Anthro 2AC Final Review Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Accelerator Mass Spectrometry
physical medium surrounding/supporting other arch. material
Plan Map
Bird eye view
study of transformational processes affecting organic ecofacts after death of original organisms; natural agents, human agents = influence
max uhle
emeryville shell mound
--> professor
the description of contemporary cultures --> part of the sub-discipline of cultural anthropology
Analysis of Pollen (ecofact analysis)
Bulb of percussion; striking platform
Analysis of Ecofacts; fossilized animal dung
Catal Hoyuk
Ian Hodder re-excavated it
Macroscopic; plant remains; flotation (seeds, nuts, etc.)
we make interpretations, subjective and must be reflexive, must have had different world views and value/belief systems
study of tree-ring growth patterns, which are linked to develop a continuous chronological sequence
material from plants/animals vs. those from non-living sources
historical arch.
arch. concerned with literate societies and often allied with history
pertaining to phenomena as they occur/change over time --> development over long periods of time
chronological perspective
created shell mounds in bay area
Excavation methods
penetrating vs. clearing
arbitrary vs. natural levels
The archaeological evaluation of the significance of stratification to determine the temporal sequence of data within stratified deposits by using both the law of superposition and context evaluations; also a relative dating technique (LAYERS)
lithic scatters; waste made during production of tools
How something was deposited; how things are left when they enter "archaeological site status"
nonprofessional who studies the past for its artistic/cultural value (in contrast to an archaeologist or looter)
public outreach
educational projects to stop looting and destruction of arch. sites + selling of artifacts
microscopic silica bodies that form in living plants and provide floral ecofact to identify plants in arch. deposits
study of plant remains in an archaeological site
historical anthro
transcends ancient and recent history; employs different data sets/lines of evidence including material culture, written records, and oral traditions
- prehistory and recent history
smithsonian institutions
thomas, nelson, mound builder debates --> funding
Obsidian Hydration
Absorption of water on exposed surfaces of obsidian; if the local hydration rate is known and constant, this phenomenon can be used as a relative dating technique through measurement of thickness of the hydration layer
Ozette Site
Pompeii Premise; Mudslide covered the village; one moment in time; great preservation
Geophysical Survey
electrical current through ground; low impact; magnetometry; etc.
experimental archaeology
Dave David! lithic manufacture, lithic use-wear analysis, residue analysis
Nels Nelson
UC Berkeley; Shell Mounds; Ellis Landing Site
Ian Hodder
Break down Linear Nature for Interpretation; Catal Hoyuk re-excavation
the ordering of phenomena into groups based on the sharing of attributes (stylistic, form, technological)
broken k pueblo
Michael Schiffer critiqued theory about "hunting room" in shift from hunter-gatherers to agriculture: instead of having T-1 and T-2, he thought they were places where the animal remains were dumped
used to order materials in a relative dating sequence so that adjacent items are more similar to each other than those farther apart
dirt, shell, ash, and rock --> huge mounds along bay and river systems; recognized as ancestral and sometimes sacred sites by natives
--> few ethnographic studies on them; some used in colonial times, but no documents from spanish; mounds = place of refuge away from spanish
--> emeryville, trash dumps, village complex, cemetaries, ceremonial centers
500 BP mudslide buried much of Makah village; large, quick, deep burial with O free environment (anaerobic), so woodwork/basketry preserved
Albert Spaulding
2 attributes of pottery (grit vs. shell)
2 villages:
1st random selection (25 grit and stamped, 25 grit and smooth, 25 shell and stamped, 25 shell and smooth)
2nd not so random (50 grit and stamped 50 shell and smooth)
2 types must be real; two groups of pots that would be recognized as distinct by past people
Construction of Archaeological Interpretations
Varies; based on collaboration, research question, what one finds; influenced by modern times
Metini Village Site
Fort Ross State Historical Park; Colony Ross; After Russians left became Rancho; Multi-phase field strategy; low impact; Kashaya Pomo Settlement
Native Landscape Management
Ano Nuevo State Reserve; preservation of what is there
frederick ward putnam
established dept of anthro, 1st prof and chair of dept; interested in early sites and made shellmounds #1 study for anthro dept
native alaskans
brought down to fort ross by russian merchants --> decimated sea otter population: still no sea otter remains found at sites b/c they buried the bones at sea and gave skins to russians
--> example of behavioral processes and excluded past
kashaya pomo
native CA group still living near fort ross, lived with native alaskans during russian american company's settlement
oral history/oral tradition
spoken accounts of past that maintain historical traditions without reliance on written documents
culture contact (missionaries vs. merchants)
spanish missionaries: theology based system, wanted to convert natives and change social customs
russian merchants: purely interested in money, not in creating neophytes
both have a biased view of the Indians and focus on primitive characteristics
Attributes (form, technological, stylistic)
Physical features used to categorize certain artifacts (pottery etc.)
Hyper Reflexivity
Some scholars say you can't ever fully understand the past; we're always stuck in the present; can only tell stories that are made up in the present
Look at matrix of a site; look at sediments of a site; principles of geology
conjunctive approach + person
walter taylor --> putting fragments back together, think about how types relate to each other
arbitrary/natural levels
arbitrary = set by us, natural = stratigraphy when layers are clear enough to see
4 factors of preservation
1. type of material (inorganic vs. organic)
2. context of deposition (surface, mixed up, deep, distinct, etc.)
3. post-depositional context (undisturbed or affected by burrowing/looting)
4. local environmental conditions (temp, moisture, acidity)
(discovered vs. arbitrary)
A class of data defined by a consistent clustering of attributes
Discovered:attributes favored by makers of the artifacts; emic classification; Albert Spaulding
Arbitrary: James Ford; J.O. Brew; etic approach (processual); process is arbitrary; archaeologist biases
Native Narratives (Oral History/Oral Tradition)
Spoken accounts about the past that maintain historical traditions without reliance on written documents.
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