Key words and Concepts Flashcards

Tropical cyclone
Terms Definitions
temperature, rectal
Moses creation myth

a well-established and
structured pattern of behavior or of relationships that is accepted as a
fundamental part of a culture, “set of rules” that we abide by informally or
formally. Ex) marriage: the institution of the family, education

Key ConceptsThe largest planetary-scale wind patterns, called macroscale winds, include the westerlies and trade winds. A somewhat smaller macroscale circulation is called synoptic scale, or weather-map scale. Mesoscale winds, such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, and land and sea breezes, influence smaller areas and often exhibit intensive vertical flow. The smallest scale of air motion is the microscale. Examples of these very local, often chaotic, winds include gusts and dust devils.All winds have the same cause: pressure differences that arise from temperature differences caused by unequal heating of the Earth's surface. In addition to land and sea breezes brought about by the daily temperature contrast between land and water, other mesoscale winds include mountain and valley breezes, chinook (foehn) winds, katabatic (fall) winds, and country breezes. Mountain and valley breezes develop as air along mountain slopes is heated more intensely than air at the same elevation over the valley floor. Chinooks are warm, dry winds that sometimes move down the east slopes of the Rockies. In the Alps, winds similar to chinooks are called foehns. Katabatic (fall) winds originate when cold air, situated over a highland area such as the ice sheets of Greenland or Antarctica, is set in motion under the influence of gravity. Country breezes are associated with large urban areas where the circulation pattern is characterized by a light wind blowing into the city from the surrounding countryside.A simplified view of a model of global circulation is a three-celled circulation model for each hemisphere. Because the circulation patterns between the equator and roughly 30° latitude north and south closely resemble an earlier single-cell model used by George Hadley in 1735, the name Hadley cell is generally applied. According to the three-cell circulation model, in each hemisphere atmospheric circulation cells are located between the equator and 30° latitude, 30 and 60° latitude, and 60° latitude and the pole. The areas of general subsidence in the zone between 20 and 35° are called the horse latitudes. In each hemisphere, the equatorward flow from the horse latitudes forms the reliable trade winds. Convergence of the trade winds from both hemispheres near the equator produces a region of light winds called the doldrums. The circulation between 30 and 60° latitude (north and south) results in the prevailing westerlies. Air that moves equatorward from the poles produces the polar easterlies of both hemispheres. The area where the cold polar easterlies clash with the warm westerly flow of the midlatitudes is referred to as the polar front, an important meteorological region.If Earth's surface were uniform, two latitudinally oriented belts of high and two of low pressure would exist. Beginning at the equator, the four belts would be the (1) equatorial low, also referred to as the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) because it is the region where the trade winds converge, (2) subtropical high, at about 20 to 35 degrees on either side of the equator, (3) subpolar low, situated at about 50 to 60 degrees latitude, and (4) polar high, near Earth's poles.In reality, the only true zonal pattern of pressure exists along the subpolar low in the Southern Hemisphere. At other latitudes, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, where there is a higher proportion of land compared to ocean, the zonal pattern is replaced by semi-permanent cells of high and low pressure. January pressure and wind patterns show a very strong high-pressure center, called the Siberian high, positioned over the frozen landscape of northern Asia. Also evident in January, but absent in July, are two intense semi-permanent low-pressure centers, the Aleutian and Icelandic lows, situated over the North Pacific and North Atlantic, respectively. With the onset of summer the pressure pattern over the Northern Hemisphere changes dramatically and high temperatures over the continents generate lows that replace the winter highs. During the peak summer season, the subtropical high found in the North Atlantic (called the Azores high in winter) is positioned near the island of Bermuda and called the Bermuda high.The greatest seasonal change in Earth's global circulation is the development of monsoons, wind systems that exhibit a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction. The best-known and most pronounced monsoonal circulation, the Asian monsoon found in southern and southeastern Asia, is a complex seasonal change that is strongly influenced by the amount of solar heating received by the vast Asian continent. The North American monsoon (also called the Arizona monsoon and Southwest monsoon), a relatively small seasonal wind shift, produces a dry spring followed by a comparatively rainy summer that impacts large areas of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.The temperature contrast between the poles and equator drives the westerly winds (westerlies) located in the middle latitudes. Embedded within the westerly flow aloft are narrow ribbons of high-speed winds, called jet streams, that meander for thousands of kilometers. The key to the origin of polar jet streams is found in great temperature contrasts at the surface. In the region between 30 and 70°, the polar jet stream occurs in association with the polar front. Studies of upper-level wind charts reveal that the westerlies follow wavy paths that have rather long wavelengths. The longest wave patterns are called Rossby waves. During periods when the flow aloft is relatively flat, little cyclonic activity is generated on the surface. Conversely, when the flow exhibits large-amplitude waves having short wavelengths, vigorous cyclonic storms are created. In addition to seasonal changes in the strength of its flow, the position of the polar jet also shifts from summer to winter.Because winds are the primary driving force of ocean currents, a relationship exists between the oceanic circulation and the general atmospheric circulation. In general, in response to the circulation associated with the subtropical highs, ocean currents form clockwise spirals in the Northern Hemisphere and counterclockwise spirals in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition to influencing temperatures of adjacent land areas, cold ocean currents also transform some tropical deserts into relatively cool, damp places that are often shrouded in fog. Furthermore, ocean currents play a major role in maintaining Earth's heat balance. In addition to producing surface currents, winds may also cause vertical water movements, such as the upwelling of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface-water.El Niño refers to episodes of ocean warming caused by a warm countercurrent flowing southward along the coasts of Ecuador and Peru that replaces the cold Peruvian current. The events are part of the global circulation and related to a seesaw pattern of atmospheric pressure between the eastern and western Pacific called the Southern Oscillation. El Niño events influence weather at great distances from Peru and Ecuador. Two of the strongest El Niño events (1982-1983 and 1997-1998) were responsible for a variety of weather extremes in many parts of the world. When surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific are colder than average, a La Niña event is triggered. A typical La Niña winter blows colder than normal air over the Pacific Northwest and the northern Great Plains, while warming much of the rest of the United States.The general features of the global distribution of precipitation can be explained by global winds and pressure systems. In general, regions influenced by high pressure, with its associated subsidence and divergent winds, experience dry conditions. On the other hand, regions under the influence of low pressure and its converging winds and ascending air receive ample precipitation.On a uniform Earth, throughout most of the year, heavy precipitation would occur in the equatorial region, the midlatitudes would receive most of their precipitation from traveling cyclonic storms, and polar regions would be dominated by cold air that holds little moisture. The most notable anomaly of this zonal distribution of precipitation occurs in the subtropics, where many of the world's great deserts are located. In these regions, pronounced subsidence on the eastern side of subtropical high-pressure centers results in stable atmospheric conditions. Upwelling of cold water along the west coasts of the adjacent continents further adds to the stable and dry conditions. On the other hand, the east coast of the adjacent continent receives abundant precipitation year-round due to the convergence and rising air associated with the western side of the oceanic high.
Reproduction of some unicellular organisms by division of the cell into two more or less equal parts.
land, homeland, country; (also afterbirth, placenta)
"people of the book"
Judaism, Christian, Islam
Hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland.

A penalty or reward for conduct
concerning a social norm

writing that is imaginary/writing that is real
Supremacy Clause
Established the Constitution as the highest form of law, and that it overrides state legislation.
The dorsal portion of the vertebrate forebrain, composed of right and left hemispheres; the integrating center for memory, learning, emotions, and other highly complex functions of the central nervous system.
union to a union of individual choice
giving qualities of humans to objects or animals
Random sampling
A sampling from some population where each entry has an equal chance of being drawn.
trade deficit
An economic measure of a negative balance of trade in which a country's imports exceeds its exports. Represents an outflow of domestic currency to foreign markets.
Change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome.
Cells and Organization
Organisms maintain an internal order. The simplest unit of cell organization is the cell.
Stroop test
shown word green written in red, conflict produces faulty speech
Runoff primary
Under runoff voting, the voter casts a single vote for their chosen candidate. If their is no majority winner, the second round comes down to two candidates.
freedom of the press
The freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials.
Transnational (3 answers)
We typically only hear stories of those in the United StatesYet, many men traveled to homeland—wives and familiesSide note: men were not allowed to marry/mingle with American women
Federal Reserve Board
A U.S. banking system that consists of 12 federal reserve banks, with each one serving member banks in its own district. This system, supervised by the Federal Reserve Board, has broad regulatory powers over the money supply and the credit structure.
ESR dating
Similar to TL because it is based on measuring trapped electrons. But, it is used on dental enamel of animals instead of stone tools.
Germination of a Dicot
Germination is when a plant embryo in a seed resumes its growth after a dormant period. During germination of a dicot, such as the bean seed, the hypocotyl forms a hook pulling the cotyledons and plumule above the ground.
Managers & Professionals who plan, organize, and run a business.
Finance:Is cash sufficient to pay dividends?Marketing:What price for widget A will max net income?Human Resources:Can we afford to give employees raises?Management:Which line of widgets is most profitable? Should any product line be eliminated?
Sense 3: A person or group of people’s moraily
-- is comprised of certain values, principles, ideas and ideals, priorities, virtues, rules, and ways of making decisions, -- is intended to guide our actions and judgments, and -- does so by enabling us to make evaluative (right/wrong/praiseworthy/blameworthy) judgments about the actions, intentions, character traits, policies and practices of agents -- whether oneself, another person, a group, a government, company, or country. --In the case of moralities, the evaluative judgments that are made are made from or on a basis believed and often claimed to be *“ultimate”* in some sense.
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