Kinesiology 6 Flashcards

Biceps brachii muscle
Terms Definitions
Distal
towards toes/fingers
Kinetics
Forces causing movement.
tuberosity
large, rounded projection
term..

objects pressed together
compression
velocity
how fast  and direction
3 axis of movement
1.longitudinal2.anterior-posterior3.medio-lateral
podocyte
octopus-like large structures surrounding the glomerular capillary basement membrane and serving as a barrier to large molecular solutes - part of the filtration structure of the glomerulus.
Synarthrosis
Dense, irregular connective tissue with negligible available motion. Binds bones within a functional unit; disperses forces across the joined bones
Examples: Sutures of the skull, teeth embedded in sockets of the maxillae and mandible, interosseous membrane of the forearm and leg, and the distal tibiofibular joint
dynamics
involves factors associated with moving systems and can be divided into kinetics and kinematics
leukocyte
WHITE BLOOD CELLSdefend against disease.formed in marrow.
semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity
I: pes anserine
A: flex, inwardly rotate knee; extend, inwardly rotate hip
spinal movement by posterior muscles
extension
The Foot...
Supports
Absorbs
Adapts to uneven surfaces
Propulsion
Active Movement
Motion caused by stimulated muscle
Types of pennate fiber arrangements are
UnipennateBipennateMultipennate
FITT- adults
f-frequency; every day, i-intensity; moderate, t-time; 30 min., t-type of exercise
Pectineus
O: superior ramus of pubis
 
I: pectineal line of femur
 
A: adducts the hip
 
medially rotates the hip
 
assists to flex the hip
 
laterally tilts the hip
 
anteriorly tilts the hip
extension
straightening movement of one bone from another causing an increase of the joint angle
hemoglobin - purpose
-transports oxygen within body
bladder
temporary storage point for urinary waste products before urination
biceps brachii
O: coracoid process, supraglenoid tubercle
I: radial tuberosity
A: flex elbow; supinate forearm and flex shoulder
Extrusion
Annulus fibrosis ruptures - allowing the nucleus pulposus to escape from the disc into the epidural space
Insertion
more movable part
Limbs – more distal part typically moved easier
What is articular cartilage?
-aneural, alymphatic, avascular
-dependent on synovial fluid
-gets flattened out like a sponge if not constantly moving
-decreases contact forces
unilateral
use one extremedy( hopping on one foot)
Line-of-gravity
Direction of the gravitational pull on a body
Spin
A single point on one articular surface rotates about a single point on another articular surfaceMotion occurs around some stationary longitudinal mechanical axis in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction
pronator quadratus muscle
small, flat quadrilateral muscle located deep on the anterior surface of the distal forearm; involved in pronation
What for of scholastic dishonesty would occur if a student failed to cite another's idea used in their term paper? a. cheating b. plagiarism c. collusion d. falsifying academic records
b. plagiarism
Internal Oblique
O: lateral inguinal ligament, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
 
I: cartilage of bottom three ribs, abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
 
A: flexes the vertebral column
 
compresses abdominal contents
 
laterally flexes vertebral column to the same side
 
rotates vertebral column to same side
Spindle shape
 
Wider in the middle and tapers at both ends
where it attaches to tendons
Fusiform Muscle
medullary canal
hollow center of diaphysis; decreases the weight of a bone; contains marrow
vein
thin walled vessels. carry blood back to hear from body. act as reservoirs. hold about 65% of total blood volume. No muscle layer.
tubular secretion
tubular cells carry molecules that have diffused out of the peri-tubular capillaries INTO renal tubular fluid.
definition of rituals
physical actions performed to symbolically express an experience, truth or value important to a group of people
peroneus longus
O: proximal 2/3 lateral fibula
I: plantar surface 1st cuneiform, base of 1st metatarsal
A: everts, plantar flexes ankle
Scoliosis
Functional - can be corrected with active shift in posture
Structural- a fixed deformiity that can not be changed by posture.
80 - 90% idiopathic.
Non-idiopathic:
Congenital abnormalities
Polio
Muscular Dystrophy
Spinal Cord injury
Cerebral Palsy
Trauma
this vertebrae is intermediate in size
- 4 articular facets that form the articulations with the 12 ribs
- spinous processes project downward
- limited ability to hyperextend
thoracic vertebrae
Muscles that cross the ankle joint medially cause
inversion
metatarsophalangeal joints (MTP)
formed by metatarsals and toes
flexion, extension, sbduction, adduction
Medullary Canal(Long bone)
Hollow center of diaphysis, contains marrow and passage for nutrients.
Normal Physiological Valgus
Greater valgus is "knock-kneed", women have greater angle.Normal angle is between 185-190
Tension
Application of one or more forces that pulls apart or separates a material. (Also called a distraction force.) Used to denote the internal stress within a tissue as it resists being stretched.
dorsal flexion
Flexion movement of ankle that results in top of foot moving toward anterior tibia bone
subscapularis muscle
muscle located deep on the underside of the scapula, lying next to the rib cage; involved in medial rotation
pronator teres muscle
superficial muscle that crosses the elbow, but is covered by the brachioradialis muscle at its distal attachment
Where were the 1st Olympic Games held?a) Egyptb) Greecec) Romed) United States
b) Greece
Extensor Digitorum
O: common extensor tendon from lateral epicondyle of humerus
 
I: middle and distal phalanges of second through fifth fingers
 
A: extends the second through fifth fingers
 
assists in extension of wrist
Dislocation is caused by what type of forces
Shearing
cancellous bone
the porous and spongy inside portion of a bone; also called the trabeculae; resists local stresses and strains
lymph
clear fluid within the vessels of the lymph system, gathered as excess from tissue, being delivered back to the blood system.
isotonic contraction
same + tone: constant force is applied, changing the muscle in length, contractions in which MOVEMENT occurs.
extensor carpi ulnaris
O: lateral epicondyle of humerus, superior posterior ulna
I: dorsal base 5th metacarpal
A: extends, adducts wrist
flexor digitorum longus
O: middle posterior tibia
I: plantar base distal phalanx digits 2-5
A: flex digits 2-5; inverts, plantar flexes ankle
Piriformis Syndrome II
Affected leg is often exernally rotated when relaxed,
Some re[ports suggest a 6:1 female to male perdominance
The leg doen't necessarily have to have been externally rotated for a long time - piriformis syndrome may be a result of faulty foot or spinal mechanics, gait disturbances, poor postures or sitting habits or any other factor that could cause that muscle to function abnormally.
Eccentric muscle action
With gravity, force generated by muscle is less than the force of the external load
Name the bones of the elbow.
Humerus, Ulna, Radius
Thus, what is the fiber that conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body?
dendrites
Talocrural joint
tib - fib @ talus
dorsiflexion and plantarflexion
sagittal plane
Second Class Lever
Applied force and resistance on same side of axis(fulcrum).  Resistance closer to Axis.
Force
Resistance
Axis(Fulcrum)
 
ie. 
Antagonist Muscle
Muscle or muscle group that has the action opposite to a particular agonist muscle
What are the different types of parallel fiber arrangement
Flatfusiformstrapradiatesphincter or circular
supraspinatus muscle
muscle that lies above the spine of the scapula; stabilizes the head of the humerus against the glenoid fossa and is active in abduction
mechanical advantage
the ratio between the force arm and the resistance arm
Flexor Carpi Radialis
O: common flexor tendon from medial epicondyle
 
I: base of second and third metacarpal
 
A: flexes the wrist
 
abducts the wrist
 
flexes the elbow
An example of not a good evaluation:
Randomly assessing areas
compact bone
makes up a hard, dense outer shell; always completely covers bone
cartilaginous joint
a type of joint that has either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage between the two bones;
medullary cavity
hollow space in a bone surrounded by compact bone. Is generally filled with yellow marrow, composed of energy storing fat cells
scalenes
O: tp c2-7
I: 1st and 2nd rib
A: flex, laterally flex neck; ipsilaterally rotate head and neck
Hip Rotation Test
The leg that is externally rotated returns short or the same length = short internal rotators.
The leg that is internally rotated returns long or the same length = short external rotators.
Pain on return from abduction in either external or internal rotation = pathology of the hip joint, to include joint dysfunction, osteroarthritis.

Note: shortened internal or external rotators can be due to altered pelvic, foot or ankle mechanics.
Pectoralis Minor
O: Anterior surfaces of 3rd to 5th ribs
I: Coracoid process of scapula
Foot suppination and pronation info
Supination- need plantar flexion, inversion, and adduction to create rigid position good for push off

Pronation- need dorsiflexion, eversion, and abduction to create a relaxed state, limited by the tibialis posterior
Outer layer of Joint Capsule – fibrous (membrane)
Collagenous tissue
Completely surrounds joint and blends with periosteum of bone entering joint
examples of flat bones
skull bones, scapula,
(usually house lots of red marrow)
Bones reshapes themselves based upon ...
the stresses placed upon them
Skeletal muscles resposible for producing major portin of total body heat means
body temperature is maintained and insulated throughout the body
the triceps brachii muscle (triceps)
muscle with three heads; located posteriorly and makes up the entire muscle mass of the posterior arm
When a muscle reaches a point where
 
it can not shorten any farther
Active insufficiency
 
Occurs to the agonist (the muscle contracting)
synovial joint
type of joint that has no direct union between the bone ends but a cavity filled with synovial fluid contained within a sleevelike capsule
Back School

(Tighten Stomach Muscles)
- Push Fingers into stomach and tighten

- Keep muscles comfortably snug

- Stomach muscles protect back, prevents slouch
what are the possible trunk positions?
-neutral
- lateral trunk flexion
- trunk hyperextension
-trunk rotation
- forward trunk flexion
inflexibility in plantar flexors can lead to..
excessive pronation- constant dorsi flexion- weight on inner side of foot
What covers the articular surfaces ends of diarthrodial joints
Articular or hyaline cartilage covers the articular surface ends of the bones inside the joint cavity absorbs shock protect the bone
lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow)
a very common overuse condition of the common extensor tendon where it inserts into the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
Active Insufficiency vs. Passive Insufficiency.  What muscle does it occur in?
Active: Muscle is fully shortened, and cannot shorten anymore. Occurs in the agonist.
Passive: Fully stretched, and cannot extend further without causing damage.  Occurs in the antagonist, also in muscles that crosses multiple joints
Back School

(Bar Graph Intervertebral Pressure in Chair)
Low - High

- Seatted straight up (low): 130 kg
- Seatted slouched forward (middle): 200 kg
- Seatted slouched forward feet up (high): 275 kg
Newton's Law of Acceleration
A change in the acceleration of an object occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it- inversely proportional to the mass of the object. ex: force to run at half speed is less than force to run at top speed, to throw a call with speed it is necessary to accelerate the part of the body holding the ball
name the bones of the wrist and hand.
carpals, metacarpals, phalanges, radius and Ulna
What is a gliding joint?
nonaxial movement like that found in the carpals of the wrist
the humeral head articulating with the glenoid fossa of the scapula
what makes up the shoulder joint?
why venous return significantly lower in bed-ridden versus exercising person?
Muscles within the body, in addition to providing heat, movement, and restricting movement (posture), also work to aid in actively pumping the venous return of the blood to the heart. bedridden is not actively aiding the blood to flow back to the heart, but is instead relying on the passive force of the arterial blood flow to push the venous blood through the system of one-way valves back to the heart.VENOUS RETURN DIRECTLY RELATED TO CARDIAC OUTPUT (MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE OVER TOTAL PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE.)
What causes disc height loss?
Not a consequence of aging - disc height maintained or actually increased.
If accessory motion is prevented from occuring, then phsyiological motion
cannot occur to any substantial degree other than by joint compression or distraction
What are the Posterior Tilt Muscles of the Pelvis?
Glut. Max, Semimem, Semiten, Biceps Femoris.
Axes of rotation @ Saggital or AP axis
-Right angle to frontal plane of motion-Runs anterior / posterior-Movements Abduction Adduction
Why is a nerve impulse only able to pass across a synapse in one direction?
Conduction across the synapse involves a chemical rather than electrical transmission, and neither the dendrites nor cell body can release the chemical substance…only axons.
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