a and p Flashcards

Terms Definitions
abdomin
abdomen
derm
dermatology
buttocks
gluteal
glia
glue
Femoral
Thigh
pallor/blanching
pale
Mouth
Oral
tailbone
sacal
intra-
within
RE
BACKWARD
prote/o
protien
gram
record
pulmo
lung
necr
death
hem, hemat-
blood
-ic
pertaining to
supra-
above, upon
Back Shoulder
Aeromial
cephalic
The head
semin/i
semen, seed
Cath
catheter, catheterization
-sis
state of
NPH
neutral protamine Hagedorn
demo/o & dermat/o
skin
hyper
above, excessive, beyond
Petechiae
Small, pinpoint hemorrhages
DJD
DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE
PKD
polycystic kidney disease
chronic
constant; habitual; inveterate:
component of small intestine
deudenum,jeujenum,illeum
Stratum Spinosum
-8 layers
-large nuclei
begins after the stomach
duodenum
The heart rests on:
diaphragm
Immunoglobulin
Protein with antibody activity.
osteoclast
Crushes and dissolves bones
____ respond to pressure
mechanoreceptors
palpitation
the act of palpitating.
CDH
congenital dislocation of the hip
kyph/osis
abnormal condition of a hump
motion of the whole body
movement
anterior region of the pelvis
pubic
Macromolecules are?
large, biologically important molecules inside the body
Platelet
Smallest blood cell (thrombocyte); these cells clump at sites of injury to prevent bleeding and facilitate clotting.
accumulates products until it ruptures, gland secretions, plus dead cell frags
holocrine
Foramen Magnum
spinal cord begins here
TURP
Transurethral Resection of Prostate Gland
the anteroinferior projection of ischium is called?
ischial ramus
yellowish staining of the skin, sclera, deep tissue caused by bile accumulation
jaundice
Genitourinary
referring to the structures and processes associated with urnary functions and reproduction
Cysts
a capsule that forms around microorganisms before they enter dormant periods.
increases air turbulancein the nasal cavity
concha
lymphatic capillaries
are microscopic, blind-ended tubes located near the surface of the body
What mastication muscle originates on the frontal, parietal, and temporal bones?
temporalis
Capillaries
exchange nutrients and waste between blood and tissue fluid
extension
movement along sagittal plane that INCREASES the angle of bones and straightens a limb. ie:straightening knee
Melanocytes
are melanin-producing cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis,Melanin is a pigment that is responsible primarily for the color of skin.
nucleus
mass in the cytoplasm;separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane that contains pores to allow substances to pass between the nucleus & cytoplasm;also the brain of the cell b\c it controls many cell activities
basal lamina
found in epithelium, non-cellular, acts as a selective filter that determines which molecules get through from underlying connective tissue to enter epi. also acts as scaffolding so epi cells can migrate to wound repair
Dorsal/posterior
refer to locations nearer the back
myopia
Nearsightedness. This occurs when the eyeball is elongated and light rays focus at a point in front of the retina.
Where does the rectus femoris originate?
AIIS
diagnosis
the process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition.
A _________________ is a clouding of the lens of the eye causing decreased vision.
cataract
a precancerous skin condition caused by exposure to sunlight; marked by overgrowths of outer epidermal layer
actinic keratosis
Hosts who have recovered from a disease or who are asymptomatic may be carriers and transmit the disease to others
The stance phase of walking involves _______ chain movements, as do riding from a chair or performing a pull up.
closed
The aortic semilunar valve prevents blood from returning to the ______.
left ventricle
lacteal contain what after a fatty meal which has milky lymph called
chlye
what describes high blood pressure that is idiopathic
essential hypertension
Part of hemoglobin at core of heme
iron
visceral reflex arc
stimulus,sensory receptor in viscera, visceral sensory neuron, integration (progangliionic, dorsal horn, w/in wall of gi tract), efferent pathway (2 neuron chain), visceral effector, response
Heart (AV) Blocks
interference with the normal conduction of electric impulses that control activity of the heart muscle
-Flat bones united by sutural ligament -No movement
Suture
Special Physiology
study of physiology of specific organs
The process of food absorption begins in the ______
stomach
synovitis
inflmmation of the membrane lining the joint
ORTHOPEDIC
PERTAINING TO THE CORRECTION AND CURE OF DEFORMITIES AND DISEASES OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
Atrioventricular bundle
bundle of fibers in the interventricular septum that transfers charges in the hearts conduction system; also called the bundle of His
Articular surface of the ilium articulates with the auricular surface of the sacrum
sacroiliac joint
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.
True
immune related disease that is characterized by swelling of joints is...
rheumatioid arthritis
What muscle plantarflexes the foot and stabilizes the leg on the foot?
soleus
ligation
the act of ligating, esp. of surgically tying up a bleeding artery.
ilium
the broad, upper portion of either hipbone.
Describe long bones?
usually have greater length than width
-found in the limbs
-slight posterior/plantar concavity (curvature) in the lower limb for strength
ex. femur
The chronic inflammation of the colon with the presence of ulcers is called ___________________________.
ulcerative colitis
infection of urethra and bladder, symptoms include fever and dsysuria
urinary tract infection
Dry heat
used to kill microbes through the effects of heat from a source such as an oven or infrared light
genu
A general term used to describe any anatomical structure shaped like a knee.
a substance that promotes some of the reactions associated with inflammation and allergies. Released by Mast Cells
Histamine
groups of chemical compoounds t hat can convert a strong acid or a strong base into a weak acid or a weak base.
buffer systems
rickettsia
is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks & mites
The sum of all the chemical reactions in the cell
Metabolism
forearm (the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist
antebrachial
blood pressure
measure of force exerted by blood against the wall; moves blood thru vessels; measure by listening to korotkoff sounds: turbulent flow in arteries as pressure is released from blood pressure cuff
symphyses
a joint in which the bones are connected by fibrocartilage
What flexion has the toes point downward, as in a toe dancing, flexing the arch of the foot?
plantar flexion
WITHOUT THE SUPPORT OF TISSUE BY THE SKELETAL SYSTEM WE WOULD JUST BE A
LUMP
surrounds and protects the heart and lungs
thoracic cavity
all epithelial sheets rest upon and are supported by what
connective tissue
The coxal bones are formed by the fusion of what 3 parts?
ilium
ischium
pubis
decibel
The unit by which sound is measured, abbreviated as dB.
are molecules such as proteins and glycoreceptors located on the cell membrane
membrane receptors
Pronator quadratus
-Distal fourth of anterior surface of ulna
-Distal fourth of anterior surface of radius
palpation
to examine by touch, esp. for the purpose of diagnosing disease or illness.
viral
of, pertaining to, or caused by a virus.
ileum
the third and lowest division of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
Contralateral is?
on the opposite side of the body
ex. the left arm is contralateral to the right thigh
-most often used for neurology
insertion of Extensor digitorum longus
Middle and distal phalanges 2-5
The _______ _______ is the prime mover of forearm extension.
triceps brachii
Together with the pons makes up the brain stem.
:medulla oblongata
list 2 divisions of the motor divison
autonomic and somatic
bronchial tree
looks like an upside down tree; 1 branch going into each lung
Toward or at the body surface; more external
Superficial (external)
irregular bone
complex shape
do not have an easily described shape
condyloid joints
SJ: one bone fits into a complementary depression in another. both surfaces are oval
HCL creates an acidic environment in the stomach which activates _____ to ______
pepsinogen to pepsin
refers to the back of the organ or body
dorsal
The ______ ________ is what remains of the septum transversum
central tendon
Elastic connective tissue (location)
- within walls of arteries
- surrounding bronchial tubes
- in certain ligaments
dorsal interossei: insertion
First: medial side of proximal phalanx of 2nd digit. Second to Fourth: lateral sides of 2nd to 4th digits
infection
an act or fact of infecting; state of being infected.
Describe the Base of the sacrum?
superior end
-articulates with L-5 vertebra 
The pelvic girdle attaches the _______ _______ to the _______ _______ with the strongest ligaments of the body.
lower limbs, axial skeleton
Stratified squamous epithelium - Function
Protects underlying tissues in areas subject to abrasion.
-No diffusion
These salivary glands lie in front of and under the ears.
parotid salivary glands
bone weight and bone markings
skeletal elements generally used to determine sex and age
YELLOW BONE MARROW IS PRIMARILY MADE UP OF
FAT CELLS (ADIPOSE TISSUE)
The septum penis is a formation of a median of the _______ _______ and only allows communication (vessels) proximally
tunica albuginea
What is typically helpful in working up a pronator teres patient?
EMG and NCV studies
Q This meninge covers the roots of spinal nn and spinal blood vessels.
A pia mater
Which structure pulls the testes into the scrotum and at what point of development does this occur?
Gabernaculum; 7 months in utero
Loose (areolar) proper - Location
In some but not all connective tissue
Which muscle encircles the mouth and what is its function?
Orbicularis oris; pursing lips, puckering, kissing, pouting, closing lips
The test used to detect the AIDS virus in the blood is called
the western blot
VC exhaled as fast as possible is called what
FVC Forced vital capacity
what are the three tunics of the eye
sclera, uvea (choroid), retina
What are the five levels of organization?
Chemical, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
Where does the lesser omentum attach?
Attaches to the lesser curvature of the stomach, the inferior surface of the liver and the first part of the duodenum
Anterior to the external acoustic meatus is the...?
Tragus - flexible due to its cartilage.
What marks the posterior border of the posterior triangle?
anterior border of the trapezius
how is the iliac tubercle palpated?
can often be palpated at the superior lateral margin of the iliac crest
What is the fuction of the aqueous humor?
Removes wastes and circulate nutrients to all structures of the eye.
Where would you find sounds of the aortic valve?
Right sternal margin of 2nd intercostal space
What are signs of cubital tunnel syndrome?
numbness and tingling along the little finger and ulnar half of the ring finger, usually accompanied by weakness of grip, this usually occurs when the patient rest upon or flexes the elbow
Q Just distal to the pisiform, the ulnar a. splits into deep/superficial aa. that arch. Which is larger?
A The superficial ulnar a./ palmar arch is larger.
The superior gluteal comes off of the ______ ____ and supply what?
internal iliac and supply the gluteus medius, minimus, and tensor fascia lata m.
Q What BV branches at the prox border of the interosseus membrane in the forearm? What is this a branch off of? ***
A The common interosseous a. branches into ant/pos branches, and is itself a branch off of the ulnar a. N 434
Q The recurrent meningeal nn. transmit pain. What three structures do these nn. innervate?
A Rec. Men. N. trasmits pain from the dura, the bone, and the disc
Q What is the middle meningeal a. a branch of?
A The first part of the maxillary a., which is a branch off the ext carotid a. [N71]
Iron
Fe
Fe2O3
Iron Oxide(Hematite)
Tundra
treeless, frozen caps
Creep is caused by
gravity
sphere
a round, three-dimensional object whose surface is thesame distance from its center at all points; Earth is a sphere that bulges somewhat at the equator and is slightly flattened at the poles
Genotype
The inherited combination of alleles
greenhouse-effect
an atmospheric heating phenomenon, caused by short-wave solar radiation being readily transmitted inward through the earth's atmosphere but longer-wavelength heat radiation less readily transmitted outward, owing to its absorption by atmospheric carbon di
Pluto
smallest planet and usually considered the ninth planet from the Sun; has a thin atmosphere and a solid, icy-rock surface
mineral
a solid, inorganic substance, found naturally in the earth
osteon
cylindrical structures along long axis with a hole for blood vessels
reactant
a substance or molecule that participates in a chemical reaction
deciduous
shedding the leaves annually, as certain trees and shrubs.
hybrid
offspring of 2 parents that differ
waning
describes phases that occur after a full moon, as the visible lighted side of the moon grows smaller
chromosphere
layer of the Sun's atmosphere found above the photosphere and below the transition zone and corona.
Great Red Spot
a giant, high-pressure continuous storm on Jupiter
outer core
the molten iron-nickel layer that surrounds the inner core.
Horizontal lines on a periodic table are?
periods
Magnetic declination
difference in direction between true north and magnetic north when using a compass needle
optical fiber
a hair-thin, transparent strand of glass or plastic that transmits signals using pulses of light
stimulus
a change in the environment that produces a response
volt
the SI unit of potential difference and electromotive force, formally defined to be the difference of electric potential between two points of a conductor carrying a constant current of one ampere, when the power dissipated between these points is equal t
levees
an embankment designed to prevent the flooding of a river.
ionic bonds are formed
metal to non metal
what do scientist compare the atmosphere to
ocean of air
mantle
the middle layer of the earth, between the crust and the core
Tsunami
A larage ocean wave that results from an underwater earthquake, landslide, or volcanic eruption
SYMBIOSIS
A special way in which two different kinds of animals live together
Tests are ____________
specific instruments used to collect data.
sex-linked gene
an allele inherited on a sex chromosome and that can cause human genetics disorders such as color blindness and hemophilia
solvent
in a solution, the substance in which the solute dissolves
mos solar panels convert how much of the sun's energy?
15-20%
science
a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truths systematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws:
axis
the line about which a rotating body, such as the earth, turns
mass
is the amount of matter in an object
New moon
moon phase that occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, at which point the Moon cannot be seen because its lighted half is facing the Sun and its dark side faces Earth
Moon Phase
change in appearance of the Moon as viewed from the Earth, due to the relative positions of the Moon, Earth, and Sun
mercury
planet closest to the sun has a thin atmosphere with temperature extemes an iron core and many creates and high cliffs
Chemical Bond
A force, or link that holds atoms together in a molecule or in a crystal. Ex. Water Molecule
Binomial nomenclature
a naming system using 2 words: the genus and the species, in Latin and italics
technology
the sum of the ways in which social groups provide themselves with the material objects of their civilization.
photochemical smog
the brown haze that forms in the cities
divers can safely dive to
130 feet; water pressure clogs veins
What are rays?
A bright streak of shattered rock and dust that radiates from a lunar crater
critical point
(of a function of a single variable) a point at which the derivative of the function is zero.
How does natural radioactive decay occur? Name the most common radioactive change.
Unstable isotopes natuarlly emit fast moving particles(alpha and beta), high energy radiation(ionizing radiation), or both./U235 -> Pb206
3 pieces of evidence of natural selection:
1. Fossils(Past dif. from today)2. Similarities in early development. (Chicken and Opposum)3. Similarities in body structure.(Dolphins flipper and a birds wing)
what are 4 properties of acids? bases?
acids- sour, turns litmus paper red, corrosive agent, produce hydrogen gas (H+).....bases- bitter, turns litmus paper blue, slippery, releases Hydroxide ions (OH-)
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