Animal Science Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dairy Cattle
Young Male-Swine
Horse Digestion
>120 lbs
Feed Conversion Ratio
Sheep Breeds
 Fine Wools
a milking female
animals with bones
Sheep susceptible
to copper toxicity
to remove the ovaries
Leading State in Producing Milk
active site of nutrient absoption
milk fat
the fat in milk
What are the MACRO minerals
growth primarily by hypertrophy, (at Birth – big & long) – mature small and short in relation to body
connective tissue
skeleton composed of various types 
provide structure and form of the body and bind parts together
The release of cholecystolkinin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and secretin that act to inhibit gastric function is part of what phase of gastric regulation?
Intestinal phase
A behavior caused by a stimulus.
device used to measure backfat thickness in pigs and cattle
animal that doesn't have a backbone
What are EPDs reported in forbirth weight, weaning weight, yearling weight, maternal weight, and maternal milk
Swine Breeds
Significance of "Ire" 
Name signifies erect ears
NEEDED FOR BLOODneeded for baby pigs to prevent anemia.
Why use GnRH in TAI?
To sync ovulation
Fields of animal science
Genetics, nutrition, physiology, animal health, ethology, meat science, dairy product science, and biotechnology
All the living and non-living things in an environment and how they interact.
grade or commercial
livestock not registered with registry association
who brought horses to the US?
The Spanish....Cortez
What begins the breakdown of protein in the stomach
Scientific Method
Process of gaining knowledge through experimentation
The Seven Principles of HACCP
- Conduct hazard analysis- Determine critical control points- Establish critical limits - Establish monitoring procedures - Establish corrective actions- Establish verification procedures- Record keeping
Functions of Riboflavin
Riboflavin is a structural component of two coenzyme electron carriers: flavin mononucleotide and FAD => energy metabolism, i.e., ATP formation
Petrien hogs
are heavy muscled and highly stress tolerant
What are Enterocytes?
Enterocytes are epithelial cells that line the small intestine whcih have enzymes in their cell membranes that participate inthe final steps of chemical digestion.
True or False: There are more sheep and goats used for milk production in parts of the world than there were dairy cattle used for milk.
An animal is said to be warm-blooded if its body temperature remains the same even if the temperature of the air around them changes.
a heifer that has calved but not nursed and is sent to the feedlot
proximate analysis
the amount of ingested nutrients that are absorbed from the digestive tract defines what
compare and contrast reptiles and amphibians
compare*three-chambered hearts*lay eggs*ectothermscontrast*reptiles have scales*amphiban eggs have no shell*reptiles can live on land their whole lives*reptile's eggs are adapted to preserve water*reptiles have internal fertilization
Sexual Maturity
age at which animals can reproduce at optimal level
Intensive management operations
Farm flock operation- wean lamb crop percentages
smaller in size
common in midwest 
Compare how species characteristics affect adaptation to the environment and kind of feed consumed, such as swine as compared to cattle.
Swine's relatively small, single compartment stomach cannot handle large volumes of bulky forages, so these animals depend primarily on concentrated grains and similar feeds. While the cattle are designed for forage utilization due to their four compartment stomach. Cattle are able to perspire so they can withstand hotter temperatures, while Swine are kept under a controlled temp because they do not perspire
What are Worsted Fabrics?
Worsted Fabrics, such as garbadine, are made from yarns of longer, finer fibers (combing wool), so that the fabrics will be lighter and have a harder, smoother finish.  
*About half of hte apparel wool in the United States is used in worsted fabrics. 
The main bone, made up of many small bones joined together, that runs along the back in some animals.
why do we keep companion animals?
Pleasure, companionship, and protection
monera- including the two seperate kingdoms inside
one-celledfirst form of life*eubacterialives in extreme conditions*aukbacteriastrep, e coli, yogurt
What does HACCP stand for?
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System
Omasum is
Located at the right of the rumen and the reticulum Absorption of water
What are segmentation Movements and where do they occur?
Segmentation movements, which occur when food is in the small intestine, are characterized by alternating local areas of contraction and relaxation. 
These movements mix the digesta with intestinal juice and digestive enzymes and increase the contact between digesta and the epithelial surface of the small intestine.  The increased contact provides more exposure to enzymes associated with epithelial cells and to the absorptive surface of the epithelial cells.  
What are Ewe breeds?
Ewe breeds are generally white faced sheep that produce the finer wool. Examples of Ewe breeds are the Merino and Ramboillet. These breeds are adapted to range conditions and have high reproductive efficiency, wool production, milking ability, and longevity. Replacement ewes, both in range areas and for some farm flocks, generally are selected from these breeds or from crosses involving these breeds.
what is a feeder pig?
age and weight ready for finishing
What two parts make up the scientific name of an organism?
Genus and species
Expected Progeny Differences (EPD)
- Is equal to half of the breeding value- Use of estimate how future progeny of the subject animal will compare to progeny of other animals within the breed. - EPD’s account foro Genetic value of cow the bull was bred to o Environmental differences affecting contemporary groupso Quality of other sires in the contemporary group o Genetic trend
Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
Acronym: FAO
part of united nations that promotes agricultural development around the world
Lactating/Nursing gilts and sows should receive a diet with about 13-15% Crude Protein and 3190 Kcal ME and low in fiber.  How much of this diet should be fed each day while nursing?
4lbs + 1 lb per nursing piglet
What is the difference between essential and non-essential amino acids?
Essential amino acids must be provided
nonessential are synthesized by the animal
Basic Animal Health
Prevention of Disease?
Name some steps.
a) Prevention - herd health plans that include sanitation, proper nutrition, record keeping, proper facilities, correct use of medications and vaccines, minimizing stress & personnel training
Somatotropin (ST)- growth hormone (GH);
Produced where?
how many amino acids?
a protein hormone (191 amino acids) produced in the pituitary;
What were Merino and Rambouillet sheep developed for?
They were developed for high production of fine, high quality wool. * Must lamb and mutton comes from animals that carry merino or rambouillet breeding.
what is the age of maturity of a horse?
4-6 years of age
Storage info about Vitamin D3
stored largely in the liver. The skin is the only organ capable of both synthesizing vitamin D and converting it to the biologically active form.
Which major polysaccharide cannot be efficiently used by non-ruminant animals? Why?
Cellulose. IT can not be efficiently used by non ruminants because the lack the enzyme cellulase.
What are Hobby operations for egg production?
Hobby Operation: These may range from a few birds to supply eggs for home use to breeders who maintain rather pure lines of the historic breeds. 
when does ovulation occur in the hen in relationship to ova position
30 min after laying an egg
In addition to providing energy, name two other reasons fats might be included in a ration.
Fats might be included in a ration because it aids the absorption of vitamins A,D, E, and K from the digestive system, and it cushions and protects vital organs in the body.
What is the official Dairy Herd Improvement?
It is a public records system.  Dairy herds are enrolled in this program through state dairy associations and sponsorship by USDA and state extension services. 
Change in Genotypes = ____ x _____ x _____
Intensity – The more intensely you select the more you will change genotypes.  In other words, if you pick the best 5 of 100 animals you will make more change than if you pick the top 50 of 100 animals. ·        Variation – The more genetic variation in a population, the more you will change genotypes through selection.  Not every one in a population has the same genotype – so the more variable the genes, the more “raw material” there is to select.  In other words, traits with a larger heritability will respond faster to selection. ·        Accuracy – Remember, we only see phenotypes, not genotypes.  When we select individuals it is done on what we can see.  So when we select the parents of the next generation, some may be “good” because of the environment, not genes.  So how accurately we can identify the “good” genes is an issue in changing a population.
In what states, are the beef cow numbers the highest?
Beef cow numbers are the highest in the Southwest and Great plains region. The top 5 beef cow producers are 1. Texas, 2. Missouri, 3. Nebraska, 4. Oklahoma, and 5 is South Dakota
What is the most valuable byproduct of meat animal production?
It is by far the most used natural animal fiber for fabrics.  To the consumer, it is a reliable and increasingly versatile fiber that, when woven into cloth, contributes to warmth and an attractive appearance.  
What are the 5 major regions of beef cow production in the United States? Why are they successful?
The top 5 major regions of beef cow production are the Southern United States, The north Central region, he Southwest, the Great Plains and the Western States. They are successful because the feeder producing areas are abundant and relatively inexpensive source of forage.
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