ANTH Final Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Huitzilopochtli
...
Relativism
f
cultural pluralism
Food Producers
Herders (Pastoralists)
centralized political entities separate from kinship systems, permanent political positions (hort & ag)
chiefdom
______ predominated archaeological asemblages for over 6000 years after 9000 BCE.
Microblades.
Acculturation
The meshing of distinguished cultures
RFLPs
differences in homologous DNA sequences that are reflected in different lengths of restriction fragments produced when the DNA is cut up with restriction enzymes
DSM:
Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Variation
differences among individuals or populations
r-selected
reproductive strategy in which females have many offspring, interbirth intervals are short, and maternal investment per offspring is low (monkeys)
Exoticization
Portraying other cultures as overly different from ourselves. Portrayals reflect upon our own values. National Geographic & That 70's Show
balancing selection
selection for the heterozygous genotype; results in polymorphism
Gradualism
Darwin's idea. Process focused on adaptation and selection within a population. Very gradual, cumulative change. Driven by natural selection and environmental change.
Feasts
Celebrations of special events or mysteries that are related to religion
Religion:
System of beliefs and practices directed towards the ultimate concerns of a group.
What was Palenque?
architecturally sophisticated maya center w/temple of the inscriptions that tell of violence, has tomb of Pacal, palace, maya roof combs
reactive adaptation
subordinate society rebels against things being forced upon it by dominant society in acculturation
denude
to make naked or bare; strip:
social intelligence
hominid intelligence and brain size increase theorized as a result of benefits of being politically or socially clever when living with others; sometimes called Machiavellian intelligence
Sororate
form of secondary marriage in which, upon the death of a wife, her sister or some close female relative marries the surviving husband
Polygyny
A marriage system involving one man having multiple wives
locus
spot where gene is located on chromosome
Ethnocentrism
using the practices of your own "people" as a yardstick to measure how well the customs of other, different peoples measure up
How would you distinguish between a ritual, a taboo, and a fetish?
Gmelch
Sympathetic Magic
Superstitious, doing certain things to prevent bad
RECIPROCITY
: Exchanges of goods and services between two or more parties: lies at the heart
the purpose of Cook's expedition to Tahiti was
scientific
North America's last prehistoric man, who died of tubuculosis in 1916, was called "Ishi" by Alfred Kroeber. What does the Yani word "Ishi" translate to in English?A) brotherB) rabbitC) hunterD) manE) the last one
D) man
feeble
physically weak, as from age or sickness; frail.
use rights
a system of property relations in which a person or group has socially recognized priority in access to particular resources such as gathering, hunting, and fishing areas and watering holes
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis/Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
The idea that language profoundly shapes the perceptions and worldview of its speakers [language influences the perceptions and thought patterns of those who speak it]
conceptual metaphor
the understanding of one idea or domain in terms of another (body-based or up/down, and conduit)
bone biology
The study of bone as biological tissue.
Parapithecidae Family
Most common primate in Fayum Basin, Egypt. 8 species in 4 genera. 2:1:3:3 dental formula. Fused frontal bones, post-orbital wall.
Sacrifice
The act of killing (an animal or person) in order to propitiate a deity
Natural Habitat Hypothesis
The proposal that the earliest domesticates should appear where their wild ancestors lived is referred to as the
hermaphrodite
- possess one testis and one ovary (the sperm and the egg producing vessels, or gonads)
____ believed that loyalty to ogd came first and transcended all commitments to any culture
evangelicals
The earliest European interest in the American Eastern Seaboard took the form of _______________.A) gold prospectingB) settlement of deviant religious sectsC) trading for fursD) fishingE) Christian missionizing
D) fishing
Biological evolution
change in the genetic makeup of populations over time
rein
a leather strap, fastened to each end of the bit of a bridle, by which the rider or driver controls a horse or other animal by pulling so as to exert pressure on the bit.
Processual Approaches (emic)
The process of culture itself; how people interact with one another; talk about the day to day behaviors in cultures and how it reflects the society. (Pierre Bourdieu, Anthony Giddens, and Sherry Ortner)
types of totemism
spirit guide, patron deity of a people, patron of a city, gods of arts and skills
!Kung men enjoy some advantages over women. Explain.
Shostak pp. 213-258
Younger Dryas
prd of global climatic stress that had a significant impact on Natufian society
Bifacial
Two sided stone tool that is used as multi purpose tool with flake scars on both sides.
Eastern Subarctic Algonquians relied primarily on what subsistence activity(ies) for food?A) Maize and bean cultivationB) Whale huntingC) Nut and berry gatheringD) Caribou hunting and fishingE) Wild Rice gathering by canoe
D) Caribou hunting and fishing
hard power
Coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force.
shared derived trait
a derived trait found in all members of a group and their common ancestor
by the degree of social complexity
Eurasian and European Upper Paleolithic hunters differ:
Which of the following is not a plant initially domesticated in north or meso-america?A) maizeB) tomatoC) beansD) squashE) sunflwer
B) tomato
Male philopatric societies differ from female philopatric societies in that
females in male philopatric societies do not show a high degree of social affiliation with one another
its highly distinctive fluted projectile points
Clovis material culture is most easily distinguished from most other Paleoindian complexes by
The discovery of two very different, contemporaneous, spatially distinct tool assemblages in the Archaic period of the Northwest Coast poses the problem of _____________________.A) whether dating techniques in the region are adequateB) distinguish
B) distinguishing two different archaeological cultures from a single seasonally mobile culture using different technologies in different locations
a lack of terrestrial animal hunting
Which of the following does NOT characterize the Ushki complex?
in contrast to moral equivalence; humans stand at the pinnacle of moral worth which Singer calls speciesism
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Why did Moctezuma admit Cortes into the city and accord him divine honors?
He thought Cortes was fulfilling a divine prophesy
why didn't hte missionaries train the local people in Tahiti for the ministry
because they believed they had to be civilized first
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