WMST test 2 Flashcards

Womens History
Terms Definitions
Euripides: Medea
Jason betrayed Medea and married King Creon's daughter, Medea left her homeland and had her own father killed to be with Jason and killed her brother, kills her own children
Euripides: Andromache
she is given to Achilles' son Neoptolemos as a slave and she has his child, Neo marries Hermione who is super jealous, she accuses her of mixing potions to turn her husband against her and make her barren, Menelaus (Hermione's father) finds her son Molossos and threatens to kill both of them but Peleas (Achilles' father, Neo's grandpa) intervenes, Hermione leaves with Orestes and Orestes has Neo killed, the goddess Thetis is a deus ex machina
Aristophanes: Lysistrata
she starts a sex strike and the women hole up in the Acropolis, every man that comes up there has an erection, she uses Peace her handmaiden to distract the men while she makes them think up negotiations to end the war
Aristophanes: Women at the Festival
Euripides writes bad things about women and he's worried they want to kill him, he takes his father in law to Agathon's house to ask for help, Agathon says no but lets Mnesilochus borrow his dresses to infiltrate the women's meeting dressed as a woman to speak on Euripides' behalf, Mika gives a long speech about everything Euripides has done to women, Mnesilochus grabs and woman's baby and finds out it's a wine skin but Mika acts like it's a baby and is upset when he cuts open the wine skin, Mnes gets arrested and Euripides gets him out
Medea characters
Medea, Jason, Glauce-- Jason's new wife, daughter of king Creon, Aegeus-- the king of Athens, promises Medea a place in Athens in exchange for a fertility drug,
Lysistrata characters
Lysistrata-- she is masculine, gathers the women of Athens and Sparta together to protest the war, Caloniki, Myrrhini-- second strongest woman in the play, she seduces her husband and refuses him at the last minute, Lampito-- Spartan, brings Spartan women into the plan
Women at the Festival characters
Euripides, Mnesilochus, Agathon, Cleisthenes
Aristotle: Politics
"the male is by nature superior, and the female inferior; and the one rules, and the other is ruled"
Plato: Republic
Socrates talking to Glaucon, 'The wives of all these men (the Guardians) ought to be
shared in common, and…no one woman be married to any
one man. And their children should be shared in common,
and no parent should know his own child or child his parent.’, female guard dogs should guard and hunt along with the males, one is inferior not by gender but by skill
Plato: Laws
more low key than his Republic, Kleinias wants to found a new colony and asks his Athenian and Spartan friends how to write the constitution,
Hellenistic world, Alexander the Great's mother, also had a daughter named Cleopatra, married to Philip II, tried to control Macedonia after Alexander's death but was killed by Cassander
the First Ptolemies
Eurydice and P I Soter = P Ceraunos, P I Soter and Berenice I = Arsinoe II and P II Philadelphos, P Ceraunos + Arsinoe II and then Arsinoe II + P II (half brother and brother), P II + Arsinoe I = PIII Euergetes + Berenice II = Arsinoe III and P IV Philopater
Arsinoe II 316-270 BC
married to Lysimachus of Thrace for 15 years has three sons with him, she spreads a rumor that Agathocles (Nicaea and Lys's son) was disloyal to his father so Lys kills him, Lys dies in battle and Ptolemy Ceraunos (her half brother) extends marriage offer to Arsinoe II, their marriage isn't happy so she plots against him and then he murders her 2nd and 3rd sons, she flees to Egypt to her brother Ptolemy II Philadelphos, he is married to Arsinoe I so Arsinoe II makes a plan to become queen and accuses I of plotting against her husband then he exiles her, she marries her half brother then her full brother, marriage between full brothers and sisters was normal in Egypt but not in Greece, she was the real power behind the throne because Ptolemy II was lazy, cities were named after her, she appears on coins without her husband
Berenice II 273-221 BC
Hellenistic queen, exercised real political power, had a large fortune, she was betrothed to Ptolemy III (her cousin) then to Demetrius then he and her mother had an affair and he was killed, then she was again betrothed to Ptolemy III, Greek and Roman authors praised her, she rode horses on the battlefield, her son Magas and herself were murdered by her son Ptolemy IV, him and his sister Arsinoe III married
Hellenistic Period
started in 323 BC with the death of Alexander and ended in 30 BC with the suicide of Cleopatra VI
Berenice I
married to Ptolemy I Soter while he was also married to Eurydice, he put aside Eurydice and their son Ptolemy Ceraunos and took up with Berenice and their son Ptolemy II and their daughter Arsinoe II
Callimachus' "Lock of Berenice II"
she donated a lock of her hair to Arsinoe II-Aphrodite (Arsinoe II had been deified) and the winged horse carried it off, Callimachus says that Berenice's hair is in a constellation in the sky
the Canopus Decree
the deification of Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy II and Berenice II, she died before her parents
women in Ptolemaic Egypt
the multi-ethnic nature of the society seemed to loosen restrictions on women, they wielded power by their influence over their husbands, they were the object of religious cults, aristocratic Macedonian girls were usually educated
marriage contract of Philiscus and Apollonia (by Tebtunis)
Philiscus must promise to provide her with "every necessity and a cloak", if he doesn't then he must return the "dowry of two talents and four thousand drachmas of copper money", "Apollonia is not to stay away for a night or a day"
marriage contracts in Egypt
a woman's consent was required for marriage, married women retained their own property, women could conduct business independently, a wife could initiate a divorce independently
Erinna of Telos
Greek female poet 4th cent BC, wrote a lot of poems for her childhood friend Baucis who died soon after she married
Nossis of Locri in Italy
Greek female poet, first half of the 3rd cent BC, she wrote lyrics and epigrams, gained a reputation as a poet of love, perhaps of lesbian relationships, she was upper class
Anyte of Tegea in Arcadia
probably a contemporary of Nossis, she celebrated war, one of first Hellenistic poets to write bucolic poetry, wrote sad poetry of girls who died before marriage
the Hippocratic Corpus
60+ texts written by anonymous authors between 430-330 BC, important because it reveals a rationalistic approach to the study of medicine, they dissected animals more than humans, no evidence that any of it was written by Hippocrates
female doctor in classical Athens, learned medicine, women wanted her to help them instead of men, men became jealous and accused her of seducing the women and accusing the women of feigning illness, the male doctors took her to court but the women defended her and wanted her to keep practicing medicine
the Hippocratic Corpus on the physiological differences between men and women
I say that a woman's flesh is more sponge-like and softer than a man's; since this is so, the woman's body draws moisture both with more speed and in greater quantity from the belly than does the body of a man
wandering womb
Hippocratics beleived that if a woman's womb became too dry and light for lack of intercourse then the womb could be attracted to the moister organs of her body-- her liver, heart, brain, diaphragm, or bladder, if the womb settled on these organs then the woman would exhibit hysteria
Aristotle on the physiological differences between men and women
the female, in fact, is female on account of inability of a saort, nmely it lacks the power to concoct semen out of the final state of the nourishment...because of the coldness of its nature... male is that which is able to concoct, to cause to take shape, and to discharge...female is that which receives the semen, but is unable to cause semen to take shape or to discharge it
a copper ore mentioned in the Hippocratic corpus, oils, resins, abortion
Plato permitted abortion in the Republic and Laws, Aristotle does too (before the embryo has acquired life and sensation), seen as an affront to the husband's right to decide if a child should be raised, leaping, carrying heavy weights, being shaken by draught animals, bleeding, drugs that induced severe cramping, considered contraception
753 BC founding of Rome, 450 the Twelve Tables
Romulus and Remus
Numitor, kin of Alba Longa was deposed by his brother Amulius, Numitor's daughter Rhea Silvia was made a Vestal Virgin but was raped by Mars an Amulius ordered the twins she gave birth to exposed, they were found by a wolf and raised by a herdsman
Aeneas and the Trojan migration
Romans decended from Aeneas who escapes from Troy
Livy: Cloelia the hostage
act of heroism, escaped with other woman hostages from Lars Porsenna king of Clusium, she was brave and went back and he admired her and let her go, she had a statue erected at the top of the Via Sacra
Livy: the rape of Lucretia
men argued about whose wife was the most virtuous and Collatinus' wife was the winner, Sextus Tarquinius decided he would black mail her into having sex with him, she told her father and husband about it then killed herself
Appius Claudius ruled tyrannically and lusted after Verginia daughter of Lucius Verginius, Marcus Claudius claimed she was his slave and Claudias ruled that she was so that he could have her, Verginius stabbed his daughter to preserve her chastity
Theopompus on Etruscan women
sharing wives is a custom, they take care of their bodies and exercise often sometimes alonog with men, not a disgrace to be seen naked, they use pitch to pull out and shave off the hair on their bodies
social equality, divination-- inspection of animal entrails, interpreting lightening strikes, interpret flight of birds (Tanaquil does)
the Twelve Tables
first codification of Roman law, we have fragments
Guardianship in Rome
woman's guardian was her father or husband if married with manus, sui iuris (legally independent) if the pater dies but woman still needs a guardian (tutor), without manus was when the wife remained in the household of her father-- this was the standard form of marriage in the later republic and Empire
marriage in Rome
14 for boys 12 for girls, consent of pater needed
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