Anth 15 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tribe
social network
Emic
the native viewpoint
state
centralized political unit encompassing many communities, a bureaucratic structure, and leaders who possess coercive power
Kami
shinto word for spirit/deity
analogies
similarities between organisms based strictly on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent
Cladogenesis
branching of a family tree
Takayashi Kano
studied bonobos in Congo
ethnosemantics
Study of lexical (vocabulary) categories and contrasts.
Prognathism
Protrusion of the lower mandible
phytotherapy
healing through the use of plants
independence training
child-rearing practices that foster independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement
Lucy
The name of the Australopithecus afarensis that was only 1 meter tall, walked upright, and had a small brain
culture
something that is distinct from nature, learned behavior (nature vs. nurture)
macroevolution
changes produced only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species
Acculturation
an exchange of cultural features between groups in firsthand contact
Leutgert Murder
George Dorsey identified fragments from hand, foot, and rib
Experimental Anthropology
question ethnographic realism (the possibliity of an objective scientific account)
ethnographers always incorporate their POV into the account wether they know it or not
this bias is acknowledged
ishitate
ppl who coexisted w/ the Kawaramono
priests who set stones ( for gardens)
low status buy higher than kawaramono
Recombination
Production of new combinations of DNAsequences caused by exchanges of DNA during meiosis
standoff
a standing off or apart; aloofness.
Mesozoic - Cretaceous
-First modern birds
-First flowering plants
-Placental and marsupial mammals appear
-Dinosaurs disappear
economic system
the linked processes of livelihood, consumption, and exchange
Big Men
Often shamans or people with extraordinary supernatural powers. Linked to followers by close kin ties. Entrepreneurs: power based on above-average abilities and the loyalty they command from followers.
Marsupials
o Kangaroo, Koala, Possum etc.,
o Born at an extremely undeveloped stage of development
o The baby, despite its underdevelopment, crawls out of birth canal and finds the pouch and finds the nipples and fuses with it, attached for many months until it grows up
Endocast
A preserved, fossilized relief of a hominin brain, created by the skull filling with minerals and taking on the morphology and structure of the brain. Endocasts are an important source of evidence for understanding the evolution of the brain and the questions related to the origins of language, etc
data
facts from which conclusions can be drawn; scientific information
jajmani system
a patron-provider system in which landholding patrons (jajmans) are linked, through exchanges of food for services, with brahman priests, artisans, agricultural laborers, and other workers such as sweepers
Feature
Artifacts that cannot be removed from a site
Endogamy
Dictates marriage within a group to which one belongs
Jesse Figgins
(Colorado Museum of Natural History) realized bones were from an extinct form of plains bison
Patrilocality
a married couple lives with the husband’s family; associated withpatrilineal descent and is more common than matrilocality
F. Boas
-father of american anthropology -race doesnt dictate culture-expedition to NW territories produced wealth of culture-interested in american indians
Sexual Dimorphism
Large difference in morphology between males and females of groups. Common in polygamous species.
universal vs. cultural specific
accepted everywhere
variations among societies
Eskimo terminology
Kinship terminology system in which no nuclear family kin term is extended to more distant relatives; nuclear family members have unique terms
qualitative data
Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geography, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
principle of segregation
genes (alleles) occur in pairs (because chromosomes occur in pairs); during gamete production, the members of each gene pair separate, so that each gamete contains one member of each pair; during fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored, and members of gene or allele pairs are reunited
mythification of bandits
the imagined character becomes more significant than what the bandit actually did. ex. Phulan Devi, India's Bandit queen (was elected to parliament, but assassinated in 2001)
Socio-cultural Anthropology
The study of cultural variation and universals.
kula
a trading network, linking many of the trobriand islands, in which men have long-standing partnerships for the exchange of everyday goods such as food as well as highly valued necklaces and armlets
Extended Family Household
Household with three or more generations
ealrier hominids
had relatively short legs and long arms ( about equal length)
Lactose Intolerance
Less common in people of European descent. MArked as a disease. Racialization of biological characteristics
transcription
copying the DNA code to make an mRNA
Results 7b. Non-Academic Implications as Further ‘Use Values’
B. Ideological representation of culture itself as belonging to (marked) minority groups and the majority being either cultureless and/or culturally uninteresting (and often reduced to mere unjust ‘power’)
Potasium-Argon Dating (K/Ar)
-A volcano erupts, creating an ash layer (tuff): bones are deposited; volcano erupts again, sealing bones between layers
-40K in the rock decays into 40Ar; measure the ratio of one to the other to determine how long since eruption
-Problems: need volcanic activity
James Frazer
believed magic had more in common with science than it did with religion; viewed magic as pragmatic
Thoracic vertebra
one of 12 vertebrae in the human vertebral column
Bride Service
When the husband must work for the bride's family. (They can call on him when they need help.)
social psychosis
patterned on basis of social system it comes from
Leslie White & Jillian Stewart
cultural materialists: technology was a primary factor of cultural evolution; viewed technology as the basic primary source for sociocultural change
kinship through food sharing
malaysia; breast milk is a kinship tie. also, later in life the sharing of cooked rice has a similar implication
Lord Pacal
Mayan ruler who came to power in AD 615 in Palenque; his sarcophagus was discovered by Alberto Ruz Lhuiller
kyasanur forest disease or KFD
viral disease first identified in 1957 in southern india. resembles influenza. especially affected agricultural workers and cattle tenders who were near the forest. spread by ticks -became a problem as a result of deforestation
when did people come to the new world from asia
14,000 years ago
Gawazee
1 . 2 . 3 . 4 .
T D T D D T
shew
show.
Swidden
-slash/burn
-form of horticulture
-burn it and let it sit for a year then you're ready to go again
forfeit
a fine; penalty.
Subcultures
different cultural traditions associated with subgroups in the same nation
Chimpanzees
Equatorial AfricaQuadrupedal knuckle walkers, may brachiate, and may walk bipedally for short distancesVaried omnivorous diets; use of simple tools to access termitesLive in large, fluid communities; complex social behavior
phii
spirits/widow ghost. source of illness, death, and other misfortunes amongst Baan Naa Sake village in Thailand
Participant Observation
an anthropologist's primary methodology; participating in the society and observing behavior and interaction
displays
sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states. Nonhuman primates displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior
law
technical. cultural mechanisms for resolving conflicts, disputes and behavior infractions. law includes fighting, dispute resolution..
Hand axe
-Bifacial, symmetrical, tear-shaped tool with long cutting edge
-Type of Acheulean tool
-1st see 1.4 mya-250,000 ya
-Show hominids had mental template in mind
-Appear in N, W Europe, N, E Africa, Near East
-Could've been used to kill large prey, circular saw, scrape plant material, as digging tool, projectiles, cores flake tools struck with
Paleozoic - Carboniferous
-First reptiles
-first mammal-like reptiles
-radiation of amphibians and insects
-massive forest growth
cultural ecology
cant understand culture without understand environment, natural selction
Gracile australopithecines
The earlist group of australopithecines, usually differntiated fro the robust australopithecines b thelihter dentition and smaller faces.
ape
broad nose and palate
even larger brain
even larger brain Y-5 molars
larger average body size
shorter torso
longer arms
no tail
Norms
Standards or rules about acceptable behavior in a society
Grandmothering Hypothesis
Supposes senescnese reduces fertiltiy with age.
Thus, a woman's adult daugfhter is more fertile than she is. At that point it's better to stop reproducing and start investing in grand children.
Religion
Christiantity then Islam are the biggest. -belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers, and forces (Wallace)+Reese: bodies of people who gather together regularly for worship+Durkheim: religious effervescence+Turner: community spirit (communitas)+Religion is also associated with social divisions
Eukaryotes
cells like you and I have
Strepsirrhini
the primate suborder including lemurs and lorises, the most primitive living primates. Reliance on olfaction (rhinarium), eyes are positioned on the site of the face; dental comb and grooming claw.
Gene Pool
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population.
Cultivation continuum
continuum of land and labor use
What is culture for?
to shortcut individual learning
androcentric bias
male-center bias; distortion in theory or ethnography caused by excessive focus on male activities or female perception of male activities
cultural characteristic
patterned, integrated and shared by members of a group
Allele
one member of a pair of genes
anthropology
the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology.
Melville Herskovitz
-wrote "myth of the negro past"
-Masters thesis in Columbia University
-Photos/videos to find connections between Africa and other blacks
-First African-studies center at Northwestern
-Didn't obtain Head of African views because he was in group considered to be communist
Data Analysis Methods
Decision Tables, Range Chart, Indexes
Why reproduce early?
More likely to be alive
Enculturation
the process through which a child learns of his culture through his culture
1. direct instruction
2. observation
chiefdom
fixed rankings, one lineage has higher standing than another. chief part of the lineage, has status, authority and power.
Charles Darwin
invented theory of natural selection (fertility) (“Origin of Species”)
having traits that attract females but give other costs
handicap principle
Nihewan Basin
-In China
-Stone tools found dating 1.6 mya
gotai
in japan, the concept that refers to the ideal of maintaining bodily intactness in life and death (to the extent of not piercing one's ears
sexual orientation
sexual attraction to persons of the opposite sex, same sex, or either sex.
Stratigraphy
The study of rock layers and the fossils inside of them and is the basis for the geologic time scale.
Group selection
Animals actively behave in ways that help the group: i.e., when overpopulated, they limit their reproduction- lemmings, antelope
Patriarchy
any society in which men have dominant power and authority
Theory
a set of ideas formulated to explain something
Christian fundamentalists
adherents to a movement in American Protestants that began in the early 20th century; this group holds that the teachings of the Bible are infallible and are to be taken literally
Qorikancha
Ina; temple to Sun god; beneath Church of Santo Domingo; walls covered in "sweat of Inti"; gold maize plants; inca masonry niches
serial polygamy
having multiple husbands or wives, but one at a time
Mutation
A random change in a gene or chromosome, creating a new trait that may be advantageous, deleterious, or neutral in its effects on the organism
modal
of or pertaining to mode, manner, or form.
controlled service collection
way to determine where to excavate, requires bare ground, more systematic and time consuming than pedestrian survey, greatest densities over material on the surface
What is a Primate?
• Grasping Hand/ Opposable thumb
• Well-developed stereoscopic vision
• Olfaction de-emphasized
• Diurnal, not nocturnal
• Flat nails instead of claws
• Single births
• Sociality
• Extended Ontogeny - long, slow socialization
• Fused mandible (chin)
• Enclosed bony eye orbits
ischial callosities
patches of tough, hard skin on the buttocks of Old World monkeys and chimpanzees
Struggle for Existence
Population size limited by food and available water.,
Difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype:combo of alleles an individual carriesPhenotype:physical expression of genotype
Thomas Malthus (Rev) (1798)
argued against the idea of continual improvement in humanity
point mutation
a chemical change in a single base of a DNA sequence
Define biological species concept
Two organisms that are able to reproduce naturally to produce fertile offspring of both genders.
How many hominin emigrations from Africa can be seen in the fossil record?
A minimum of 3 homo emigrations
What is CPD?
When a babies head or body is too big to fit through a mother's pelvis.
Homo erectus- place and time- new stage of hominids- compare/contrast to humans- budding- tools--- more complex tools referred to as what?--- examples--- tool makers had to do what--- baton method
- China, Java, Middle East, Europe & Africa
- 1.8 million to 250,000 years ago
- larger brain size, close to modern humans
- differed with low, sloping forehead, massive jaws, large teeth
- skeletal features similar to modern humans, but heavier bones and powerful muscular stature
- migration to new territories
--- Acheulian technology
--- hand ax
--- had to picture the tool before hand
--- using hammer or baton made of bones
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