Kinesiology 3 Flashcards

muscle weakness
Terms Definitions
sagittal, frontal
less prominent ridge
Voluntary muscle weakness
Coxofemoral (hip) Joint
Ball-and-socket Joint
Synarthrodial joints are
immovable joints
diameter reduction of veins.increases: peripheral resistance, therefore pressure.
Gait Cycle step #2
Hyaline Cartilage
Connects bones- sternocostal joints
Bone MarkingTypes of Processes
CondyleFacet Head
plantar flexion
flexion at the ankle
Examples of emblems
-construction site
-athletic arenas
-scuba divers
Complete loss of motor control
Factors affecting growth
Females typically have epiphyseal fusion 3 years before males
adult skeleton has how many bones
Straightening movement that results in an ? angle in joint by moving bones apart, usually in sagittal planeelbow joint when hand moves away from shoulder
deals with factors associated with nonmoving, or nearly nonmoving systems
O: lateral epicondyle of femur
I: calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
A: weak plantar flexion of the ankle
prominence above or on a condyle
reactive hyperemia
vasodilation response to "oxygen dept" created by pressure. over-reaction of small vessels to compensate for period of oxygen deprivation. (causes redness in skin after pressure relieved.)
proximal convoluted tubule
completely reabsorbs metabolically useful molecules, secretes others (urea, creatinine, histamine, penicillin)
O: anterior sacrum
I: superior surface greater trochanter of femur
A: laterally rotates, flexes, abducts hip
Classification of bone
Cortical- comapct- very dense
Cancellous- trabecular
Acetabulum contents
Contains fat, ligaments, vessels, terres ligament
Has a labrum to deepen the cavity
Naturally projects laterally, anteriorly, and inferiorly
Navicular tuberosity
insertion of the tibialis posterior
-Forms the internal levers of the musculoskeletal system
-Resists deformation; strongest resistance is applied against compressive forces due to body weight and muscle force
-Provides a rigid lever to transmit muscle force to move and stabilize the body
Any part of a body or limb
-Circular movement of a limb that delineates an arc or describes a cone-combination of flexion, extension, abduction, & adduction -when shoulder joint & hip joint move in a circular fashion around a fixed point-also referred to as circumflexion
glenohueral ligaments
ligaments that reinforce the anterior portion of the capsule
a quantity having both magnitude and direction; examples are length, area, volume, mass
O: sternal head - top of manubrium
clavicular head - medial one-third of the clavicle
I: mastoid process of the temporal bone, lateral superior nuchal line of the occiput
A: laterally flexes the head to the same side
rotates the head to the opposite side
flexes the neck
assists in inhalation
What absorbs the most energy during X-ray:
Partial opening and closing of the hand occurs due to passive insufficiency.  Flexion of either wrist or hand occurs when the other is extending
B type blood antigens, antibodies?
B antigenA antibody
mature bone cells that direct the deposit and removal of calcium
Spheres of Physical Actitity
-Physical activity experience
-Professional practice centered in physical activity
-scholarly study of physical activity
psoas major
O: lateral vertebral bodies, tp l1-5
I: lesser trochanter of femur
A: flex, laterally rotate, adduct hip
What is fibrillation?
Uncoordinated contractions not visible to naked eye
Parallel muscle fibers
"Strap tight," shorten over long range of motion
Hip adductoin muscle
Adductor magnus- also an extensor
adductor longus- flexor or extensor too

Most also work as INTERNAL ROTATORS
divides into R & L halves
a long, flat, narrow muscle extending obliquely from the front of the hip to the inner side of the tibia, assisting in bending the hip or knee joint and in rotating the thigh outward: the longest muscle in humans.
use both extremedy ( hopping on both feet)
Passive Force
Push or pull generated by sources other than stimulated muscle, such as tension in stretched periarticular connective tissues, physical contact, and so forth
What do endochondral bones do
-develop from hyaline cartilage-hyaline cartilage masses at embryonic stage-grow rapidly into structures shaped similar to the bones which they will eventually become-growth continues and gradually undergoes significant change to develop into long bone
the shoulder joint
a ball-and-socket joint with movement in all three planes
brachioradialis muscle
has two attachments: one on the humerus and one on the radius
The I in the FITT principal representsa) intensityb) individualityc) immensed) increase
a) intensity
Internal Intercostals
O: inferior border of the rib above
I: superior border of the rib below
A: draw the ventral part of the ribs downward, decreasing the space of the thoracic cavity
The indented superior surface of the manubrium is:
Jugular Notch
Difference btwn agonist and antagonist
Agonist: prime mover
Antagonist: assisting mover
tendon sheaths
fibrous sleeves that can surround a tendon when it is subject to pressure or friction; tendons passing over the wrists are an example
smooth muscle
found around blood vessels and hollow organs, is not striated. Is an involuntary muscle. Plays a key role in determining blood pressure. spindle shaped cells and much smaller than skeletal muscle cells.
Instrumental Activities of Daily living(IADL's)
Less personal daily tasks.
splenius capitis
O: LN, sp c7-t3
I: mastoid process, lateral part superior nuchal line
A: extends, laterally flexes and ipsilaterally rotates head and neck
Anterior Sacroiliac Ligament
Opposes axial translation of the sacrum and separation of the SI joints
Active insufficiency
Unable to reach the contraction force because of the limit of muscle length. ex: strength of elbow flexors decreases as shoulder joint is more flexed
five sacral vertebrae fused to form a triangular bone
-articultaes with the last 2 lumbar vertebrae proximally and with the coccyx distally
Swing phase
Toe-off to heel strike
Limb is not supporting weight
Synovial Joints (Diarthrodial Joints)
*Allows free motion*No direct union between bone ends*cavity filled w/ synovial fluid*outer line is strong fibrous tissue*Synovial membrane (inner lining) produces fluid.
Linear motion in which all parts of a rigid body move parallel to and in the same direction as every other point in the body
Description of Short Bones
Small, cubical shaped, solid bones that usually have a proportionally large articular surface in order to articulate with more than one bone
bicipital tendonitis
involves the long head of the biceps proximally as it crosses the humeral head and descends into the bicipital groove; commonly ruptures
angular force
most of hte force generated by the muscle is directed at rotating hte joint and not stabilizing the joint
Who was the founder of baseball?a) James Naismithb) Alexander Carthwrightc) Babe Ruthd) William Morgan
b) Alexander Carthwright
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
O: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus
I: base of second metacarpal
A: extends the wrist
abducts the wrist
assists the flexion of elbow
Factors responsible for joint stability:
1. ligaments
2. muscle tension
3. fascia
4. Atmospheric pressure
5. bony structure
type of cartilage that acts as a shock absorber; menisci and the intervertebral disks are examples
striated muscle.
muscle that has a striped / lined appearance due to the presence of sarcomeres which allow it to contract.
flexor pollicis longus
O: anterior radius, IM
I: palmar base distal phalanx thumb
A: flex thumb
Lumbar Lateral Flexion
During lateral flexion:
In neutral or extension the spinous rotates toward the same side as Lateral Flexion.
In flexion, the spinous rotates opposite the direction of Lateral Flexion (like cervicals)
Deltoid Posterior fibers
O: Inferior edge of spine of scapula
I: Deltoid tuberosity on lateral humerus
Vestibular system
Provides info of where head is and sudden changes in it.
Important for keeping eyes stable and coordinating responses
Medial Ligament
Fans out from the medial malleolus of the tibia
Weakness allows eversion giving rise to flat feet (ie. Pes planus)
Navicular drop test
10 mm displacement is positive test of pes planus
Muscles can be shortened______
muscles can be stretched ______
best contractile ability is at _____
50% resting state

150% resting state

100% resting state
Proximal-on-distal Segment Kinematics
Type of movement in which the proximal segment of a joint rotates relative to a fixed distal segment (also referred to as a closed kinematic chain)
Range of Motion is
-area through which a joint may normally be freely and painlessly moved-measurable degree of movement potential in a joint or joints-measured with a goniometer-in degrees 0° to 360
the ligament is stretched
what happens in a first degree acromioclavicular sprain?
saddle joint
a type of joint in which the articular surface of each bone is concave in one direction and convex in the other
facts about dance
-dancers use of the medium of force, time and seqencing of movements to express aesthetic messages
-The shape and dimensions of our bodies affect the aesthetic characteristics of our dance
-the moving body can tell a story that is inexpressible in word of song
Abductors of GH joint
Upward and lateral movement of the humerus in the frontal plane out to the side, away from body; SUPRASPINATUS, DELTOID, CLAVICULAR PECTORALIS MAJOR
What are the three types of muscle tissue in the human body?
Cardiac, smooth, skeletal
Large chunks of bone at the proximal end of the tibia
medial and lateral condyles
clavicular and sternal portions
what are the two parts to the pectoralis major?
# axes, and joint motion of hinge joint.
1: flexion/extension. convex/concave surface
Pressure gradients which allow glomerular filtration
pressure of the arterial blood coming in does so at a higher pressure, of about 60 mm Hg. There are inherent pressures within the structure of the glomerulus, however. The bowmans’ capsule has an inherent pressure of about 20 mm Hg, while the colloid osmotic process creates an opposing force of about 30 mm Hg. The incoming pressure of 60 mm Hg, versus the 50 mm Hg of opposing pressures, means that there is still a net pressure of 10 mm Hg which is forcing the capillary filtration of the glomerulus
Ortolani's Hip Click Test
Performed on new born babies to detect hip dysplasia. Lazy parent treatment is swaddling.
width of wheelchair should have how many inches on both sides?
1 inch on both sides
Reach straight over the superior aspect of your head to touch the contralateral ear
Shoulder- abd, elbow- flex, wrist- flex (radial)
if the distal end is free of space how will muscles contract
Insertion to Origin
What happens when epiphyseal cartilage ossifies?
Closure is complete, no more growth can occur.
Other characteristics of muscle fiber types.
Slow fatigue resistant fibers (Type I) develop tension slowly.
Slow fatigue resistant fibers(Type I) maintain tension for long periods.
Fast fatigable fibers (Type II) develop tension rapidly.
What are the five characteristics that every synovial joint must have?
-Joint space
-synovial fluid fills the space
-surrounded by a joint capsule
-smooth bone surfaces, not sutures
-articular cartilage covers the bone
hemoglobin does what and is then called what?
- hemes form easily reversible bond with oxygen when passing through lungs- oxyhemoglobin when oxygenated.
Pull the knee as far as possible to the ipsilateral shoulder
Hip-flex, knee-flex, ankle-pl flex, arm-flex, elbow-flex, arm-med rot, wrist-flex
What are the characteristics of the Atlas?
Designed to support the weight of hte head.
Posses no body, pedicle, lamina or SP's.
Essentially two lateral masses joined by anterior and posterior arches.
Large convex facet accept the large condyles of the occiput.
what are the roles of OT in regard to wheelchairs?
- patients with limited trunk control, increased tone, contractures, pressure ulcers
-work with DME vendors to fit patients with specialized wheelchairs
- make adaptation to wheelchairs to improve occupational performance, improve comfort
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