Anthropology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
homiotherm
warm-blooded
vertebrates
kl
Autosomes
non-sex chromosomes
Bride Service
hard violence:
military/economic force
Yang
masculine principle (Confucius)
Lectures 28—Early Chinese Empires
...
genus
group of related species
melanin
variation of skin color
cultural relativism
understand before judging
multi-male, multi-female?
savanna baboons, capuchins
Assimilation
Absorbtion of minorities within dominant culture.
Minority adopts the patterns and norms of the host culture.
Cultural Resource Management - archaeology for historical preservation. Usually a branch of state government.
...
Holistic Perspective
Fundamental principle of anthropology.
States that various parts of culture must be viewed in the BROADEST possible context in order to understand their interconnections/interdependence.
Interested about everything in a culture & how they work together as a whole.
Phenotype
observable characteristics of the individual
functions of religion
cognitive, social, psychological
unileal
descent establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line
Agriculture
Intensive crop cultivation, employing plows, fertilizers, and/or irrigation
Economics
Systems of production, distribution and consumption of resources in all societies. Not all human economies have been based on capitalist principles.
Private/Public Dichotomy
Characteristic of highly gender-stratified 19th century capitalist societies
-live with the wife's family
Neolocal
handaxe
most dominant tool in acheulian complex, characterized by sharp edge for both cutting and scraping.
unilineal evolution
The first theoretical anthropological perspective to take root. Proposed three stages of humanity (savagery, barbarism, civilization), viewed cultural attributes as the effects of innate, biological differences.
Hijrah
have external genitals removed; dress like the opposite sex
Matrilineality
pronounced tendency of tracing descent through the mother's family
depth perception
primates have an increase in
Totemism
A religious conception that human individuals or groups have a symbolic or spiritual connection with particular natural species, objects, or phenomena.
Forensic Anthropology
Applied subfied of physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
ethnographis inteview
informants are chosen by participation
report talk
males. competitive way of talking
classical ethnography
very descriptive ethnography; data oriented. can be idealized and or romanticized. Lacks perspective of individuals (women)
motif
A story situation in a tale
formal/informal sanctions
Legal punishments vs. social punishments from other members of society.
epic
A long dramatic narrative recounting the celebrated deeds of a historic or legendary hero - often sung or recited in poetic language.
Haiti: Taino-
-Horticulturists: cassava and sweet potatoes
-Spanish forced them to mine for gold
-Their population was decimated
Clan
A noncorporate descent group whose members claim descent from a common ancestor without actually knowing the genealogical links to the ancestor.
Money of Work
Individually gained by working
horticulture
simple hand toold used in domestication of plants
Emic Perspective
Intrinsic cultural distinctions that are meaningful to the members of a given society
race
group assumed to be biologically distinct form other groups. ex. dog breeds
What is the Hardy-Weinberg equlibrium equation?
(p+q)2=p2+2pq+q2=1
priest
a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites
Mode of Production
"a specific, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge."
Anthropology
The study of humankind from an evolutionary and cross-culture perspective (examines what it means to be human)
Middle Paleolithic
the archaeological period during which Neanderthals occupied Europe
Balanced Polymorphism
Alleles maintain a constant frequency in a population over time.
Negative Assortive Mating
Individuals who bear little resemblance to one another.
class
people having the same social or economic status
Conditioned Universals
traits found when certain conditions are present; if a certain condition is occurring then all will use the same language and expressions
Paleocene
geological epoch 65 million to 55 million years ago (No primates)
kinesics
A system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and bodily motions that convey messages.
Geneological Approcah
-Who people are related to
-Marriage Patterns
-Residence Patterns
-(Sets stage for interpreting behavior)
2nd wave
equal; equal wages, recognition in labor marker, right to vote
Redistribution
A mechanism whereby a politically or economically powerful individual (or group) collects goods and services from the members of society and reallocates them among the society's members.
culture shock
psychosocial symptoms of stress from constant interaction with another culture
extended family
a collection of nuclear families, related by ties of blood, that live together in one household.
Transgenders
People who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male-female gender construction
Monogamy
Marriage in which both partners have just one spouse
industrialism
involves the use of machine technology and chemical processes for the production of food and other goods
Haiti: Voudon-
-Based on West African animist tradition
-Also influenced by Catholicism and aboriginal Taino religion
-An early function of Voudon was to give a sense of unity to the slave population
-Used by the slaves in the fields as means of secret communication
-Distinctly Haitian
-Zombies or "living dead"- Wade Davis, graduate student in ethonobotony
-Nearly all Haitians believed in Voudon and see it as totally compatible with Christianity
symbol
a conventional and convenient way to remember and share ideas; anything that extends or transfers meaning
nuclear fusion
or a thermonuclear reaction where energy is produced by fusing atoms of multiple nuclei
Gracile Characteristics
Small temporal fossa, Longer snout, Face under neurocranium, Less robust zygomatic, ○ Steeper forehead, ○ Maxillary/incisor prognathism, ○ Larger incisors and canines, ○ Smaller premolars and molars
Adaptation
the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses
barter
the direct exchange of one commodity for another.
rock shelters
sheltered by overhang of a rock
B-boys and B-girls in Japan have rejected Japanese culture in favor of a quotidian existence that is more in line with global hip hop culture.
False.
The children of your father’s brothers or your mother’s sisters. Under the Omaha kinship system, they are considered equivalent to siblings, and thus cannot be married under the incest taboo
Parallel cousins
Games
models OF cultures (what things are valued) - models FOR cultures (teaches us to be members of society)
Among Males
Hierarchy is flexible and highest rank is at middle age
short tandem repeats
highly subject to hotspot and inversion mutations
Why do some anthropologists use interview schedules rather than questionnairs?
face to face
parralle cousin
Children of two brothers and two sisters
xenophobia
fear and hatred of strangers or of anything that is strange or foreign
archaic homo sapiens
earliest members of our species 300,000-28,000 B.P,brain size in modern human range, skeleton like modern humans, widespread
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
the language you speak creates the world you see
Ethnocentrism
the tendancy to view one's own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one's own standards
Archeological anthropologist
are soil scientist that analyze how people use the soil at different times in history
Some problems of the modern world
Overconsumption, overpopulation, poverty; hunger, war
Relationship with eachother
marriages , partners, decents, and relations
Lithics
the study of stone tools and other chipped stone artifacts
Displaced persons
People who are evicted from their homes, communities, or countries and are forced to move elsewhere
generalized reciprocity
a distribution of goods with no immediate or specific return expected (parent and child)
political ideology
the shared beliefs and values that legitimize the distribution and use of power in a particular society
Compte du Buffon
wrestled with the similarities of humans and apes and talked about common ancestry of Man and apes. He did not provide a coherent mechanism for such changes. He thought that the environment acted directly on organisms through what he called "organic particles"
independent invention
the process by which humans inovate, creatively finding solutions to problems-is a third mechanism to cultural change
Cross-cousin
the child of your mother's brother or father's sister
morbidity
the frequency of a disease in a population
aboreal, prehensile tails
2 characteristics of new world monkeys
Margaret Mead
Believed that each culture had a unique configuration that shaped the personality of it's members, molding them to fit the culture's dominant type.
Informed Consent
Agreement to take part in research, after being fully informed about it.
(skull) nasals
these small, paired bones lie just superior to the nasal opening, between the orbits
syntax
the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.
polygyny
marriage of one man to two or more women
A holistic and comparative perspective.
What most characterizes anthropology among disciplines that study humans?
Induced abortion
baby is kill on purpose while still inside mother
Economic systems: Mode of Production
A way of organizing production
acquisitions from spanish and pueblo indians by navajo
pueblo indians-farming, weaving, religious ideas and ceremonies; spanish- domesticated animals (sheep, goats, cattle, horse)
Pueblo Alto
roads lead to large pueblos on bluffs overlooking canyon where feasting and food storage is evident
economic anthropology
the study of how economic ideas are connected to other aspects of culture
revitalization movement
The term suggested by Anthony F. C. Wallace for attempts by a people to construct a more satisfying culture.
Hierarchy, status
A form of social organization in which some roles are associated with more power, higher status, and greater access to resources than others
all people, everywhere
Which best describes the settings of study for ethnographic fieldwork?
the gullah culture in South Carolina is known for all of the following except
intricately carved gourds
senufo staff
it is females figure used in annual agricultural harvest. Fat women is equivalent a rich to a harvest
Explain why tempocentrism leads to error in understanding culture.
because cultures constantly undergo change and by viewing them in a temprocentric perspective we are broadcasting them as a timeless neverchanging entity
Basic Plant Terms
Tree (all cultures use this term) + gerb (grass or herb) + bush + vine
Unalineal & Cognatic
What are the two types of descent systems?
special purpose money
objects of value for which only some goods and services can be exchanged on the spot
bicultural perspectives on race
becaus eof a range of problems involved in classifying humans into racial categories, contemporary scientist focus on specific differences, such as skin color and they try to explain then. biological similarities rather than commonancestary (the assumed basis of race(- may reflect similar but independant adaptation to similar natural selective forces cultural forces mold human biology including out body types and images
What was the social organization for H. habilis?
more complex relationships; poligeny, possibly multi-male multi-female; there was also sexual dimorphism
shaman, medicine man, witch doctor, sorcerer
individuals whose acts are primarily the mechanical techniques of magic; in most instances, these acts are directed at individuals rather than a social group (demonstration of power usually demanded)
Describe Mana in terms of the Polynesians:
restricted to "higher up" people
contact between higher and lower people forbidden
Aiding colonial expansion.
What was one of the dangers of the old applied anthropology?
When anthropology developed as an academic discipline over a century ago, it concentrated its attention on small traditional communities that relied primarily on personal interaction and oral communication for survival.
How to define "From Speech to Writing"
Which is not true of human language development?
Language began to eveolve1.8 million years ago
 Culture sets us apart from other animals
 Not tool use
 Not reasoning
 Not emotion
 Not social bonds
Phonetics
...
pastoralism
animal husbandry
Office
permanent political position
scapula
the shoulder blade
Empiricism
transparent relationship between facts, notes, and story
Ascribed
born with an identity
Archaeologists
place people in time
Neoliberalism
don't want government intervention
Economic move that opposes KEYNSIAN ECONOMICS (government interferred and had welfare benefits)
Thought if limit role of state, individ entrepreneurs can do more business which enhances economy/allows free trade.
PROBLEMS WITH IT: corruption (pple can get away)
Accelerated economic growth
^ gap b/w rich & poor
Decline of groups, such as religious groups
More outsourcing in relation to profits
More consumption, ^ standard of living
sago palm
90 percent diet
Etic
categories devised by outside researchers
The Apes:
Hominoidea: great apes-orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees,- humans, gibbons, and siamangs
Cheran
Purepecha Indians who illegally migrate to the U.S. The illgal immgarnts. Cheran's religion is a mix of Indian tradition and Catholicism
homo floresiensis - defining characteristics
dwarfs
State
A centralized political system involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws and to use force to defend the social order
assimilate
consume and incorporate; become similar
Mono-culture plantation
An agricultural plantation specializing in the large-scale production of a single crop to be sold on the market.
Paranthropus robustus
australopith - (austropithecus africanus - gracile)
o The skull had a sagital crest
o And huge detentions where the temporal would go - suggesting a super strong jaw
• Also it had huge molars
o Also, not snouty faces - a pretty straight face
o Also, no forehead - just really straight back
o And really wide check
- 1.5 mya
- heavy face bone structure
- sagital crest, no forehead
- less snouty, flared cheekbones, flatter faces
- smaller canines, larger post canine dent., thicker tooth enamel, M.Q.: 2.2
- some sexual dymorphism
- E.Q. 3, huge brains
Ales Hrdlicka
American.Interested in skull shape.Most complete bone collection.Began American Journal for Physical Anthropology.Founded American Association of Anthropologists.
Bipedalism
large brain specialized for language
Sex
Social categorization of persons based on genitalia (or chromosomes).
Self-awareness
the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their impact on others
Gender
The cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes...one's sex is biologically determined yet one's gender is socially constructed within the context of one's particular culture
general traits
aspects found in most culutres
caste
a hereditary social class among Hindus
classes
rankings based on wealth, prestige, position, or education
subsistence intensification
technological innovations that produce more food from the same land area but often require increased effort
Culture
Traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs. CULTURE IS ACQUIRED.
Medicalized
Medicalization: The classifying of an otherwise normal state or stage of life as a situation which requires medical intervention. Examples would be birth, menopause, ageing.
Crow System
Concentrates on matrilineal rather than patrilineal descent.
The father's side of the family merges generations.
carlisle schools
1878 government created boarding schools for western reservation Indians...take from home for 6 or more years. "tradition is the enemy of progress." By the time the noble experiment ended, nearly 12,000 children had been through the school. Indians came from 140 tribes, and less than 8% graduated
Oldowan
The first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago at the start of the Lower Paleolithic.
Contd.
d. Clearing land for agriculture:
i. Open spaces for stagnant water
ii. Vector population increases
iii. Host population increases. Malaria increases as a result. Our changes to the environment might be changing our population's gene distribution.
Artisanal Recycling
Recycling things to make art
Millenarianism
a type of revitalization movement aimed at preparing for and perhaps bringing about the end of the "present era", however that era is understood, and replacing it with a new and better existence
Morgan's Argument
-identifying a society's ethnical period allows evolutionary study of societal development
-societies can be compared irrespective of time
Palynology
Study of ancient plants and environments through pollen samples.
perspective on human condition that assumes that mind and body, individuals and society, and individuals and the environment interpenetrate and even define each other
coevolution
Phratry
A unilineal descent group composed of two or more clans that claim to be of common ancestry. If only two such groups exist, each is a moiety.
Sacred Ritual
Patterned group practice, intended to engage the supernatural.
Which genus has the following characteristics: **160,000 years ago, **1,200-1,700 cc, **globular braincase, vertical forehead, decreased body mass, **throughout the globe
Homo Sapiens
Daughter languages
Languages sharing a common parent language, e.g. Latin.
Homozygous
Bearing two identical alleles at a genetic locus.
Communication
is complicated; it is not exactly straightforward
theories "explaining" homosexuality
overbearing mothers and absent fathers. gay gene. less testosterone in the brain
Theory
In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
Goals of forensic anthropology
positive identification
cause of death
act as a reliable witness
provide accurate physical evidence
gorilla
trash folivore, one man harem, sexual dimorphism
Biological Adaptations
Some of these adaptations are physiological in nature and involve metabolic changes. For example, when you are too hot you sweat. Likewise, shivering is an adaptive response to cold. They can also be genetic in nature. The darker skin color of many humans native to regions near the equator is an example of a long-term genetic adaptation. The darker skin provides protection from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation.
Child Poverty
10% higher than 20 years ago
Bands
The basic unit of social organization among foragers, it includes fewer than 100 people and it often splits up seasonally. In this form of sociopolitical organization, egalitarianism and reciprocity are dominant with no formal leadership and groups of close nuclear families living together.
Haplorhines
A subdivision within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics that includes tarsiers, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes (including humans)
generality
Cultural pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies
a. Charles Darwin
i. Naturalist/Scientist. Took a five-year round-world trip on the HMS Beagle, looking to collect different holotypes of species.
ii. Observations in Galapagos. How did these different finches look different and eat different things? Darwin was afraid of being vilified of his findings, so he held on to them.
____- regional or social variety that develops when people are separated by geographic of social barriers
dialect
ethnography
A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
Double Decent
individual has membership in father's group for some purpose and mother's group for others
tarsier
The ________ has an elongated foot bone that allows them leverage for jumps of 6 feet or more.
Poly dactyl
having extra fingers. a Mendelian characteristic
plesiadapiforms
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits
Levallois
a tool technology in which uniform flakes are struck from a prepared coreArchaic Homosapiens
focal vocabulary
specialized sets of terms & distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups
Gloger's Rule
Within the same species of endotherms, there is a tendency to find more heavily pigmented forms near the equator and lighter forms away from the equator.
breeding population
the proportion of a population that chooses mates from within that group
Why is it significant that apes can learn sign language?
...
Food Foraging
A mode of subsistence involving some combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
Ethnology
draws upon data collected by a series of researchers, synthetic, comparative, cross-culture
exogamy
marriage to a person belonging to a tribe or group other than your own as required by custom or law
risk avoidance
one of the reasons for large superstitions, example is mana in the Trobriand island
Sorcery
Using magic to cause harm to someone, not born with the power
social power
an individual's ability to get what her or she wants, even when others might object
who had tools for different needs (spears, needles)
Homo Sapiens
cultural anthropology
the study of human society and culture
Orrorin tugenesis
12 hominid fossils in highlands of Kenya; bipedal; woodlands/savanna habitat 6 mya
___- a means of social control and dispute management through the systematic application of force by those in society wtih the authority to do so
law
Political Organization
The way power is distributed and embedded in society; the means through which a society creates and maintains social order and reduces social disorder
leveling mechanisms
forms of redistribution that tend to decrease social inequality. evens out wealth in a society by forcing resources or capital to be used in ways that sure social goals are considered along with economic ones
Neandertal
A distinct group within the genus homo inhabiting Europe and Southwest Asia from approximately 30,000 to 125,000 years ago
ascribed status (chapt. 10)
status people are born into
Pan troglodytes (common chimp)
females disperse, males form cooperative bands
geology
a science that deals with the history of the earth as recorded in rocks
mitochondrial DNA
DNA in mito that is particularly useful for evolutionary analyses for 2 reasons
1. they are inherited only form the mother and thus there is no recombination
2. mtDNA accumulates mutations at relatively high rates thus serving as a more accurate molecular clock for recent changes
Bilateral kinship
Kin tie calculated equally through men and women
frontier mentality
lawless territory that must be tamed by civilized people
Livestock & Environment
livestock are not natural to the environment and mess with the flow of the ecosystem by eating the plants or becoming prey.
cultural evolution
culture change over time (not to be confused with progress)
Natural Selection
The process by which the "most fit" organisms survive and reproduce in a given environment.
How vowels are used
adjusting the shape of the mouth
vowels are much more complicated than consonants
they place the symbols of the vowels and the chart imitates the shape of the vowel
noted one two axis:
the horizontal axis - stopping points are front, central, and back
the vertical axis is close (mouth closed), mid (close mid and open mid), and open
Urla and Swedlund
Wrote the article "Measuring up to Barbie:"
-Connection between personal appearance and "happiness".
-Connection between appearance and acceptance among peers.
-Teaching lessons about grooming for social events (proms, dates, weddings)
Rite of Passage
rituals tha tmark and facilitate a person's movement from one social state to another
Violence
The exertion of power so as to injure or abuse.
how was man created?
by God and in His image
Azande: Benge-
used only by men, its decisions are never doubted, powerful and poison oracle, only used by wealthy since its so hard to obtain
An instinctive sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning.
What are signals?
decreased osteoarthritis, increased nutritional stress, decreased bone density.
Human remains from the Neolithic transition period, in comparison with those found from foraging populations, show:
women's organizations for change
have been successful in increasing women's access to credit
Explain the Hawaiian kinship system.
the most classificatory; only distinguishes between sex and generation. Thus, siblings and cousins are not distinguished (the same terms are used for both types of relatives).
1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCCED) (5)
the "Earth" summit
the environment
sustainable development
want to stop: destruction of nonrenewable resources and pollution
earlier ice ages and megafauna
-animals would survive either by adapting or moving north
opposable
Able to bring the thumb or big toe in contact with the tips of the other digits on the same hand or foot in order to grasp objects.
Emic Aspect of Culture
view in culture, meaningful to the people who are in culture/society's view
Stonw Tools at Daminisi
similar to early African, but are quite different from the more advanced Acheulian industry associated with African H Erectus 1.4mya
[9/17/2010 10:13 AM] visual predation
the visual predation theory of the emergence of early primates Ember text p. 79-81.
Gennep's 3 stages of rite of passage
preliminal (detachment from old), liminal (changing), postliminal (after the change)
Personal Autonomy (batek)
do whatever you want as long as it doesn't impinge on obligation to help/respect others
"Witchcraft among the Azande" - What is witchcraft?
Misfortune, provides some action which may be taken to alleviate these misfortunes brings social tensions into the open and has a normative effect of society. A psychic power and often hereditary.
Nuer Gender life cycle and power
Early men have power, eventually women catch up and surpass
political or social repression
The use of force by a ruling group to maintain political, economic, or social control over other groups.
WHat is the nasal region of NWM like?
septum is typically wider than OWM; rounded nostrils that face laterally
Cross-cousins
...
inferior
below
Studying up:
...
forefather
an ancestor.
Taung Child
A. Africanus
bilocal
alternate between parents
proconsul
first ape like creature
Interview
direct questioning - structured/unstructured
postmodernism
challenging basic ethnographic assumptions and methodologies.
Ritual
Formal, repetitive, stereotyped behavior; based on a liturgical order
Economy
-production, distribution, and consumption of resources
Materialism
Explanation of cultural differences that emphasize environment, technology, and mode of production.
survey
systematic exploration of the landscape to identify potential sites, and determine how people in the past used the site
reciprocity
exchange between social equals; dominant form of exchange in egalitarian societies
services
jobs people do for others
synchronic
studying societies at one time
sib
a unilateral descent group; sibling
period
time frame found within an era
Lineage
A Unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms
NAPA
national association for the practice of anthropology
inbreeding theory
theory of incest taboo--biologically you avoid incest because of the genetic mutations it causes
ethnocide
Destruction of cultures of certain ethnic groups
Polyandry
a polygamous mating system involving one female and many males
point mutation
mutations involving incorrect base paring
Seriation
grouping and finding patterns in artifacts, "like type goes with like time"
Morphological -> Temporal
1)Define morphologies clearly;2) across a region, connect morph types to stratigraphy; 3)connect to regional radiocarbon chronology
false
food-foraging was never important for man
macroevolution
changes produced only after many gerneations such as the appearance of a new species.
bloodwealth
traditional practice in many societies of compensating death or other injury with material wealth.
Linnaeus
Father of taxonomy (naming system) with binomial nomenclature for all species (homo sapiens)
Acheulian tool complex
associated with homo erectus
1990 orange county color
teal and beige
True
There is a considerable amount of evidence that kinship does play a central role in the lives of virtually all primates. For example, food sharing occurs mainly among kin, grooming is more common among kin than nonkin, and female kin support one another in coalition formation. True or false?
Physical Anthropology
also known as biological anthropology. The systematic study of humans as biological organisms
endogamy
marriage within one's own tribe or group as required by custom or law
Explanations of Incest Prohibition-
Explanations: biological inbreeding disadvantage, instinctual repulsion, social alliances, social role conflicts
blending inheritance
An outdated, disreputed theory that the phenotype of an offspring was a uniform blend of the parents' phenotypes.
commodification
turning all goods and services into products for market sale to satisfy customers
imitative magic:
produce large scale effect by performing small ceremony such as pouring water on altar to induce rainfall.
Behavioral potential
the spectrum of possible expression created by morphology, evolutionary history and other aspects of a genotype
artifact
a human made object from long ago
Kinbased
Labor is organized based on kinship groups
Prosimian
a member of the suborder Prosimii; includes lemurs, lorises, potto, and galagos
Morpheme!
smallest UNIT of sound that carries meaning
Leslie White
developed "science of culture"- focus on material culture- how people change in and inturn change social system- energy capture
Food Taboo
abstaining from eating certain foods as a practice of religion or another moral value. Swine are a common example of this dilemma.
pastorialism
rely on domesticated animals. can be completely nomadic. Transhumance- move animals seasonally. slightly more complicated social organizations. lineages and inheratance
Our Genus?
Homo; Smaller Teeth, Bigger Body, Bigger Brain in proportion
Secondary Elaboration
Azande
Azande who need to make important decision/discover cause of event, consults a diviner
Diviner then poisons chicken, if it kills the chicken/doesn't kill it- it means something and reflects the answer.
Ethnographer
An anthropologist in the process of doing ethnography in one particular culture.
Durkheim on Religion
Religion is society worshipping itself
chromosomes
In the cell nucleus, the structures visible during cellular division containing long strands of DNA combined with a protein.
E.O. Wilson
studied behavior of insects etc.- argument that in many ways animals and humand cant be excluded- we are a product of an evolutionary (biology) background that has made us to move in different ways- the traits we express as humans are largely a product of what we- biological determinism-biological reductionism (critical term)
DNA
____ can tell where ancestors come from but not your "race"
Arguments about magic and Americans in the U.S. in the essays by Horace Miner and George Gmelch
Evolutionary change based on the differential reproductive success of individuals within a species
Natural selection
-witchcraft and sorcery (fear and punishment) can be used to reduce differences or enforce a moral order-punishing those who stand out, bringing them in line with norms
Religious Diversity
Interphase
The portion of a cell's cycle during which metabolic processes occur. Majority of its lifespan.
law
legal code of a state society, with trial and enforcement
Avunculate
- relationship between a man and his sister's children (child's maternal uncle)
- Descent = matrilineal
- Your avunculate uncle is your mother's brother
- plays major role in the lives of his nephews/nieces (often get inheritance over the uncle's children)
Broad-Spectrum Revolution
Foraging varied plant and animal foods at end of Ice Age; prelude to Neolithic.
Homo ergaster
The Africa population of the Homo Erectus.
Self- Awareness
the ability to percieve and reflect upon themselves as individuals
Visual Predation Model
argues that ancestral primates were insectivorous predators resembling tarsiers, subject to the same selection pressure for frontal vision as other predatory species. (Eocene)
Culture Relativism
Ability to view the beliefs and customs of others in the context of their culture (opposite of ethnocentrism)
Patrilocality
a married couple lives with or near the relatives of the husband's father
barefoot doctors
part of the Chinese health care system; these are people who are part paramedic, part nurse, and part public health official, and traveled to rural villages to provide basic preventative health care and education.
Alleles
different variants of each gene or the alternate form of a gene
Applied Anthropology
Is the use of cultural anthropology, linguistics, archaeology, and biological anthropology to solve practical problems in business, politics, delivery of services, and land management.
Consanguine Family
A family consisting of related women, their offspring, and the women's brother's.
is famine common among foragers?
no. famine is RARE
Hispaniola
What is the island that the Dominican Republic and Haiti are on?
Independent Assortment
Law that states that different traits are inherited independently of one another, so one trait does not affect the other.
cherry trees symbol
virginity , the american cultureal calendar: its symbolic meanings the beginning form christmas - dudaeo- chirstian holiday and new years roman saturnalia
small-c communism
a social system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work for the common good.
interview schedule
form or guide used to structure a formal but personal interview
sampling universe
the list of cases to be sampled from
Art in Western Civilization
--Seen as a luxury/aesthetic pleasure apart from more useful/productive activities.
--E.g. King Tut where objects from his tomb are on display but were not made for human eyes. Made to insure eternal afterlife.
Social, political, legal, economic, and ritual
Descent groups serve 5 functions:
The Kula Ring
This system of change involves annual inter-island visits between seasons.Meant to establish friendly relationships among the inhabitants of different islands and maintain a pattern of peaceful contact and communication.
hidden text
goes on behind the backs of whomever is the butt of the joke by the opposing ethnic groups
Padrones and recruiters
Padrones would help people get to America, in return those people would have to be indentured servents. Recruiters would pick people up at docks and give them a job but they would be working in sub working conditions.
Oxygen Isotope Curve
The record of fluctuations in global climate during the Pleistocene
Genome
Sum total of all the genes carried by an individual
W.E.B. Du Bois
family lived in black society and white society, speaks out against scientific racism, bond between all those who were in bondage or in slavery binds people together, blackness is all around him, but he can never escape it; common bond between slavery and oppression; supports education (slow change)
Ascribed Status
a status that is the result of being born into a particular family or being born male or female
patrilineal descent
a rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes through males only
Hei ta bebi
almost barren, only a shabono & garden fell; no jungles or game animals
Gene flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
Evidence for arboreal behavior in Australopithecus
• Arboreal hypothesis
• Most primates live in trees, have grasping hands and fingers, and have binocular vision, meaning that both eyes are in the front, allowing good depth perception. This also could explain why smell isn't so important anymore, therefore, not that developed
- longer arms
- curved fingers & toes
- smaller bichondoral angle
Who was Lyell?
He was a geologist and believed the Earth to be older than previously believed which allows for evolutionary change.
How to identify the body
-cause of death, teeth, tattoos, sex (biological identity), traumas
What are the only 2 hominid species NOT from east Africa?
Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus africanus
Arch. Resources Preservation Act (ARPA)
penalties for looting, 5 yrs in prison, $250,000 in fines (doubled?)
What evidence is there for evolution acting rapidly? (know one example from the article)
The sticklebacks going from heavy armor to light, as they moved from seas to lakes. Sexual selction is working with natural selection here.
biomedical medicine is surpassed by tribal medicine because...
although there are many medicines made in the wild, thousand of effective drugs are available today over the counter.
X. Bushmeat Trade. Some people eat 'bushmeat' or meat from primates.
a. Delicacy in many cultures
b. Trade serves city markets worldwide.
What traits does the genus "Homo" have that differentiate it?
Larger, more rounded brain case, less projecting face, smaller teeth, more efficient bipedalism
Sino-Tibetan
Chinese culture
chatelperronian
blade industry
yes
Military? - Aztec
moden humans 300,000 ya-
:)
Ju/hoansi location
Namibia and Botswana
Asad's handmaiden paradox: At
...
enthography
sub-observation. field research- observes social patterns
(concave area of bone)notch
indentation
Stratified
Class-structured, with differences in wealth, prestige, and power
Find small and large lemurs.
...
tooth decay
cavities after corn introduced
Altruism
Sacrificing reproductive success to aid another
paleoanthropology
part of physical/biological; studies the emergence of humans and their evolution
III. Western Philosophy - Essentialism
...
Streetwatch vs. National Railroad Passenger Corp
...
tapetum
layer behind retina, reflects light
biological field methods
paleoanthropology, paleopathology, forensics
Australopithecus
4.2-2.3 mya earliest well esablished homid fossil
ethnic groups
group distinguished by cultural similarities and differences; ethic group members share beliefs, values, habits, customs, and norms.
how we determine age
-dentiton
-ephiphyseal union
-pubic symphyses
laetoli
site in Tanzania where hominid footprints were found,, a place in E. Africa where footprints preserved in volcanic ash from 3.6 mya were found. Proof of bipedalism.
Trans-national Migration
Regular Movement of individuals between two or more countries resulting in a new cultural identity.
Apartheid
In twentieth-century South Africa, the official policy of separating the races within their society legally and socially.
Salvage Ethnography
believe anthropologists must rescue dying cultures
(Franz Boas "father" of four field approach)
main hawaiian gods
kane, kanaloa, ku, lono
Descent
permanent social unit, members claim common ancestry
Blumenbach
thought Linnaeus was wrong. Caucasian (white), Mongolian (yellow), Malayan (brown), Ethiopian (black), American (red).
Heliocentric Theories
all cultures came from egypt
Independence Training
fosters individual self-reliance and personal achievement
- societies in which a basic social unit consisting of parents and offspring fends for itself.
characteristic of Independence Training - characteristic of mercantile trading, industrial, and postindustrial societies where self - sufficiency and personal achievement are important traits for success.
Sovereignty
each of the villages have this
fieldwork
fieldwork done by a cultural anthropologist is among primitive cultures observing and recording their customs and rituals
phenotypical adaptation
addaptive biological changes that occur during the indiviuals lifetime made possible by biological plasticity
social stratification
a hierarchical relationship among different groups
Shaman
A part-time religious practitioner who mediates between ordinary people and supernatural beings and forces.
core
dominant structural position in world system; strongest and most powerful states with advanced systems of production
Franz Boas
Formed first academic department of anthropology at Columbia University.
diaphyses
main midsection or shaft portions of long bones, contains medullary cavity
multiculturism
an acceptance of many cultures; not just one
Migrants
can be a particulary important context for redefining relations; broad-ranging changes in daily life can bring major transformation
Population Genetics
Field that studies genetics of breeding populations.
demestication
process of becoming used to house life
Trill
One touches the place of articulation more than once. Ex: French "R" is a uvular trill. It vibrates.
Linguistics
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language.
God created man with a ___ ______.
God-consciousness.
alternative ends
people invest scarce resources in subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and rent funds & peasants: small-scale agriculturalists in nonindustrial states w/ rent fund obligation
Descriptive Linguistics
how languages differ in their construction
contagious magic
Magic based onthe principle that things or persons once in contact coan influence each other after the contact is broken.
Discouraged
In the etoro society, homosexual sex between boys of the same age is ______
Ecosystem
A system, or a function whole, composed of both the natural environment and all the organisms living within it
polygamy
a rule allowing more than one spouse
unilineal
Tracing your descent using only one line either your mother's side or father's
Technology of agriculture
Plows, draft animals, fertilizer, irrigation, terracing
Cognitive relativism
each culture leads people to experience and think about the world
Leveling Mechanism
customs and social actions that operate to reduce differences in wealth and thus to bring standouts in line with community norms
eid al adha
muslim holiday involving ritual slaughter of sheep or ram
Four fields of anthropology
Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistic Anthropology and Cultural Anthropology.
 
Displacement
is describing things and events that are not present; basic to language.
 
Old World archaeologist who studied Maiden Castle, practically reconstructing every detail.
Mortimer Wheeler
Subsistence Strategy: Horticulture
Extensive agriculture, multicrop and multi year systems. (non continual land use). Swidden agriculture (Slash and burn)
Communal religions
In addition to shamans, have community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and collective rites of passage. lack full time religious specialists. Polytheistic.
phones
total set of sounds found in human language
Ego
Central person from whom the degree of each relationship is traced
r-RNA
Reads the message carried by m-RNA and attaches it to t-RNA.
nuclear family
family where parents and children live together, independent units found in societies with high amounts of mobility
Sunni
Religion- no basis in Islam for a hereditary privileged class.
Political- believe the job of leadership should be given to whoever is capable of handling it.
Consumption
Involves what people use in terms of intake (food) and output (using available resources).
Moral Relativism
extreme form of cultural relativism in which moral and ethical rules of all cultures deserve equal respect
John Locke
people are born as blank slates=tabula Rosa and this would work under socialism
Common-Interest Associations
Associations that result from an act of joining based on sharing particular activities, objectives, values, or beliefs.
Fetal position
People in ancient times were often buried in this position with their hands and feet removed and their body tied up
Balanced reciprocity
time and amount of repayment are specified
convergent evolution
The process by which analogies are produced. Example would be bats and birds.
bridewealth
goods presented by the groom's kin to the bride's kin to legitimize a marriage
Seperation
In a rite of passage, the ritual removal of the individual from society
Ethical relativism
the strong doctrine of relativism that claims that there is no moral benchmark outside of culture by which to judge other cultures
biological adaptation
changes in anatomy or physiology in population as a response to environmental stimuli
codified laws
a set of explicit, written rules saying what is or is not permissible.
Archaeology
The study of the cultures of people who no longer exist by examining what those people have left behind
What starts or stops the flow of sound created by a vowel
Consonant
shrink
to draw back, as in retreat or avoidance:
Productivity
The ability to use the rules of one's language to create new expressions comprehensible to other speakers; a basic feature of language.
teleology
an ideal type as a goal of nature; slow steady evolution or changes toward a perfect form; a predetermined design in nature (ancient Greek theory)
Burke Act
1906 Waived 25 year waiting perioud b4 selling land. Had to prove competency though
Density of Social Relations
The number and intensity of interactions among the members of a camp.
Old World Monkeys
more diverse, wider habitat range than new world monkeys; arboreal and terrestial; baboon, langur, mandrill
"the continuing imposition on global economies of policies that accelerate economic growth."
Robbins' definition of globalization
holistic
A view of the self in which the individual cannot be conceived of as existing separately from society or apart from his or her status or role.
Cultural Imperialism
the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys - usually because of differential economic or political influence
2 superfamilies of Catarrhini
Cercopithecoidea [Old World Monkeys] & Hominoidea
Egalitarian Society
As many positions as the person is capable of filling
early Homo are different from Australopithecus because...
-larger relative brain size
-more domed cranial vault
-less projecting face
Is this a marked (no equivalent form) or unmarked (General form) Lexeme?
Dog
200 years go
It is the male term for dog BUT we use this term for both males and females
UNMARKED (GENERAL FORM)
"going to the field"
going to another place to directly observe and collect data
What is homology?
trait that is shared by 2 species because of descent from a common ancestor
fire-stick farming
A term used by Rhys Jones to describe the aboriginal use of fire in Australia
Social Structural Time
Believe they all come from a common ancestor. The closer related you are, the better.
Chinese foot building
Begins at age 6 or 8. By mid-teens, the bones of the foot had grown permanently distorted into the desired position. The feet caused the woman constant pain, and normal walking was out of the question. Upper class Chinese women's feet were transformed into small, useless, but--for Chinese men-- extremely erotic stubs.
Absolute Dating Methods
Method of dating that dates the age of something in and of itself. Dating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges of numbers; examples include carbon 14 dating and molecular dating.
extensive agriculture
using a lot of land to feed a small group of people ex: slash and burn
Give some descriptive qualities about Homo habilis mouth
Smaller molars and more parabola like mouth
What are some male preferences and how do they benefit?
Healthy and fit
fertile and fecund
faithfulness
willingness to invest and good support system
Benefits
Foraging abilities
age/youth
experience/interactions with children
physical cues that signal fertility/ easy childbearing
Indian Removal Act of 1830
Attempt in the 1830 to move all Native American groups to the western side of the Mississipi
Why do you think food production began in marginal zones?
There wasn't enough plant life to survive on foraging
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Term:
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