Anth. Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coyolxauhui
...
Ethnocentrism
f
organic solidarity
Submission
Crouching, bobbing, presenting
one man, many women
polygyny
Distinctive globular form shell-tempered cooking pots, often with strap handles and incised designs, are a cultural marker of which of the following groups?A) OnondagaB) OneotaC) SenecaD) MohawkE) Cheyenne
Oneota
Magic
The point illustrated by naciremA
acclimatization
long-term response to environmental stress
Anthropology:
The study of human beings.
Gradualism
differences between organisms reflect build-up of small changes over time through intermediate forms
omomyoids
family of mostly Eocene primates probably ancestral to all haplorhines
Etic
Perspective held by outsiders through their own ideas and concerns
gene flow
movement of alleles b/t population
Holocene Epoch
.01 mya-present. Humans develop agriculture and civilization; recorded history.
Kinship
The biological and social ties identifying those in society thought to share special relations
Addiction:
Compulsive use, habit, sometimes in absence of physical dependence.
Wh was burdened with cultivation?
mostly women
persons outside their country of nationality or residence who fear persecution in that country on account of a protected ground, apply for admission to US from outside its borders
IDPs
wanton
done, shown, used, etc., maliciously or unjustifiably:
human and primate evolution occurs during the
mesozoic era
Uxorilocal
residence of married couple with the wife's kin (also referred to as
matrilocal)
Eskimo System
Nuclear family is differentiated from other kin. Bilineal
punnet squares
assumes infinite number of offspring; observed frequencies rarely match expectations
Positivism
applied scientific methods in any area of anth. interest from ston tools to religion... combined results would produce a genuine "science of man"
phonological language
broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with "the sounds of language
family
Historically, it has been the global norm for the _______ to make the ultimate choice in the selection of marriage partners.
CULTURE CORE
Culture featured that are fundamental in to society’s way of making its living-including food-producing techniques, knowledge of available resources, and the work arrangements involved in applying those techniques to the local environment
Microliths
Small stone tool that is sufficently worked so as to be distinguishable from workshop waste or accidents. Very small, typically used as tips for spears or other hunting weapons.
Beans became an important dietary component in the northeast after 1200 C.E. reducing the reliance on __________.A) wild riceB) gourdsC) huntingD) maizeE) squash
C) hunting
Paleoanthropology
study of fossil remains of human ancestors (ie. Lucy!)
latitude
the angular distance north or south from the equator of a point on the earth's surface, measured on the meridian of the point.
industrialism
a mode of livelihood in which goods are produced through mass employment in business and commercial operations and through the creation and movement of information through electronic media.
Ambilocal Residence
Residence form in which couples choose whether to live with the wife's or husband's family
metaphor
a figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity. Has two domains (source and target)
Stratigraphy
The science that examines the ways in which earth sediments accumulate in layers.
Cladogenesis
Formation of one or more new species from another over time.
Puberty Rituals
Genital mutilation in order to become a man or woman (a rite of passage).
Homo habilis, Olduwan
_______________ is MOST LIKELY the maker of the earliest stone tools in Africa, the _____________ tool industry.
What type of radiation is the primary cause of skin color?
UV
what did the Tahititans regard as one of life's greatest pleasures
sex
Which of the following Classic Maya sites' ecological collapse is well understood?A) CopanB) KaminiljuyuC) TeotihuacanD) PalenqueE) Tikal
A) Copan
Forms of Isolation
Geographic isolation = populations are separated by a physical barrier such as a river, mountain range, or just a great enough distance to impede gene flow

Behavioral isolation = does not require geographic separation. populations isolated by behavioral difference such as feeding times or prey preferences
oligarchy
a form of government in which all power is vested in a few persons or in a dominant class or clique; government by the few.
Cultural materialism (emic)
The idea that culture itself is defined by what we interact with, what we make. We can look at the materials of societies. (Marvin Harris)
dream interpretation
messages the person needs to hear that comes from anywhere and can be about anything
Have the !Kung resisted change? Explain their strategy for adapting.
Shostak pp. 193-212, 309-332
Netiv Hagdud
Pre-Pottery Neo. A site in the Jordan Valley that was a village of btwn 20-30 houses
 
 
VENUS FIGURINES
an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statuettes of women portrayed with similar physical attributes. bone, ivory, stone..
The most distantly procured marine shell at Spiro Mounds came from as far away as _____________________.A) the Caribbean SeaB) the Pacific OceanC) the Arctic OceanD) the Gulf of MexicoE) the Atlantic Ocean
B) the Pacific Ocean
imitative magic
Magic based on the principle that like produces like; sometimes called sympathetic magic.
allopatric speciation
The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population's becoming isolated by a geographic barrier.
the exceptional fertility of the Mesopotamian floodpalin and the Nile River Valley was a primary cause for the appearances of cities and states in these regions
James Breasted's Fertile Cresent hypothesis assumes that:
Geological time sets the age of the earth at about ______.
4.6 billion years
innominate bones (ox coxae)
pair of bones that compose the lateral parts of the pelvis; each innominate is made up of three bones that fuse during adolescence
an extinct form of bison
The first Folsom Point to be recovered, in New Mexico, was associated with the bones of which animal?
Wooden racks found at wet sites on the Hoko River near the oregon coast were most likely used to ______.A) torture captivesB) dry fishC) carry suppliesD) carry infantsE) display enemy scalps
B) dry fish
the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
A major factor in the dispersal of horses into native American cultures of the Inland West was
Michael Pollan's solution to our \"national eating disorder\"
Humane Society of the United States (HSUS)
Why were the Khoikhoi considered the 'epitome' of savage by the European explorers?
they had few possessions and aimlessly herded cattle
Bacteria that cause carries (& how do they do it)
Our crops are starchy. Starchy particles in our mouths are consumed by bacteria. These bacteria produce lactic acid which dissolves our enamel.
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