Animal Science Vocabulary 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Cow’s Gametes
E. caballus
Breeding Herd
adipose tissue
Pig immature male
Wean - Market
Young Male Turkey
Sexually Immature Female Horse
naturally or genetically hornless
What's the Growth Curve like?
#1 state in swine production
cold stress
cold stressavailability of food
-synonymous with stallion-place where males are kept
Cowper's gland
produces lubricating and cleansing fluid just prior to ejaculation
Horse Breeds
Draft Breeds
Clydesdale- Budweiser Hitch..pretty nervous
is a hormone that stimulates secretions
Process of chewing food to mechanically reduce size of food particles. ruminants typically regurgitate their food and rechew it
young female bovine that hasn't produced her first calf
True or False: Animals were domesticated 50,000 years ago
Say what?
Hunters and gatherers lived LONGER than Farmers
What are the respective ages?
Advantages to hunter lifestyle?
ut studies of present-day hunter/gatherers (e.g., The !Kung bushmen of the Kalahari Desert) demonstrate the advantages of their lifestyle (varied diet, plenty of food, little work, lots of free time, "why plant when there are so many mongongo nuts in the world?") Bones of ancient hunter/gatherers show little disease, well nourished, no signs of physical wear or ailments.  Bones of ancient farmers show malnourishment, disease, physical wear and a drop in life expectancy (Hunter bones = 27 years; Farmer bones = 19 years).  So Remind Me - Why Do We Farm?
Texas Dairy
8th in dairy produciton   
7th in dairy cow numbers
Leading Dairy COunty in texas is ERATh County 
joints that operate with a pulley-type function, such as atlas/axial joint
Name the four compartments of the stomach of the ruminant. Which two are located primarily on the left side? Which is the largest? Which is the true "chemical" stomach?
"the dormat or sleeping state that some animals go into in response to extreme cold temperatures. During this period, the animal lowers its body temperature in order to survive"
primitive agriculture
total population is involved in farmingscarcity of food/ low nutritionno/ little mechanizationextremely low per capitia incomevery few literate individuals
clipping wool from the dock, udder, and vulva regions of the ewe prior to breeding and lambing
the introduction of semen into the female reproductive tract by a technique other than natural service
What hormone is responsible for causing ovulation?
Luetinizing hormone
an organism that cannot regulate its own body temperature and relies on adaptations and its environment to keep it's body temperature correct
Age at which animal becomes capable of reproduction
Angora Goats Fact
#1 In texas
#1 Mohair producer
Kid goats produce the finest shit
Deficiency signs of Biotin
1. cracked hooves/feet2. dermatitis and hair loss
True or false: Most of the meat product from animals that humans consume comes from the visceral non-striated muscles of the animal.
What are blemishes?
Blemishes refer to less serious defects in a horse, such as a wire cut injury, that do not affect soundness but may detract from a horse's appearanc, thus reducing its value.  Horses often have blemishes but are sound.  
forming an attachment to an object or environment soon after hatching or birth; very rapidly formed and cannot ever be changed.
condition in which the knee is set too far forward in relation to the leg
what determines a great therapy team?
Handlers and animals.
What is the primary function of the large intestine
no longer in existence; that has ended or died out
Efficiency of Growth
efficiency in production is defined as units of input per unit of output.
Sources of Vitamin A
1. Carotenoids in green plants: vitamin A can be found in body from carotene in plants. Carotene content of plants declines with age and adverse storage conditions2. Sources of vitamin form of A: Liver, fish liver oil, synthetic
What is Lysozyme?
Lysozyme is a salivary enzyme with antibacterial actions.
the passing of food to the stomach by peristaltic waves of muscle contractions
the testis of the male and the ovary of the female
Define Puberty
Age of sexual maturity, or when able to sexually reproduce
 Catfish Farming
Critical Elements of Catfish Culture (3 important)
Farm Site Selection?
Pond Design?
Raising Catfish?
1) Farm Site Selection: Properties of available water: slow growth in temps of 60 to 70 F; optimal growth in temps of 70 to 80 F; above 85 F feeding declines and less dissolved oxygen; below 60 F no growth but will live down to 32 F. Optimal ph = 6.3 to 7.5. Concern for pesticide contamination from soil runoff ruling out highly farmed areas. 2) Pond Design: No true optimum but most ponds are .4 to .5 ha (hectares) {hectare = 10000 sq m = 2.47 acres); range from .4 to 40 ha; depths range from .9 to 1.8 m in South US & 1.8 to 3.0 m in North to avoid winter kill. 3) Raising Catfish: most 'farmers' purchase fingerlings (13 to 15 cm) and grow to a typical market weight of 1 lb in 1.5 to 2 yrs (small market for 4 lb catfish). Stocking rates vary from 2200 to 6600 fingerlings per ha depending on food and oxygen.
Deficiency Signs of Folate
1. Neural tube birth defects NOTE: U.S. Public Health service recommends that women capable of having children take 400 ug folic acid/day during the perineal period2. Anemia and Leucopenia (deficiency of WBC's)3. GIT lesions --> intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea, etc.
Gross Efficiency
Energy in Milk/Energy in Total Feed =
Protein in Milk/ Protein in Total Feed =
Energy in Milk/Energy in Total Feed = 4760/24000 = .1983 (19.8%)  Protein in Milk/Protein in Total Feed = 468/1560 = .300 (30%)
What is Zoonoses? Give examples
Diseases that can be transmitted between humans and animals. Some examples are: Bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, psittacosis, rabies, trichinosis, Q Fever, Salmonellosis, and others. 
a simple type of learning that changes behavior by forming new associations
volitile fatty acids
name a process that divides feed into its component parts and gives only an estimate of quantity but not quality
 Basic Goat Biology (Capra Hircus)
Kid Management:
Kids need colostrum the first __ to __ days of life.
 Kids raised on a bottle need _% of body weight per day, fed ___ times a day
Weaning occurs when?
a) Kid Management: Kids need colostrum for the first 3 to 5 days of life. Kids raised on a bottle (rather than nursing) should get approx 8% of body weight per day, fed two or three times a day. Weaning can occur between 6 to 12 weeks, with hay and creep feed being available. Castration and dehorning is usually done between 2 and 5 days.
Functions common to sodium, chlorine, and potassium
help maintain osmotic pressure balance and help maintain acid/base balance
Distinguish between macro and micro nutrients.
Macro nutrients are normally present in the body at levels greater than 100 ppm and are usually expressed as a percent of the ration. The micro minerals are usually present in the body at levels less than 100 ppm and are typically expressed as parts per million of the ration.
What is the Predicted Transmitting Ability and why is it useful?
The Predicted Transmitting ability is the best indicator of a cow's transmitting ability, and both production and pedigree information are considered in its calculation
what is the age at puberty for a horse?
11-15 months old
Classes (6 + all other classes)
Location?  Examples?
American Class (Canada & US): Plymouth Rock (Buff, White, Barred varieties); Rhode Island Red (mahogany, not red) b) Asiatic Class (popular for their 'fancy' appearance): Cochin (feathers on shank, no tail-cushion); Brahma; Langshan (long legs, feathers on shank) c) English Class (Great Britain & Commonwealth): Cornish Chicken (meat bird, large breast, white cornish cross to white plymouth rock = Foster Farms); Australorp (high egg production) d) Mediterranean Class (egg laying birds): Leghorn (Italian, most popular, productive egg laying bird in world, small, light); White-Faced Black Spanish (show bird) e) Continental Class (European): Hamburg (Dutch every day layer, rose comb); Polish (crest feathers, covering a comb looking like devil's horns) f) All Other Breeds Class: Old English (England, Cock-fighting & show); Araucana (Rumpless, peacomb, tuft ear feathers, green egg shell) g) Bantams (small birds): Sebright (18 oz bird, showy); Japanese (tail feathers touch the head); Silkie (black skin, black bones, fluffy black feathers, Asian meat markets in CA)
How do you measure dressing percent?
Chilled carcass weight divided by live weight times 100.
When does the Gastric Phase begin?
The Gastric phase begins when food enters the stomach.
What are the advantages of fall calving?
Fall calving has certain advantages such as: low labor and housing requirements at calving time and the calf is large enough by spring to utilize grass effective.
What are four differences between reptiles and birds?
Birds: fly, have mostly all feathers, endothermic, four chambered ♥Reptiles:walk, all scales, ectothermic, 3 chambered ♥
What are some attributes of meat that make it a good source of nutrition for humans?
Meat supplies protein, meat supplies carbohydrates and essential fatty acids and meat supplies minerals and vitamins.
What does this sequence of contraction do:
-This contraction begins in the reticulum and spreads over both the dorsal and ventral sacs of the rumen
These series of contractions mixes the contents to promote fermentation and provide force to move liquified digesta out of the forestomach and into the abomasum. 
How does climate affect dairy cattle? What can be done to prevent some of these effects?
All popular breeds of dairy cattle adapt well to cold weather. However, temperatures over 85 degrees for several days, with high humidity, will decrease feed consumption and milk production. These effects can be minimized by good management, including shade, and in the case of confinement unites, air movement and even sprinklers.
Functions of Vitamin D in the immune system
a. vitamin D has potent anticancer actions and lowers the risk of most types of cancer including colon, skin, breast, ovarian, prostate, lung, and lymph system2.stimulates the synthesis of two endogenous natural antimicrobial peptides, which act as natural antibiotics against a wide spectrum of bacteria, viruses, and fungi, including mycobacterium tuberculosis, the organism responsible for tuberculosis c. suppresses excessive inflammation which helps decrease the severity/ incidence of autoimmune disease such as Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease
What colors are usually found in the Brown Breed of Horses?
Brown: Body brown, usually with light areas at muzzle, eyes, and flank. Many brown horses are mistakenly called black becasue they are so dark.  The mane and tail are black.
What can you suggest to the swine farmer to help curb pre weaning piglet mortality?
1.    Sow Condition - heavy sows not good milkers, or mothers.  can't feel where piglets are and crush them.2.    Good vaccination programs, varies with area of country.  Breeding stock is blood tested for Pseudo rabies and Brucellosis.3.    Genetics - ability to milk, mother, litter size, etc.4.    Parasite control5.    Washing the sow with mild soap prior to farrowing.6.    Keep good records.
What happens in the third stage of deglutition?
In the third stage:
1. The presence of food in the esophagus initiates reflex peristalsis of the esophagus.  
2. Peristalsis consists of alternate relaxation and contraction of rings of muscle in the wall coupled with regional contraction of longitudinal musles in the area of the bolus.  
If dairy bulls are kept to maturity what do they do with them? What are most bull calves fed to produce?
The dairy bulls that are raised to maturity are used for artificial insemination or for natural service. Most bull calves are fed to produce veal or are further grown and fed for beef.
Change in P = Change in G + Change in E
Change in G comes from artificial selection and natural selection
What is natural selection? Artificial selection?
 “Change in G”. And the principal way of changing G will come through artificial selection.  Selection is that process that determines which individuals become parents and which do not, how many offspring they produce and how long they remain in the breeding population.  Of course there is natural selection, the process that drives evolution.  But for domesticated animals, humans control mating, and this brings us the term artificial selection.
Growth of Oysters (5 stages) from 1 to 21 days
Ideal growing temperature?
Growth of Oysters 1) fertilized eggs - no feed necessary 2) 1-6 days - veliger larvae feeding at low level (30,000 algal cells/ml water) 3) 7-14 days continue feeding veliger larvae, increasing feed concentration to 50,000 cells/ml fed twice a day 4) 14-21 days - pediveliger larvae (eye stage) with increasing feed to 80,000 cells/ml 5) 21 days - spat; ready for setting on cultch and setting on bay bottom, racks, stick & bag, tray culture (that is, for grow out to adult form that's ready to eat) (remember, some methods have oysters raised cultchless, that is without a piece of shell or gravel to attach on and grow out) 6) ideal growing temperatures - 20 C with 25 to 35 parts per thousand salt; time to market: Alaska - 4-6 yrs; Wash. - 3 yrs; Ore. - 3 yrs; CA - 1.5 yrs Definition - Xenomorphism - an individual where the body shape conforms to the shape of the environment (oysters are xenomorphic) (the nicer shaped oysters bring more $$)
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