Kinetics Quiz Flashcards

Chemical reaction
Terms Definitions
Prodrugs
 

•Inactive


•Bioactive after biotransformation or metabolism


•Levodopa

 
PFR with heat exchanger:
dT/dV
r*deltaHrx(T)-Ua(T-Ta)/[Fao(sum(Ni/Na)*Cpi + DeltaCpX)]
U = heat transfer coefficient
a = heat exchange area per volume of reactor(m^2/m^3)
Half-life of a Zero-Order Reaction
t(1/2)=[A]sub0/2k
Excretion
irreversible loss of chemically unchanged compound
Collision Theory
Fundamental conditions for reactions to occur
Assay cross-reactivity
 
Refers to diminished assay performances by structurally related drug compounds or metabolites for which the assay method measures as if they were the desired assay compound
Vesicular Transport
 

–Pinocytosis – small solute or fluid volumes


–Phagocytosis – larger particles or macromolecules


–Endocytosis – receptor mediated


–Exocytosis – movement out of the cell


–Budding

 
drug with large O/W partition coefficient tends to have a low or high R value in vivo?
high
Reaction Rate
the change in concentration of reactants or products per unit time. Rx rate is usually expressed as (M/s), or the change in Molarity per unit time (second)
 
Common Formulations for ORAL Controlled-Release Products
 
 

•Wax matrix tablets


•Coated pellets in tablets


•Coated pellets in capsules


•Osmotic pumps

 
Relative Bioavailability
the availability of the drug from a drug product (A) as compared   to a recognized standard (B)
What is space velocity?
inverse of space time.
May differ in shape, release mechanism, excipients, expiration time, packaging.

Identical to other drug products in: same API, salt ,ester,same dodage form, same route of administration, same strength or concentration.
Pharmaceutical Equivalents
Drugs from same therapeutic class. Contain different API but are indicated for the same therapeutic objective.
Therapeutic Alternatives
Collision model
effects of kinetic molecular theory on rates of reactions; the greater the number of collisions, the faster the reactants will react.
Integrated Rate Law
Tells how concentrations depend on time
Half life equation? t1/2=
t1/2= 0.693/k
k is usually given
why do we need pharmacokinetics
Optimize dosing regimens
Population pharmacokinetics
Medication therapy management
ffp =?
= 1-E
= LBF / (LBF+Clint*fb)
slove for E and get 2nd eq.
When no binding occurs in tissue and plasma, the volume of the distribution will not exceed the real anatomic volume
Remember
Define half life
The time taken for the concentration of the reactant to reduce by half.
Equation for Pseudo-1st-Order Rate Law
Rate=(delta [A])/(delta t)=k [A]^n [B]^m [C]^p
Administering the same amount of drug 
Bioavailability is directly proportional to AUC. If product A has a larger AUC than product B, the bioavailability of product A must be greater than that of product B.

Furthermore, if the AUC of product A is twice that of the AUC of product B, the bioavailability of Product A is twice the bioavailability of product B.
Fraction unbound
ratio of unbound drug to total drug (usually does not change)
from dP/dz to dP/dw
W = (1-porosity)Acz*density of solid catalyst
Ac = cross sectional aread
dW = (1-porosity)Ac*density of solid catalyst
dP/dW = dP/dz*dz/dW
= -BoPoTFt/(Ac(1-porosity)pc*P*To*Fto)
T or F
HF results in low blood flow output which decreases blood flow to eliminating organ.
T
Systemic Absorption depends on?
1. Physicochemical properties of the drug
2. Nature of the drug product
3. Anatomy and physiologic functions at the site of drug
absorption
Zero- Order Rate reaction
The rate of the reaction is independent of the concentration of the reactant
Active Transport Systems
1. Require energy and are capable of moving drug against an opposing concentration gradient

2. Direction of net movement may be either into the cell (influx transporter) or out of the cell (efflux transporter) and may occur on either the apical (lumen) or basolateral (blood) side of the membrane
Septriaxon, Sulfa & phenytoin...
r highly protein bound and use bilirubin to move in pediatric, Dangerous causes jaundice & Brain damage
Drugs that have extensive first pass effects
1. Propanolol
2. Nitroglycerin
3. Morphine
Zero-Order Reactions
what does it look like?
Amount or concentration of drug decreases at a constant rate. da/dt = -ko
linear line going top left to bottom right. conc. vs. time
Adiabatic and no shaft energy balance for conversion
X = sum(Ni/Na*Cpi(T-To)/-[Hrx(Tr) + deltaCp(T0Tr)]
Flip flop does not usually occur in what?
two compartment oral models
One-Compartment Open Model: IV Bolus Administration
(3 points)
1. Simplest way to describe drug distribution and elimination
2. Assumes that the drug can enter and leave the body
3. Body acts like a single, uniform compartment
DB = drug in body at time t
VD = volume of distribution
How is concentration of A(limiting reactant) related to concentration i (other reactant)?
Ci = Cao (omega(i) -i/aX)
omega = Cio/Cao = Nio/Nao = uop/yao
omega = 1 if equimolar
omega = i/a if stoichoimtric
Drug metabolism with renal failure is associated with what?
which drugs r most susceptible?
smoking, etOH, age, currnet drug intake, inhibition of P450's becoz of pH changes

b) high E
Disease state that can alter membrane restriction of a drug?
During meningitis inflamed brain cells may allow for higher drug uptake. Possible explanation: disease increased the BBB cell membranes permeability.
What are the assumptions of a plug flow reactor?
-no readial gradients in concentration temperature or reactionr ate
-steady state
Formula for 24 hr urine collection
(Ucr * Vur) / (Scr * T)

very accurate
if no points lie above the extrapolated line, then _____

if peak is above extrapolated line, then _____
one compartment

plot is two or higher compartment model
vii. Cp = 75 exp (-0.13t) –89 exp (-1.2t)

viii. Cp = 45 exp (-0.35t)
vii- one compartment oral absorption with a lag time

viii- one compartment model IV bolus
if u want to change Cl sec & Cl reab, what should u do?


most accurate renal fnc test...
most convenient ,, ,, ...
Cl sec:change carrier sites
Cl reab: change the flow or pH ou urine

accurate: inulin(sugar)
conve: creatinine
What is the equation for a continous flow process?
Fj = Fjo + rV = 0

V = (Fj - Fjo)/r
/ 44
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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