing
e.g. a discourse on issues of gender and sexuality

2) (linguistics) the use of language in speech and writing in order to produce meaning; language that is studied, usually in order to see how the different parts of a text are connected
e.g. spoken / written discourse

verb:

to discource on / upon sth
(formal) to talk or give a long speech about sth that you know a lot about
= eine Rede halten
monocots have 1 seed leaf, dicots have 2
characteristics of monocots & dcots
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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