ANTH Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
clades
...
Semantics
meaning system
X-linked Recessive Traits
...
Polygenetic
Controlled by multiple alleles.
situational leadership
not permanent status
Mammal Evolution
-Fewer offspring
-mothers nurse young, protect
-prolonged immaturity & play
-dietary difference, hederodontism
-increased cognitive capacity
-social groups
Fieldwork
Ethnographic research that involves observing and interviewing the members of a culture to describe their way of life
Ethnoscience
studying systems of classifying (taxonomy), the way a culture classifies
Postclassic Maya
AD 1000 - 1521
Adaptations
Adaptations- Changes in physical structure, function, or behavior that allows an organism or species to survive and reproduce in a given environment.
Unilineal Evolution
The first theoretical anthropological perspective to take root. Proposed three stages of humanity (savagery, barbarism, civilization), viewed cultural attributes as the effects of innate, biological differences.
ring of fire
Tibetan Mandala; represents purification
Zooarchaeology
study of animal remains
-"schlep effect"—similar to hunting; missing parts
-pathologies
-skeletal morphology—bred for traits; may get morphology in skeletons; not due to natural selection
-natural range—can animals live in environment?
-kill rates—natural vs culling
-commensal pathway—herd management; tame & domestication; coevolution; animal-human relationship
-directed breeding pathway
-taming vs domestication—tamed, not really domesticated. Eg) elephants w/ long gestation & adolescence
Food production
cultivation of plants and domestication of animals
ethnographies
detailed descriptive studies of human societies
Altruism
giving to the point of self-sacrifice
Dowry
Substantial gifts to a husband's family from the wife's family
language
Primary means of human communication, spoken and written
schema
related parts under single category. key cognitive unit in which configuration overshadows the part, meanings emerge from shared social roles
Orangutan
Nuchal Crest, 2123, Large Canines, Large Brain Case, Pronounced Prognathism, No Forehead, Paddle-shaped Pelvic Blade, Longer Arms, Long Curved Digits, Barrel Ribcage, No Tail, Y5 Molars, Post-orbital Constriction, Opposable Hallux, No Foot Arch, Grasping Feet, No Chin, Dorsal Scapula, Simian Shelf, Fist Walker, C-shaped Spine, Similar Vertebrae Size
Taurodontism
-Molars with expanded pulp cavities & fused roots
Science
study of the natural world through observation, prediction & hypothesis testing.
transhumance
only part of the population seasonally moves with herds
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)
deviant behavior
when people violate the social rules
Hylobates
The family of hominoids that includes gibbons and siamangs; often referred to as the lesser apes (as compared to the great apes such as gorillas and chimpanzees)
anthropology
the field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology; includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, and physical, or biological, anthropology
old world monkeys
-narrower noses with downward-facing nostrils
-most quadrupedal and arboreal
Ideal Behavior
What people believe they should do
Exogamous
Members seek their mates from other descent groups
taxonomy
the branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
Postcolonial studies
analysis of the interactions between colonizings nations and the societiesthey colonized+Persistent effects of colonialism
Sampling procedure
the variety of sampling methods employed to collect data in any given research project.
Sexual Selection
Struggle between the individuals of one sex, generally the males, for the possession of the other sex.
is divorce more common in patrilocal or matrilocal residence
matrilocal
incest taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
totemism
the belief that people are related to particular animals, plants, or natural objects by virtue of descent from common ancestral spirits.
Human Diversity
things that people have different from one another
bolivian military
obligation for all bolivian men. need to get a libreta militar. more wealthy men just buy it
Eocene
A geological epoch 55 million to 34 million years ago during which the first definite primates appeared.
subfossil
bone not old enough to have become completely mineralized as a fossil
Natural Selection
The outcome of processes that affect the frequencies of traits in a particular environment
Habitual Bipedalism
1st derived trait in the fossil record, hominins are bipedal apes,
Recognizable anatomy of: Skull base, pelvis shape, knee joint, acetabulum, cervical vertebrae
St. Vincents Day in Spain
Marketing Traditions for Tourism
Cytoplasm
glop of chemicals and organs in the cell
Ethnocentrism
the belief that one's own culture is superior to any other
Alfred Russell Wallace (1858)
formulated a mechanism of evolution that was very similar to Darwin's
Precocial
A species who's young are born in an advanced stage of developement, with open eyes and the ability to walk or run.
Sivapithecus
A genus of ape from the later Miocene known for its thickly enamelled teeth, suggesting a diet of hard, tough, or gritty items. Found primarily in western and southern Asia and now thought to be ancestral to orangutans.
Power
The ability to make others do what you want them to without permission from anyone
What is Race? An operational definition
Socially/historically defined groups that rely, in part on folk notions of heredity and relatedness to govern membership. Almost ALWAYS hierarchical
Results 5a. Course’s Framing Assumptions as Partial Explanations/Solutions
to Problems
Ideological values frame different cultural practices in the ‘process of culture’
given the inherent relativity of cultural meaning (i.e. where else would the cultural
definitions of the practice of linguistic anthropology come from?)
rites of passage
where you gain knowledge of what it means to be an adult and what each gender should do; 3 stages
Timline of human evolution:
7 million years collapsed into 1yr example:
chimp-human divergence - Jan 1st
Genus Australopithecus - May 26
Stone Tools - August 23
Genus Home - Sept 28
Farming - 12:00am Dec 31
Cities - 6:00pm dec 31
Indutrial Revolution - 11:45pm Dec 31
Inuit song battle
it is a means of resolving disputes so as to forestall open conflict
5) Intersex cont. The Hijras of India
intersexed/eunuchs (erotic and sacred female man; 1) man plus woman; 2) not woman 3) Neither man nor woman 4) Man minus man) Long established role. Gender identity subject to change. Assume social role. Emasculation ritual necessary to achieve status. Ascetics of Hindu mythology and the story of Siva (provides legitimacy of emasculation). Ritual performers. Ambivalence: Dangerous/divine power yet depended on; ascertains sex of newborn. Membership into Hijra community entails distancing from family and friends. Drawn from many castes, mostly lower, in Hindu society. Community consists of teachers and disciples. Despite British intervention and illegal status of prostitution, role not dying out.
3 media for getting rid of tapu
Maori concept- cooked food; ritual of the latrine, biting the beam; ritual use of the female
Part 1: Course Frame (10 @ 3 pts. each = 30 points)
Content: In this section you will be asked questions about the ‘frame’.

How to Prepare: Review the ‘frame’ in your course reader. The questions here will be very similar to those asked in part 1 (‘definitions’) from the exam on the frame.

Tips: Be sure that you can define important frame concepts and then give and justify an example. Expect answers here to have to be no more than a few sentences long at the most.
Intraspecific
...
individual self
Statsis
..., stop, control
Homology
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
patrilineal/agnatic
reckoned along father's line
Paleozoic - Permian
-Reptile radiation
-Mammal-like reptile radiation
minangkabau
from indonesia. matrilineal kinship system
Biocultural
combining biological and cultural approaches to a given problem
Cuzco
capital city of Inca Empire
Phenotype
physical expression of a genotype
Applied Anthropology
Analyzes social, political and economic problems and develops solutions
Often involves collaboration with community members
Can involve any subfield of anthropology (or several
Wadaabe
social nomadic tribe; tea ceremony; dances; beauty is prized
Hydraulic Theory
The theory that explains civilization's emergence as the result of the construction of elaborate irrigation systems, the functioning of which required full-time managers whose control blossomed into the first governing body and elite social class.
Association-
an observed relationship between two or more variables
paleoanthropology
the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominids, their chronology, physical structure, archaeological remains, habits, etc
Ethnosemantics
study of classification systems in various cultures
Levirate
Widow marries brother of deceased husband
cultural transmission
Transmission through learning, basic to language.
Dianysian
God of wine, chaos, theatre, social
Kin Selection
Altruistic strategies in evolution that favor the reproductive success of an organism's relatives at a cost to their own survival and/or reproduction.
Okladnikov
-Site in Syria with Neanderthal fossils
Natural Theology
rational search for God's divine design regarding how life works
matrilocal
post marital residence rule in which the extended family residing among matrikin - matrilineal relatives.
Tulum
collapse of Mayan civilization was not complete; Northern Lowlands; inscription AD 564; major construction AD 1200-1450 (long after abandonment of Maya civil)
democratization
the process of transformation from an authoritarian regime to a democratic regime
Diastema
A gap between canine and first premolar found in apes.
artifacts
objects or materials made or modified for use by modern humans and their ancestors
anthropoids
-members of the suborder primates, the anthropoidea
-larger brain and body size
-reduced reliance on the sense of smell
Archaeology
The branch of anthropology that seeks to reconstruct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past and to trace and explain cultural changes
Matrilineal descent
People join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
selective pressures
forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals
Genocide and Ethnocide
-Destruction of indigenous economies, ecologies, and killing or depression of indigenous people(original inhabitants of particular areas)
Moral Integrity
the research process and teh researcher's findings are trustworthy and valid = the researcher
Group Selection
Theory suggesting that altruism exists in groups that are not closely related (kin selection).
DEFINE: matrilocal
rule of postmarital residence under which a man resides with his wife's parents
polygyny
having more than one wife at a time
family
two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption. the family may take many forms, ranging from a single parent with one or more children, to a married couple or polygamous spouses with offspring, to several generations of parents and their children
Chimpanzee hunting
hunt in organized ways, usually for other smaller monkeys
akyns
rap style music that is indigenous to central asia (kazakhstan, uzbekistan, turkmenistan, krygystan, tajikistan, afghanistan) usually accompanied by a stringed instrument. these artists are now using their art to campaign for political candidates
Paleocene
The geological Epoch 65 million to 55 million years ago.
island-hop
to travel from one island to the next
core area
portion of home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable sources of food and water
Being bipedal
decreases the amount of cooling wind hitting the body
Colonialism and IDentity
-Whole countries, along with the social groups and divisions within them, were colonialinventions.+Modern African political boundaries are largely and artifact of colonial
Polygeneic inheritance
traits that are determined by more than one gene
Taung Child
First early hominin discovered; 3 MAA. Africanussmall brainedlarger jawfunctional biped (position of foramen magnum)Dismissed by British scientists as \"juvenile gorilla\" and because the human evolutionary link was largely thought to be in Eurasia, not Africa.
Darwin's finches
-1977 drought = change in beaks, but then went back to normal
-beaks did change in response to environment, and did so quickly
multi-national/trans-national corporations
module of change; are the offspring of the joint-stock company that helped in founding America; have influence over people and control a lot of technology
Midden
A pile of refuse, often shells, in an archaeological site.
Archaic State
A state system ruled by a monarchy; power is held by the richest lineage with the strongest military and is passed down by heredity
Race
Race is real. It's not simple a simple fact of genetics on biology. While race is caused by social and political structures and historical contingency, it correlates with biology. Talking about race requires its biological and social/polticial/ historical aspects
Course Framing #5
Basic approach to the study of cultural practices: form, function, ideology, relativity and use value
contagious magic
the use of something that has been or will be in contact with whomever the magician wishes to influence
Physical or Biological Anthropology
Uses science to study humans, nonhuman primates, and their ancestors. Frames these ideas with the context of evolutionary
Foraging vs. Horticulture (women)
women had more power in foraging than horticulture
3) Sahlins: 2) Cultural Argument cont.
Diff world view (strange and familiar), our sys based on scarcity (econ man), uneconomical humans with world view on abundance (do not worry they will not have enough) aberrations otherwise. Prodigality (do not save provisions: trust in the 'morrow) No storage and belief. Treatment of material goods, Bird: sharing ideology of everything. Desires tailored to what is available. Ex. Toqueville (desires will always exceed posessions/availability, 'indef perfectability', 1830s, among best Am ethnographies) Abundance (ex. in Am, culture fighting against nature) cooperation with nature.- Not at the edge of existence? Nasty, Brutish, Short.
prove a witch by the condition of the heart
yellow fatty deposits; The Kalui
Copan
...
replacement reproduction
Aegyptopithecus
32-29 mya
1st catarrhine
related through marriage
affinal kin
 
 
NORMATIVE PATTERN
A normal pattern.
Post-Processual
more humanistic theories, higher importance on human choice, people as conscious agents. Today's version of the "new archaeology".
STATE
in anthropology, a political institution established to manage and defend a complex, socially stratified society occupying a defined terrority
Lamarck
o Philosophie Zoologique: simple forms of life are constantly being generated from inaminate matter and gradually evolve to become more complex along predetermined path of "chain." no extinctions have occurred- fossils species have been transformed. organisms have a natural tendency to progress. body parts used more will have a build up of "nervous fluid" which would increase their size (ie. giraffe eating from top of trees). acquired modifications could be passed to offspring.

o idea of constant improvement! (which Charles Darwin rejected!)

o until Darwin published the theory of evolution by natural selection, Lamarck's theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics was the only detailed account of how changes might occur across generations
argon/argon dating
radiometric technique modified from K-Ar that measures potassium 40 by proxy using Argon 39. allows measurement of smaller samples with less error
Enculturation
The process whereby culture is transmitted from one generation to the next
anagenisis
evolutionary change w/in a single lineage over time
Aegyptopithecus Zeuxis
Best known Catarrhine. Sexually dimorphic. Frugivorus. Diurnal. Arboreal quadroped. Bridges gap between Eocene prosimians and Miocene homonids.
Windigo
(Arctic people, Cree) Kill and eat.
BAND
A relatively small and loosely organized kin-ordered group that inhabits a common territory and that may split periodically into smaller extended family groups that are politically and economically independent
The politically dominant ethnic group in the Valley of Oaxaca during the Classic Period was the ________________.A) MixtecB) ZapotecC) ToltecD) MayaE) Olmec
Zapotec
49ers
genre of American Indian music; includes dancing, partying, drinking; ex. of syncretism because they combine Native American and American words
conifer
any of numerous, chiefly evergreen trees or shrubs of the class Coniferinae (or group Coniferales), including the pine, fir, spruce, and other cone-bearing trees and shrubs, and also the yews and their allies that bear drupelike seeds.
The effects of human predation on primate diversity are especially apparent among the _______ of Madagascar.
macaques
Homeland
A geographical region over which a particular ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights
Parallel Cousins
Ego's father's brother's & mother's sister's siblings who are considered the equivalent of siblings
codominant
more than one allele affects the phenotype of heterozygous individual
What are the three most innocuous forms of violence?
Chagnon
Band Societies
-50 people or less
-Kinship relations are vital
-Usually foragers
-No formal leadership positions
-Resource sharing, tend toward equalitarianism
Levallois
A distinctive type of stone knapping developed by humans during the Palaeolitic period
Biologically modern humans evolved in Africa about __________ years ago.A) 200,000B) 1 millionC) 120,000D) 100,000E) 35,000
A) 200,000
Alfred Russel Wallace
British naturalist and explorer

in 1858, sent Darwin a letter from Southeast Asia asking Darwin to review a manuscript he wanted to have published. Darwin realized the manuscript, titled On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Infinitely from the Original Type, proposed ideas identical to his own (Wallace has independently co-discovered theory of natural selection!)
improvise
to compose and perform or deliver without previous preparation; extemporize:
pastoralism
a mode of livelihood based on keeping domesticated animals and using their products, such as meat and milk, for most of the diet
Extended Family [Textbook]
A group of related nuclear families
balil
A Guugu Dhabul term meaning "go." This term does duty in the respectful register for a number of everyday terms that are specific, and non-nuclear. All of these terms can be defined in terms of 'go': float, drift, limp, crawl, paddle, wade
epistasis
many genes work together to display a particular trait
Phylogenetic Species Concept
Looking at traits that make evolutionary changes through time.
Priest or Priestess
Dedicated full time to one's religion.
-Provided with necessary things by people in order to serve full time.
named after the God Anu
The Anu Ziggurat was
Deborah Kallikak
A woman in Goddard's institution, the New Jersey Home for the Education and Care of Feebleminded Children. In the course of investigating her genealogy, Goddard claims to have discovered that her family tree bore a curious and surprising moral tale
Aztecs fed the sun god daily with CHALCHIHUATL the vital sacrificial fluid that came from the human heart, the very symbol of ____
life
Which of the following states and provinces do NOT make up part of the Northwest Plateau region?A) WashingtonB) OregonC) UtahD) IdahoE) British Columbia
C) Utah
Cuvier's Catastrophism
school of thought which saw geological changes as records of immense cataclysms (massive volcano eruptions, major floods, etc) thus Biblical view maintained. Changes in fossil record due to species moving into areas after a catastrophe.
tempt
to entice or allure to do something often regarded as unwise, wrong, or immoral.
Structuralism (etic)
We all do things based on our biological structure; humans have biological need to organize culture;there are political, economic, and social systems that create structure based on our internal needs. (Claude Levi-Strauss)
Human Ecology
The area of study concerned with the interrelationships between people and their environment.
Describe Nisa's first wedding.
Shostak pp. 133-180
marriage hut was built by parents and she cried and ran back to her parents hut at night
another lady she trusted stayed with her in the hut next night
that lady was haing sex with nisas husband and father said they were divorced.
Linear Band Keramik
term referring to the earliest farming communities that emerged around 7,200 YA in central & western Euro culture (AKA LBK culture)
Gene pool
The complete set of unique alleles or a population.
A mudslide around 1750 CE buried this most famous site located at the northwest tip of Washington State creating a 'pompeii-effect' of excellent preservation. What is the name of the site?A) MaiduB) OzetteC) Five Mile RapidsD) TlingitE
B) Ozette
transition
In a rite of passage, isolation of the individual following separation and prior to incorporation into society.
law of independent assortment
second law of heredity stating that pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
a cultural explosion, including new blade technology
The Upper Paleolithic transition refers to:
The first pottery was made in ______ around ______.
Southeast, 2500 BCE
Most solitary nonhuman primate social groups are characterized by
males that attempt to maintain exclusive access to females
5000 BC from the Yucatan
When did people first start migrating into the West Indies and where did they come from?
What was the main adaptation of the Fremont culture, which existed in central Utah from 400 to 1300 CE?A) Fishing and trade with agriculturalist neighborsB) Part-time maize farmersC) Intensive, irrigated agricultureD) Hunters and gatherers
B) Part-time maize farmers
people consumed a wide range of wild and domesticated foods 5,000 years ago.
Evidence from Charavines revealed that
reasonable expectation; what the line speed is supposed to be based on
definition of RE according to company industrial engineers
the "societe des observateurs" was a french scientific organization dedicated to
self knowledge and the advancement of humanity's perfection and happiness
Hunter and gatherers: who are they, how long were humans H&Gs?
- 1) Who Are They?a) Food collectors2) For How Long Were Humans H&Gs?a) 99% of our existence
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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