ANT 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Engagaed
Available
Fertilizer
Agriculture
Classic Cultures
Zapotec
Teotihuacan
Maya
picture
Villa Kitchen
Aksum
Ethiopia
ambivalent
ant; certain, resolute
early city
Indus Valley
adventitious
essential, intrinsic, inherent, cogenital
1,100 years ago
Tikal flourished
Cataphoric
Conversational Device=device that anticipates another word
Auditory areas
(hearing; temporal lobe)
state
In anthropology, a political institution established to manage and defend a complex, socially stratified society occupying a defined territory.
morpheme
combination of phonemes that communicates a standardized meaning
Southeast Asia
vegeculture took place where
Anorexia
associated with industrial, western societies, found mostly in Euro-American adolescent girls, difficult to cure medically, experts suggest it is due to excessive concern with looks by societal pressures
Phonetics
The systematic identification and description of distinctive speech sounds in a language.
Dental caries
-cavity; bacteria breakdown enamel
mediation
Settlement of a dispute through negotiation assisted by an unbiased third party.
Headman
Informal leader who rules by consensus; doesn't have the ability to force people to do what he says
1953
What year did HCR 108 begin?
Infrastructure
subsistence practices and the tools used to make up living
Yes
Were the Taino resourceful in protecting their environment and preventing the exploitation of their resources?
Mississippian
A widespread cultural tradition across much of the southeastern United States from 1200 to 500 BP. Mississippian societies engaged in intensive village-based maize horticulture and constructed large, earthen platform mounds that served as substructures for temples, residences, and council buildings.
Gorillas
Lowland areas of Western equatorial Africa - Congo, Uganda, and Rwandafruit-eaters, stem, shoot, roots, etc.largest apes250 kg males 113 kg femalesknuckle-walkingwell-suited for climbingdominant male group
symbol
something verbal or non-verbal, that arbitrarily and by convention stands for something else with which it has no necessary or natural connection
Great apes include
Orangutan, Gorillas, and Chimps
Brain stem
(midbrain + pons + medulla)
straited and uses sliding filament
cardiac muscle
Classic Maya
Period of prosperity, intellectual / artistic achievements
Large populations, a flourishing economy, and widespread trade
descent groups
A group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor
tribe
group of bands unified by sodalities and governed by a council of representatives from the bands, kin groups, or sodalities within it.
LEAF CUTTER ANTS
-non human farmers
-cultivating a fungus
Globalization
refers to the on-going process in which distinct cultures are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent. As a result of this process, traditional boundaries that demarcate national communities began to blur or disappear. Particularly in the field of material production, exchange and comsumption, the whole world is gradually integrated into a whole community.
True
T/F Arranged marriage is common in rural and urban India alike among all castes.
Caste System
Rigid social hierarchy, based on profession.
Shell midden
The remnants of shellfish collecting; some shellfish middens can become many meters thick.
Lesser Apes
Gibbons and SiamangsMost primitive of apes in anatomy - retain many monkey-like featuresApe-like limb proportionsSpectacular brachiatorsfruit-eaters, also leaves and insects5-7 kglittle sexual dimorphism or dominance
Cultural Imperialsim
Understanding of culture change and globalization as a process of
potlatch
a festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of North Pacific Coast of U.S.
Similar to chimps, but are a subspecies called "pygmy chimpanzee"
Bonobos
Allen's Rule
Relationship between limb proportion & climate
Early writing systems include..
Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Mesopotamian cuneiform.
self-awareness
The ability to identify oneself as an individual, to reflect on oneself, and to evaluate oneself.
Parallel cousins
children of siblings of the same sex
matrilocality
the societal system in which a married couple resides with or near the wife's parents, thus the female offspring of a mother remain living in or near the mother's
naive realism
assuming that everyone in the world views things the same way that you do
Death
What was the penalty for a child staying home after being grown in Taino culture?
Cortes trip over 1200km
Mexico City-Honduras through Maya Mountains during rainy season with168 men
Ethnocentrism
The attitude or belief that one's own cultural ways are superior to any other.
Cultural Roots of Nationalism
Print capitalism e.g. the newspaperStandardized vernacular language, or a lingua franca, that allows for a reading publicResult = shared sense of space and time
Strauss and Rubin
INCEST taboostrauss- alows traffick of women basis of kinship- rebin-divides into two perpetuating hetrosexuality
What is an example of Hunters & gathers?
!Kung
experiment vs. eperience
few archaeologists are competent at making or using stone tools; hard to evaluate results of experiments
Cerebral cortex
Has many folds and grooves called CONVOLUTIONS, which serve to triple the area
Discuss the importance of proverbs in Maninka culture and how they support the linguistic norms.
1)proverbs promote indirectness
2)avoid conflict
3)teach lessons
4)point to the wisdom of the ancestor
5)tradition, hard to argue w/ or take exception to.
Sedentary lifestyle
Living in a single place for many generations, people can live in permanent settlements
Clifford Geertz; describing; interpreting
Since the 1970s many anthropologists such as________ __________ argue that the goal of anthropology should be ___________ and ____________ what is meaningful to the people.
Nahua
Helped lead to the rise of the Aztec civilization, however, they marched with Cortez upon Montezuma at Tenochititlan.
The percentage of what we convey through non-verbal communication, as opposed to verbally is about
impossible to measure
opposability
the ability ot touch the thumb to the tips of the other finger on the same hand.
Sickle-cell anemia
Caused by a variation in the genetic instruction for hemoglobinCant get enough oxygenIf Hybrid it helps against Malaria because the cells cannot multiply as well in the oxygen deficient blood cells
Strategies of conquest and consolidation
-Convince target groups to submit peacefully; benefits
-If needed, conquer by force, impose penalties
Productivity, Displacement, Arbitrariness
What are the 3 features of Semantic Universality?
Xanith
a man who for a time becomes more like a woman, wears female clothing, and has sex with other men.  he later returns to a standard male role, marries a woman, and has children
What are three examples of food production?
Horticulture, pastoralism, and intensive agriculture
Structural plan (brain stem)
Same structural plan as spinal cord – outer white matter surrounds inner gray matter
Upper Paleolithic and Aurrignacian tool assemblage
1. Elaborate tool kits (stone, antler, ivory, bone)
2. Long distance transport of raw materials
3. Elaborate shelters
4. Symbolic expression, art, ritual burial
culture as a symbol system
it helps orginate and bestow meaning on a thing or event, and correspondingly, to grasp and appreciate such meanings; it helps create and maintain culture; language
Replacement or "Out of Africa"
A new species arose in Africa and replaced Neandertalsand other Middle Paleolithic species
What are the general features of Pastoralists? (4)
They're nomadic, live in small communites, the animals are owned by indiviuals or familes, and trade is frequent
Why can't apes learn to speak?
because of the anatomy of their vocal track and the language related structures in the brain
delude
enlighten
erratic
consistent, dependable
Qhapaqnan
Inca road network
Howard Carter
King Tut
piecemeal
all at once
dilatory
promt punctual speedy expeditious
Consanguinity
culturally defined biological relationships or relationships by "blood" those are so linked are "consanguines". the notion of "blood" in relatedness is culturally constructed and varies from society to society
Hopewell
Middle Woodland Culture 2.2-1.6kBPcentered in South Ohio, IllinoisEconomy based on hunting and gathering and local cultigensHuge trade networkFamous for mounds, earthworks, and artstyle
Small community of gardeners
Horticulture
Earnest Hooton
Deep division among humans
dialect
a language without a military
Bands
Small kin-based groups traditionally found among foragers
Syntax
relations among words in sentences
agriculture
uses land intensively and continuously; reflect of use on domestic animals, irrigation, and terracing
Pons bridge
“Bridge” connecting two sides of cerebellum
Turi Chile
Incas installed sectors within existing settlements
Great Hall and plaza in one sector of site
ethnographic fieldwork
Extended on-location research to gather detailed and in-depth information on a society's customary ideas, values, and practices through participation in its collective social life.
Foragers
•foodstuffs / material for immediate consumption; moving base camp from one resource zone to another; immediate returns
food production
chronic stress, diseases and starvation
Goals of Archaeology
Reconstruct the past (culture)
Discover events from th past (cultural history)
Forces that shape the past (cultural processes)
Learn lessons from mistakes and successes
Berdache
a blurred gender category usually referring to a person who is biologically male but who assumes a female gender role, originates from Native American tribes
Vertical Excavation
Culture HistoryProvenience = layers and levels
Adaptation
process in which a population/society alters its culture to better succeed in its total environment
seriation
refers to the ordering of artifact-types through tike
-automobile designs or stone-bronze axe design
-terminus post quem- "date after which"
Rostral
toward the snout (nose) Describes higher brain regions
Smooth muscle
NO striations, involuntary
Cells are called fibers
Nationalism-
- the political doctrine that assets the nation and national identity as the fundamental political building blocks of modern society
theory
In science an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
applied anthropology
type of anthropology that uses anthropology to solve human problems
Neandertal
127 kya - 30 kya (classic ______)
dynamic systems
are flexible enough to allow adjustments in the face of unstable or changing circumstances
Nature/Culture
Ortner 1974 The argument that women were cross-culturally represented as closer to nature because of their role in childbearing, lactation and socialization of children and that nature was cross-culturally evaluated as lower than culture which was associated with men. Association is not natural but culturally constructed.
Archaeological indications of agriculture?
Agricultural terraces, irrigation canals, and specialized tools.
Battistela tells us that Late 19th century thinking in the US reflected the assimilationist ideology "one nation—several languages":
false
SPEAKING
S - setting =time, place and psychological settingP - participants =speaker, listener, and audienceE - ends =desired or expected outcomeA - act sequence =how form and content are derivedK - key =mood or spirit of the speechI - instrumentalities =dialect used by speech communityN - norms =conventions about volume, tone, etc.G - genres = different types of performance
Superorganic
a colony of many organisms that symbolically combine to make one organism
Ethnic Groups
share common cultural norms, values, identities...
Homo Habilis
2.4-16mya was first discovered by Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania in 1960Used stone tools called Oldowan stone tools Called Handy man cuz they thought he was the first stone tool user but he wasn't the first one it was a.ghari to use it first
Medulla (oblongata)
Most caudal part of brain stem
Continuous with spinal cord at foramen magnum
Contains nerve tracts that run between brain and spinal cord- most of the nerve fibers within the tracts cross in pyramidal region (pyramids), allowing one side of the brain to receive info from and send info to the other side of the body, called DECUSSATION (crossing)
Made up of both white matter and gray matter, which is where nuclei for cranial nerves are located
Major center for autonomic function, especially cardiac, respiratory, and vasomotor (smooth muscles in arterioles- can increase BP)
This type of linguistics focuses on language and gender issues and social dialects
Sociolinguistics
Meriam Report
What publication told people about the real conditions of Indians?
Ardipithecus ramidus ramidus
• mosaic of locomotor features
• canines smaller than apes, but larger than australopithecines
The Market Principle
occurs when exchange rates and organization are governed by a monetary standard.
Agricultural Intensification
The rise in usage of domesticate plants and animals for food.
Androcentric
A perspective that focuses on what men do in a society, to the exclusion of women.
Theories of Urban Revolution
Population pressure = unconstrained human population growth led to need for permanent leadership (resource managers)Irrigation = "hydraulic civilizations" support higher population densities, labour intensive irrigation systems controlled and maintained by the state.Warfare = fighting over land as population grows state evolves from military build-upPower Struggle = three sources of power: economic, ideological, political. State formation results from competition among chiefs to harness three sources of power and expand their domain.
Social Darwinism
refers to various ideologies based on a concept that competition among all individuals, groups, nations, or ideas drives social evolution in human societies.
Niche
the enviroment of an organism adn its adaptive responce
Radiopotassium dating
-can be used to date volcanic materials
-used for primarily very OLD sites, hominid sites
-paleomagnetism: instances when the earth's magnetic field flipped from north to south
Is a filtering system that keeps out certain cells and proteins, toxins, some drugs
BBB
Street of the Dead (Teotihuacan)
Major north-south avenue
Divided the city (planned layout)
morphology
The study of the patterns or rules of word formation in a language (including such things as rules concerning verb tense, pluralization, and compound words).
environmental and social circumscription theory
leads to warfare which requires organization under centralized authority
Tribal societies
A wide range of social formations that lie between egalitarian foragers and ranked socieities (such as chiefdoms). Tribal socieities are normally horticulture and sedentary, with a higher level of competition then seem among nomadic hunter-gatherers.
In a film shown in class, Washoe the chimpanzee spoke a few words in English before being taught to sign ('mama', 'come here', and 'fish'). This is:
false
The two basic elements of social organization for foraging groups are the:
nuclear familyand band
in what area were fossils inbeded in rock material and difficult to date?
South Africa
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
A filtrate of blood, but it’s clear – mostly made of water and small molecules
hunting and gathering (foraging)
Adaptations based on the harvest of wild (undomesticated) plants and animals
Mode of Production
a way of organizing production. "A set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature using tools, skills, organization, and knowledge."
Adaptive Origins of PrimatesAngiosperm vs Co-Evolution Theory
Sussman (1991) primates evolved in conjunction with radiation of flowering plants to explore fruit, flowers, and nectar. Sussman suggested visual predation rare in primates and not important in earliest primates.
What marks the onset of marriage?
Many societies have ceremonies, others have other social signals
The average man, woman, child (regardless of race) has about 50  5% slow, and 50  5% fast
(equal percentage of IIA, IIB)
2 basic parts of archaeological survey
1) reconnaissance - identifying key features and noting all occurrences of nature. 2) archaeological mapping - the precise location of the human activity.
What is a dowry?
Goods from brides family given to the bride
2 Issues with Maya Collapse
Does not explain the loss ofthe bulk of the population
Did not effect the whole region- series of changes and relocations, not an actual fall
triviality with stone tool experimentation
may just be exploring things that dont actually matter
Be able to define three things
: 1. The creation of hated and feared "others"; 2. Creation of an infrastructure to integrate members into a common bureaucracy; and 3. The use or threat of armed forces
Fiscal
taxation
bicker
agree, concur
vindictive
forgiving, relenting
Ouranopithecus time
~10 Ma
Pantis
penetrating masculine men
Eugene Dubois
discovered Java Man
Power
possession of controlling influence
Slow oxidative (I) Myoglobin
High
Paranthropus boisei location
Tanzania and Kenya
William "Strata" Smith
Created stratigraphic dating
Productivity
(True Language Behavior)Language users have the infinite capacity to express and understand meaning by using old elements to produce new ones
Totetism
symbolic association between social group and a natural phenomenon
Pastoralists are usually very ________, moving as needed to provide animals with pasture and water.
Nomadic
Functional definition
_______ _______ recognizes various kinds of urbanism
2.6 to 1.4 Mya
Homo Habilis Dates
cultural relativism
to combat ethnocentrism, reserve judgment and try to understand other cultures
Social Structure
rule-goverened relationships that hold members of a society together, with all their rights and obligations
Reciprocity
rough equivalent exchange of goods between two parties
sati
practiced in some areas of Indiaburning of a widow on her husband's pyre
Endogamy
Marrying within ones own cultural group-caste system,incest- and idea of latent function MANA of royal married outside his class children would still have as much mana
Caste
frequently contested model for systems of birth-ascribed rank; common rank
zooarchaeology
reconstruct whcih animals humans ate and how they acquired them
This anthropologist studied three ethnic groups in papua new guinea
Margaret Mead
formulaic expressions
use to express greetings, farewell, thanks, or apologies. It's when we say things that are sets. these things don't really tell us much. They don't give much information.
ie: hi, bye,
ie: saying "a little to the north" is formulaic; it doesnt reveal anything that couldnt be guessed at, the same way asking someone "how are you" isnt really requesting anything you don't already
participant observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
patrilineal descent
Descent traced exclusively through the male line to establish group membership; also known as agnatic or male descent.
leveling mechanism
form of redistribution that equalizes wealth
key informants
someone who teaches the ethnographer the culture
Civilization
concept tied into the rise of cities
Research Designs
important to accomplishing tasks and defining objective parameters for funding and publication.
Achieved status
Rights, duties, and obligations tha accrue to individuals by virtue of what they accomplished in their life.
Speakers of Native American languages number
perhaps 250,000
The State
Benedict Anderson defines it as:An institution like the Church, the university, and the modern corporation.Ingests and excretes personnelIt has its own memory and its own interest in self-preservation apart from the people that make it up.
Patrilineal
Related through men (child belongs to fathers group)
microfauna
fossil remains of small animals like insects, molscs, or rodents
-valuable bc they cant migrate long distances, good indicators of local environments
Spinal Chord
Runs through vertebral canal from foramen magnum to the level of L1/L2
full of
completely filled; containing all that can be held; filled to utmost capacity:
culture-bound
Looking at the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one's own culture.
Homo Erectus
1st to reach 1000 cc brain
1st evidence for simple shelters
Earliest occupation of cave sites
controlled use of fire
specialized stone tools
1928
What year did the Meriam Report come out?
Surface Structure
what expressed or uttered may appear dissimilar.
Ceremonial Fund
work is expended to fulfill ritual obligations.
Chinampas
Low mounds the Aztec built by piling up sediments from the bottoms of shallow lakes and marshes to form islands of arable land; a form of intensive agriculture.
Gossip is such a natural activity that we don't have to learn how to do it right. This is:
false
Archaeological Survey Methods
Foot survey: the old fashioned waySub-surface Survey: low-tech soil probe and shovel testHigh-tech: Soil resisitivity: measures resistance to passage of electrical currentMagnetic survey: magnetometers measure and map magnetic anomaliesGround Penetrating Radar: echoes of electromagnetic pulses reveal changes in densitySurvey From Above: Aerial Photography: vertical and obliqueInfra-red Photography sensitive to changes in moisture contentSide-looking airborne radar
market principle
governs the distribution of mean of production- land, labor, natural resources, technology, capital
--> used in industrial, labor specialization (money), and chiefdoms
what is a prosimian?
lemurs, lorises and traditionally tarsier-probable anthropoidmost primitive primate
Roles of temples in Mesopotamia
-religious and economic institutions
-store houses, workshops
-largest landowners, employers
-redistributing wealth among city
assumes humans are moving forward to a better, more advanced stage toward perfection
Progress
market exchange
The buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand.
semantic domain
class of things or properties that are perceived as alike in some fundamental respect; hierarchically organized
Behavioral Level
While at the other two levels the researcher can try to understand what the norms are, only at the behavioral level can he or she examine what people actually do. The behavior in question can be subdivided into collective behavior and individual actions
Shaman
One who has the power to contact the spirit world through trance, possession, or visions. On the basis of this ability, the shaman invokes, manipulates, or coerces the power of the spirits for socially recognized ends-both good and ill.
Homo erectus - Western Europe
Boxgrove, England500 kyabig game hunters, wooden spears, handaxesShoningen, Germany400 kyamore spearsTerra Amata France300 kyaoval-shaped dwellings 9X5 m post moulds, stone alignments floors with hearths
anthropolgy
the study of the human species and its immediate ancestors
Bodo Skull- Ethiopia 600,000 BP?
large brow ridges robusthuman lookingstone tool marks were found of left cheek eye orbit and nasal bones which meant they were cannibals or practiced it as a ritual
Study language as it relates to society and culture
Sociolinguists or Ethnoliguists
by the leakeys at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania in 1960
Homo Habilis first discovered
Major resources traded by Maya?
Cacao, cotton, honey, cotton mantles, chirt, and jade
Exploitative Theory of Social Stratification
Hierarchy exists because groups of individuals seek to take advantage of another group for economic purposes
attempts to teach chimps to speak failed and experimented with other methods
Experiments in Primate Communication
The connection between 'The Hunting Metaphor' and Apache historical tales
Both have indirect target.
The Apache historical tales do not name call any person. However, people usually know who the tale is referring to. And the target also knows.
The tale, is like an arrow aiming toward the person, hence 'the hunting metaphor'. The speaker shoots the target with a message, and therefore "hunting " him down.
McArthur in "Chinese, English, Spanish—and the Rest" presents a seven tiered model seeking to:
a) represent the world's languages in terms of size b) represent the world's languages in terms of clout (a & b)
Which came first sedentism or agriculture?
-microfaunal remains help answer this question
Eitan Tchernov proposed using commensal mammal remains to solve the agriculture-sedentism question about the natufian
Edward Hermann and Noam Chomsky in their book Manufacturing Consent discuss the various "news filters" that determine what news is printed. These filters include:
a) size, ownership, and profit orientation of the mass media b) advertising d) situating of the news source e) flak and the enforcers (a, b, d & e)
Barrios or residential wards at Teotihuacan
25% of 100k - 200k residents were craft specialists
Obsidian, feathers, potters painters, masons, etc.
Examples of Diglossia can be said to include:
Spanish and Guarani in Paraguay (all of the above)
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