Anth Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Allele Frequencies
Benjamin Whorf
grammatic structure
culturally specific causal explanations for health problems and suffering
an autonomous political entity
Lovejoy Scenario
-Space births closer
-Male provisioning = females sedentary
-females choose men who stay = monogamy
Specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
general cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society
mitochondria DNA,, only maternally, the genetic instructions or genome in mitochondria. Passed down olnly maternally
astronomical model based on earth-center view. Earth stays same
Pertaining to an organism's physical structure.
Sodality, Pantribal
nonkin-based group with regional political significance
describing a trait that isn't expressed in heterzygotes, unless there are two copies of it and it is homozygous
biology and behavior of living nonhuman primates
how culture has evolved and why
General Anthropology
anthropology as a whole: archaeological, biological, cultural, and linguistic
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Property owned by the community; people working for the common good.
interior experiences of persons that are shaped by the location in a particular field of power relations
Eocene Radiation and species
adapids (lemur)
-suborbital bar
omomyids (tarsier)
-suborbital closure
Supraorbital torus
Browridge; Thickened in Homo erectus
-very diff from chimps
-eat meat, not monkey meat
-rarely violent
-agression followed by resolution
-sexual often, maintaining continual genital swellings
a people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territorial base, and history
Pueblo Bonito
built fires like streetlights on highways to signal travelers
narrative therapy
used on some bosnian survivors, approach used in treating refugee survivors in North America where the sufferer tells about his or her experiences as a way of unloading pent-up memories.
Fossil Locales
Places where fossilized remains of once living organisms are found.
a person who is biologically female but takes on a male gender role
arm swinging, a form of locomotion used by some primates. Brachiation involves hanging from a branch and moving by alternately swinging from one arm to the other
Monkeys with narrow noses and nostrils face downward, found in the Old World
the ability to conceive and produce healthy offspring
..., an animal order including lemurs and tarsiers and monkeys and apes and human beings
Focal Vocabulary
Specialized set of terms and distinctions that are partiuclary, important to certain groups, vocab changes most rapidly, language, thought, culture interrelated, Ex: Hockey Players
theoretical sampling
type of purposive sampling; "grounded theory" approach; collect data and alayze then choose next place to collect data and make teh theory as you go.
Induced Mutation-
Induced Mutation- Refers to those mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals or to radiation
Results 1a. General Empirical Fact
Linguistic anthropologists propose indexical functions for foregrounded linguistic forms framed by majority vs. minority group membership
Indus Valley
1200 BP stone age hunters gatherers, 8000 settled farming villages, domesticated plants and animals
incest taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
Types of learning
individual learning (trial and error learning) social learning (imitation)
marriage of one husband with more than one wife
The concept that a trait or behaviour increases chances of survival under certain environmental conditions.
intelligent design
a creationist school of thought that proposes that natural selection cannot account for the diversity and complexity of form and function seen in nature
The study of how and why recent cultures differ and are similar
Viral insertion of avprla gene is promoting
More bonding
cultural materialism
Marvin Harris - idea that cultural infrastructure determines structure (social relations, kinship) and superstructure (religion, ideology)
earth is center of all. Order from higher to lower organisms
live in a community, males stay at maturation and females leave, females form strong bonds with other females
technological model of birth
core value of western obstetrics; model that treats the body as a machine.
Agricultural Revolution
term coined by V.G. Childe; refers to beginnings of food production caused by drought and close associations bwtn animals, humans, plants
Gloger's Rule
The rule that populations of birds and mammals living in warm, humid climates have more melanin (and therefore darker skin, fur, or feathers) than populations of the same species living in cooler, drier areas.
a trait that's limited to a narrow set of functions
Japanese racism
intrinsic racism - the valued group is "pure" Japanese who share the same blood - the "not us" should stay that way & assimilation is not encouraged
eats grubs out of tree with long finger
aye aye
Meat and sharing
Meat contributes to 30% of the calorie intake of the !Kung. There is a huge social distribution (a feast) when harvested in large quantities. A heavy dependence on meat makes sharing a necessity.
Our minds:
are still tuned to the danger of the past. A snake is scarier to us than a car when in reality cars a far more fatal than snakes this day and age.
Ndutu parial cranium
-From Lake Ndutu near Olduvai gorge in Tanzania
-1,100 cc
-200,000-400,000 ya
-Archaic homo sapien fossil
Name 3 steps of scientific method?
1. Hypothesis2. Gather repeatable data to test hypothesis3. Reject/falsify, fail to reject, or partially fit hypothesis
When hunter gatherer's have a leader, how do they lead
do not control groups economic resources or exercise political power as they do in other societies, and there is little social stratification; highly egalitarian; must use persuasion and personal influence rather than by coercion or withholding resources; no police force, military, or definitive authority
name the 5 premises of a colonial society:
1. there are DIFFERENT KINDS OF PEOPLE group i sNATURALLY SUPERIOR to the others 3. therefor inequalities are the inevitable result of natural differences4. the presence of expatriates is because of their honorable and altruistic motives.5. the actions of said expatriates are beneficial to the natives
global apatheid
(Malaysia) Kill wildly
judaism, christianity, islam
abrahamic religions
an individual changing ethnicity
Objects shaped by humans (intentionally or incidentally) that make their culture material and reflect their ideas or needs
Summarize Jared Diamond's argument about race. Why does skin color seem to be such an obvious and commonsensical way to make distinctions among people when in fact skin color does not determine racial categories? Explain. Be sure to discuss his examples i
Stress hormone. Long-term production is harmful to the brain.
cells that have membrane-bound cellular organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc)
the magnetic polarity recorded in ancient sediments. reversed or normal direction in used to correlate with the geomagnetic polarity time scale to infer an age for a site
The cultural study of bathroom behavior. Privacy, masculinity, and coolness
origin and diversification of species over many generations
Species identified from fossil remains based on their physical similarities and differences relative to other species.
Intraspecific (within a species) vs. interspecific (comparing other species) variation.
- Michael Foucault
- Demonstrated by how social structures reinforce and legitimate each other
- Relationship between surveillance or discipline and the organization of prisons
Treating something abstract as if existed as a real, tangible thing.
Individuals with a specialized social role of preventing conflict from reupting into dangerous combat.
race, nationality, religion, political opinion, membership in a certain group
refugee ceiling
with; combined with; along with (usually used in combination):
ecological intelligence
hominid intelligence and brain size increase is thought to be a result of benefits of navigating and foraging in a complex tropical forest ecosystem
Variations in a single language based on factors such as region, subculture, ethnic identity, and socioeconomic class.
Follows a female line, only daughters can pass on the family line to offspring
alternative form of gene that occurs at a given locus
Cultural hybridization
the mixing and reconfiguring of elements from different cultural traditions
How has globalization changed the way in which contemporary cultural anthropologists conduct their studies? To illustrate your answer explain: 1) how globalization is affecting the !Kung as described by Shostak and as depicted in the film "N!ai: The story
An inhibition or ban resulting from social custom or emotional aversion
Seasonal movement of people with their livestock over relatively short distances, typically higher pastures in summer and lower valleys in winter
what types of communications are universal, according to Brian Fagan, author of Clash of Cultures
facial expressions
Middle Mississippian sites typically DID NOT have which of the following?A) Draft animalsB) Chiefdom level social complexityC) Earthen moundsD) PalisadesE) Artifacts of the Southern Ceremonial Complex
A) Draft animals
a change in the genetic code. Mutations are the ultimate source of ALL genetic variation.

Can occur in any cell of the body, but must occur in a sex cell to be of evolutionary importance

Types of mutation:

• Substitution = one DNA base is changed for another

• Addition = the addition of a single base or larger section of DNA

• Deletion = the loss of a single base or larger section DNA
having bounds or limits; not infinite; measurable.
a mode of livelihood based on growing domesticated crops in gardens, using simple hand tools.
Matrifocal Family
Family Group consisting of a mother and her children, with a male only loosely attached or not present at all
abstract nouns
a noun that refers to something without a concrete form (love, greed, hate, poverty, war, disease)
Interview schedule
The ethnographer talks face to face with people.
Mesozoic Era
225-65 mya. Pangea breaks up into Gondwanaland (S. America, Africa, Antartica, Australia, India) and Laurasia (N. America, Greenland, Europe, Asia). By end, continents in approximate present day position. Species isolated by continental drift.
- A group of related clans
- common ancestor often mythical
- larger and more inclusive than unilineages and clans
Catal Hoyuk
An early agricultural site in Turkey where bull-head sculptures and shrines are located is known as:
Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism is the difference in form between male and female members of the same species.- In mammals and birds, males are generally larger
what was NOT part of the Tasmanian diet?
early remains & radiocarbon dates from this site support theory of early spread of maritime people south along pacific coast:A) meadowcroftB) monte verdeC) mesaD) cactus hillE) topper
monte verde
Genetic/Molecular Anthropology
the use of molecular genetic and molecular biological techniques to address anthropological questions

for example: questions about human/primate evolution, migrations, demography, paleodemography (population structures of past), gene flow, mating patterns, etc.
turned or turning away from what is right or proper; willful; disobedient:
Configurationalism (emic)
Believe in the cultures, but said that the history of that culture created a pattern of functioning cultural behavior. (Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead)
contagious magic
things that are at one point in contact will always be in contact after connection is severed
What extraordinary attributes do !Kung healers have?
- Shostak pp. 259-308
language dispersal hypothesis
theory that the spread of agriculture across Euro= result of a migration of farmers who spoke Indo-Euro languages
Eyes on the side of the head instead of facing foreward.
Raised fields separated by canals in a lake or swampy ground are known as ______________.A) chinampasB) ciudadelasC) comalesD) danzantesE) adosadas
A) chinampas
to sag, sink, bend, or hang down, as from weakness, exhaustion, or lack of support.
Key cultural consultants
An expert on a particular aspect of local life who helps the ethnographer understand that aspect.
the site shows influences on later Indus Valley civilization.
Mehrgarh is important because
The largest single earthen mound north of Mesoamerica is _______________ at the site of __________________.A) Monks' Mound; CahokiaB) Monks' Mound; MoundvilleC) Mound A; CahokiaD) Mound A; OculgeeE) Mound C; Etowah
A) Monks' Mound; Cahokia
The double transverse arch structure of the human foot serves what purpose?
It works as a shock absorber.
the climate warmed and they adapted better to life on the tundra
Hunter-gatherer populations in Siberia eventually spread into Alaska as
What characterizes graves at the Norris Farm site in western Illinois?A) Elaborate burial mounds replete with luxury goods that signify elite statusB) Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfareC) Graves are located beneath vacated longho
B) Evidence of violence, suggesting endemic warfare
across the lower 48 states, northern Mexico, and parts of Canada.
Clovis complex material has been found
research showing rapid adoption of English and loss of Spanish by 2nd and 3rd generations and Leo Chavez's research on Mexican and Anglo fertility
Leo Chavez's research on Mexican and Anglo fertility
according to the AAA (American Anthropological Association) Statement on "race"
race is a cultural term to identify different histories, languages, etc
there existed a strong desire in the 18th c European society to
return to a "natural state of being
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