Anthropology Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Enculturation
...
nocturnal
l
Monogamy
One spouse
Human Taxonomy
AnthropoideaCatarrhiniHominiodeaHominidaeHomosapiens
paleontology
study of fossils
spheres of exchange
...
Circumscription
•civilization develops where populations are circumscribed by environmental barriers or other societies.
diastema
gab between anterior teeth
sample
a manageable study group
Myth
story form of ritual.
rules of word arrangement
grammar
Language
Primary means of human communication.
May be spoken and written.
Based on arbitrary, learned, associations between words and things for which they stand.
3 ½ - 5 feet
...
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; four bases: Adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine
Potassium Argon
Volcanic ash/indigenous rock; 200,000-several million;not precise but useful
primatologists
researchers that study nonhuman primates
Evans-Pritchard
a British anthropologist instrumental in the development of social anthropology in that country.
liminality
stage between two different identities, its never guaranteed whats going to turn out
Organic solidarity
large scale societies, nation-states
Art
-expressive culture (objects and performances)-stimulation of the senses, emotion (catharsis)-communication, symbolism
Margret Mead
Pioneering Female Anthropologist. New Guinea social factors. "Coming of age in Samoa"
less
having ____ melanin protects from having TOO LITTLE Vitamin D
Patrilocal
Staying near family of the groom
allele frequency
microevolution is a change in
Neolocal
System under which a couple establishes an independent household after marriage.
Paleoanthropologist
An anthropologist specializing in the study of human evolutionary history.
holism
to literally pay attention to everything to accomplish this anthropologist have to work in teams
ethnology
comparing different cultures to each other; cross cultural comparison
Definition of balanced reciprocity
trade with non-kin
iconic images
Culturally specific people, animals and mnsters seen in the deepest stage of trance.
Basal Anthropoids
Eosimas and Biretia
Fossils contain characteristics expected in anthropoid ancestor
spirituality
Concern with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters. In contrast to religion, spirituality is often individual rather than collective and does not require a distinctive format or traditional organization.
Coining-
What the traditional healer, Krou Khmer, uses. A heated coin is rubbed hard on the arms or chest, causing painful welts
Unilineal Descent
Descent that established group membership exclusively through either the mother's or the father's line.
Neocolonialism
One nation controlling another without giving them power
Acculturation
process of acquiring a "second culture," usually as an effect of sustained and imbalanced contact between 2 societies. members of the "weaker" society are compelled to adopt aspects of the dominant society
Mead's Contributions
-gender roles, stereotypes, and stratification are socially and culturally constructed
-comparative approach to reject the notion that all differences between men and women are innate (biologically determined)
-if innate, male/female differences (e.g., temperament) should be universal (found in all societies) and invariable (remain the same through time)
secularization
less belief in supernatual. scientific explanations
Genotype?
Alleles you express from a trait.
Ex: Mendel's homozygous tall plants = TT
Exogamous
The custom of marrying outside the tribe, family, clan, or other social unit.
Polygyny
Man may have multiple wives
*type of marriage
Corporate Anthropology
Advising executives and staff on intercultural communication for business overseas
Teosinte
wild grass found in highlands of Mexico; wild ancestor of maize
Neolithic
"New Stone Age"; Grind and polish stone tools and early domestication.
Superfamily
One or more related families; all superfamily names end in -oidea
julian steward
developed the concept that cultures interact with each other & environment
Places of Articulation
1. Bilabial
2. Labiodental
3. Dental
4. Alveolar
5. Postalveolar
6. Retroflex
7. Palatal
Syntax
The patterns or rules by which morphemes are arranged into phrases and sentences.
Comparative Perspective
Compare societies to better understand each of them
Masks
unification and they don't have to worry about gender, political standpoint , economic standpoint
Money
The most common medium of exchange; functions as legal tender
monogamous
marriage involves one spouse at a time
Brideprice
the compensation of goods or services paid by the groom's family to the bride's family.
Stratification by Gender
The social inequalities existent between men and women.
Pastoralism
Breeding and managing large herds of domesticated herbivores (grazing and browsing animals), such as goats, sheep, cattle horses, llamas, or camels
animism
the belief that all living and nonliving objects are imbued with spirit
Yanomamo: Curare-
-Poison from a vine
-Induces muscle relaxation
Materialism/Acquisitiveness
Americans would like to think that their material objects are just the natural benefits that result from hard work and serious intent.
malaria
disease caused by parasites that is transmitted by mosquitos, it can be deadly and even less-acute forms are often thoroughly disabling
Paranthropus boisei
Mary Leaky ~~From East Africa~~ 2.3-1.3 mya larger than p. robustus, huge cheek teeth small anterior dentition, dishd face, evidence for sexual dimorphism bipedal
Linguistic anthropology
the branch of anthropology that studies linguistic variation in time and space, including interrelations between language and culture
office
the position of authority assigned to a person.
subnasal prognathism
face below nose is pushed out
Candomble is a religion that is predominantly run by men.
False
Studying another culture from its point of view without imposing our own cultural values
Cultural relativity
Art: Sratified Society
-Integration of unlike element-Little empty space-Asymmetrical design-Enclosed figures
Historical linguistics
Studies the origins of languages; how languages change over time; relationships among language
cultural anthropology
the study of variations in cultural behaviors among human populations
Phonemics
the study of sound contrasts of a particular language
Anthropology
The study of humankind in all times and places.
migration
movement of a person or people from one place to another
Anthropology today
improved science puts modern humans in Europe earlier, radiocarbon
stratified society
a society in which people are hierarchically divided and ranked into social strata, or layers, and do not share equally in the basic resources that support survival, influence, and prestige
Imperialism
the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys; due to economic or political influence
Archeological anthropology
focuses on past cultures and materials like tools or other man-made/natural material through excavation
Bridewealth
Paid by groom or family to bride's family
Modal personality
The character traits that occue with tha highest frequency in a social group and are therefore the most representative of its culture.
ex.yanamomo are encouraged to be aggressive
Great rift valley
geological fissure, east side of africa; many great fossil finds-volcanic deposits
Ethnicity
A shared sense of identity among a group based on heritage, language, and culture
leveling mechanisms
practice, value, or form of social organization that evens out wealth within a society.
population density
the number of people inhabiting a given area of land. number of people per unit of land.
Recessive (alleles)
gets covered up by dominant alleles, shows up if there is no dominant allele present
human rights
invokes a realm of justice and morality beyond and superior to the laws and customs of particular countries
Emic (insider)
what insiders do and perceive about their culture, thier perceptions of reality, and their explanations for why they do what tehy do.
ethnocide
the destruction of a culture, with or without destruction of the population that practiced it
ape
miocene is period known as golden age of hominoid due to spectacular hominoid ---- radiation everywhere but new world
Functionalist Theory (vs Conflict)
Social stratification benefits whole society because it motivates people to undertake all jobs necessary for society to survive.
Archaeological Anthropology
The study of human behavior through material remains.
proximal
closer to the attachment of the limb to trunk of body (nearer the hip or shoulder)
alleles
any of several forms of a gene, usually arising through mutation, that are responsible for hereditary variation.
cathemeral
they come out at random times day and night
Observing people in their environments for extended periods of time.
What is participant observation?
Foraging mode of reproduction
Low fertility, low mortality, breast feeding till 5yrs of age.
Primitive or ancestral traits
characteristic found in an ancestor and all (or most) of its descendants
gender stratification
when members of a society are ranked according to gender
Archbishop Ussher
Oct. 23, 4004 BC (creation of earth), used bible as authoritative text
globalization
the people of the world are drawn into a more and more compact system of trade which will soon be worldwide
belief system
set of beliefs that make up a worldview about universe and human purpose
genetic cloning
Which of the following is not an evolutionary force?
telecottage
unused workshop or part of a house for public use of the computer/internet
WD Hamilton
Genetic basis for the existence of kin selection.
Development of a gene-centric view of evolution.
Forerunner of sociobiology
invention/independent invention
a new idea or practice is created in development
Modern World System
Every group is in contact with other groups (globalization)
Neolocal System
You can pick where you want to live, but it has to be away from both families. Emphasizes spousal bonds
Somoa - Matrilineal society
traced through the mothers decedents , your're only related to mom in this society there also related to their entire kinsman. Primary authority is going to be mother's brother
Naming ceremony
a special event or ritual to mark the naming of a child, without a name and individual has no identity, no self
TF? The image of God in man has been totally destroyed by sin
False
What are some facts about neandertal culture?
Had language and deliberate burials
emergence of a global economy
1) collapse of the existing colonial empires
2) developments of technology have made geography irrelevant
3) international finance and the globalization of world capital
Agents of directed change
Methods of control used in addition to military occupation to enact change within colonies
The actions individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural identities.
What does the term agency refer to?
A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word of its pronunciation and meaning.
What is tonal lanuage?
shorter legs relative to trunk size, no hidden ovulation, and samller gluteal musculature
Which of the following is more characteristic of apes than humans:
1. Below, which is in the correct chronological order?
C. Stone tool making begins, brain expansion, ritual and language begins, Neandertals die out
Exogamy
...
Productive forces:
...
Proxemics:
Personal space
primary food source
milk
Purgatorius
65mya. First proto-primate
power
possession of controlling influence
Polygamy
more than one spouse
Consanguineal Kin
Relationship through blood.
matrilineal descent
tracing though mother
-manual labor, simple technologies-extensive us of resources-gardens/terraces-slash & burn agriculture-balanced reciprocity/redistribution-coexist w/ forages/pastoralists, but not with agriculturalists-ex. Lozi
Agriculture
Pronograde
spine roughly horizontal
 Arboreal quadrupedalism; forelimbs=hind limbs (hind limbs slightly longer), limbs are short relative to torso length(balance), relatively long fingers and toes, long tails (counterbalance)
 Terrestrial quadrupedalism; hind limbs =forelimbs, limbs are long relative to torso
Charles Lyell
effectively discredited the long-standing view that the earth's surface had been formed by short-lived cataclysms, such as biblical floods and earthquakes-his principle: uniformitarianism: same geological processes that are at work today slowly formed the earth's surface over an immensely long time
pair-bonding
Long lasting relationships between male and female that facilitates the rearing of offspring
Environment
everything external to the organism.
State
In anthropology, a centralized political system involving large numbers of people within a defined territory who are divided into social classes and organized and directed by a formal government that has the capacity and authority to make laws and to use force to defend the social order
potlach ceremony
burn goods; renews economy
Agriculture
nonindustrial system of plant cultivication characterization by continuous and intensive use of land and labour
phenotype
expressed physical characteristics of an organism
thorough
executed without negligence or omissions:
Comparativism
to be inclusive to all patterns
matrilocality
married couple resides in wife's (mother's) community
macroevolution
accumulation of small changes over vast time.
Meiosis results in _______ daughter cells.
4
Participant Observation
A required method for ethnography
Baloma spirit
Soul, leaves body upon death
Shovel Testing
Use grid to find/map artifacts
pluralism
several subcultural groups live among each other
social type of horticulturals
tribe or chiefdom
true
chimpanzees can be taught sign language
Openness
The possibility of using the linguistic code to create totally new combinations of elements in order to articulate meanings never before uttered.
Big men
must create a trading partner
Medical Anthropology
both academic/ theoretical and applied/ practical. and includes anthropologists from all four subfields. med. anthropologists examine such questions as which diseases and health conditions affect particular populations (and why) and how illness is socially constructed, diagnosed, managed, and treated in various societies. biomedicine as cultural construction
Evolution
The process of descent with modification through the mechanisms of natural selection
commodification
putting a cash value on something
Clans
Created when large lineage groups split.-Members claim descent from remote ancestor( often mythical)-don't know genealogical links to that ancestor
Orangutans
BLANKS live solitary lives with little bonding in evidence. Males are intolerant of one another. In his prime, a single male establishes a large territory, within which live several females. Each female has her own, separate home range.
Korikancha
(sun temple)
One of the most venerated shrines
Interior with Inca trapezoidal niches, double-jammed doorways
achieved status
social position acquired through our own efforts or accomplishments or taken on voluntarily
Berdache
General term for a socially accepted gender role where a person of one gender (usually male) takes on the dress activities of the other gender.
codon
The sequence of 3 nitrogen bases carried by mRNA that are coded to produce specific amino acids in protein synthesis
Ethnocentrism
the belief that all aspects of European culture represent the best forms of culture
archeology
the study of past human cultures through their material remains
Historical Particularism
Each culture is unique and intelligible only on its own terms
Australopithecus garhi
-Common name: Surprise -2.5 mya *Differences from other hominids: -Projecting face, large front and back teeth, long forlimbs (arms), Long hind limbs (legs) -C.C: 450cm3 *EARLIEST example of stone tool use: butchered antelope bones. =>Link between Australopithecus and Homo (ideal link to homo)
*Biological/physical
the study of human evolution and biological diversity of human populations
--Medical anthropology, primatology, forensic anthropology
Oreontation
a family a person is born into
Negotiation
The use of direct argument and compromise by the parties to a dispute to arrive voluntarily at a mutually satisfactory agreement
culture trait
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. A single element of learned behavior.
Cladistics
a system of classification based on differentiating between ancestral and derived traits.
core
the dominant position in the world system that includes the strongest and most powerful nations; has sophisticated technologies and mechanized production and monopolizes the most profitable activities in terms of world finance
reemergent infectious disease
increases in frequency when microorganisms evolve resistance to antibiotics
False
The groups that adopted the ghost dance were seeking treaties with the whites that would give them more land.
Revitalization Movements
Restore balance despite cultual loss. Nativistic/Millenarian Movements. "Golden Age", Revolutionary, Hostile to whitles
classification of mutations
1. point mutation
2. chromosomal mutations
3. chromosomal imbalance
Acheulian (ash´-oo-lay-en)
A Lower Paleolithic stone tool industry that includes bifacially worked hand axes and cleavers and many kinds of flake tools. It began as early as 1.4 mya in Africa, spread across many parts of the temperate to tropical parts of Europe and Asia, and ended roughly 200,000 ya. Also spelled Acheulean.
etic
outside vision. looking at a situation through the eyes of an outside onlooker
micro evolution
the specific adaptations that people make within their own culture/ social setting- importance at one point in time it was believed all societies went through the same type of evolution
Gender Ideology
Examples: seclusion of women, cultural emphasis on honor and shame for females, male control over social institutions related to sexuality
ideaology
in chiefdom. use of symbols beliefs and ideals that reflect and support the interests of society. applied by those in charge. explain how society should work.
A specialist in the subfield of anthropology who studies the human cultural past and the reconstruction of past cultural systems
Archaeologist
-specialize in domesticated animals-have encounteres w/ sedentary populations-balanced reciprocity-ex. Nomadism, Maasi
Slash and Burn Techniques
Descent Group
A permanent social unit, whose members claim common ancestry.
bilocal residence
system under which a married couple has the choice of living with the husband's family or the wife's family
Clovis tool industry
small projectile points and knives; pressure flaking and a basal flute for hafting, fast moving from west to east following b ig game, 13 kya, coincides with the extinction of large mammals like the mammoth, giant sloth. identified with the Americas
Linguistic Relativity
The idea that distinctions encoded in one language are unique to that language
Race
The idea we ascribe to biology. There are variations in the race rather than outside of the race
Signals are "......"
instinctual sounds or gestures that have a natural or self-evident meaning (e.g., baby's cry, a gasp, scream, hiccup)
bipedalism
locomotion in which an animal walks on its two hind legs
Linguistic Nationalism
the attempt by ethnic minorities and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms.
Anthropology is
the study of humans, past and present
Aristotle
Looked at both form and function to create a classification system called "Scala Naturae." Contained 3 related principles: every species that could exist did, all species could be organized in one single line, and every species on the line is graded imperceptibly into the next. Incorporated into Christian theology through beliefs that since order is superior to disorder, God's creations must fit a pattern aka Scala Naturae -->Great Chain of Being. Studied spontaneous generation.
THE CULTURE CONCEPT (PCB)
1. PAN-HUMAN RATIONALITY
2. CULTURAL UNIVERSALS
3. BOASIAN APPROACH
culture
all the things that are learned shared by a particular society. (not shared equally/that peple have same beliefs and traditions) --> shared to an extent
Marginal Environments
since A.D. 1400's, foragers have been pushed into areas that nobody else wanted to live and where it is very difficult to make a living
Cultural Relativism
the principle that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
Breadwinner
A traditional gender role found in the United States that views males as being responsible for the economic support and protection of the family
Robin Fox
1946-current. Incest taboo is a human universal. Familiarity breed disinterest.
Universal Grammer
is a theory of linguistics postulating principles of grammar shared by all languages, thought to be innate to humans (nativism). It attempts to explain language acquisition in general, not describe specific languages.
triangle, passion
Ape Genius, a PBS film, argues that the two major differences between humans and other primates is the BLANK which turbocharges team work and makes teaching possible. The second difference is humans have a BLANK to teach and learn.
Minangkabou (W. Sumatra, Indonesia)
matriarchal society; women play a central role in social, economical and ceremonial life; men and women are seen as cooperative partners and decisions are made by consensus
"Understanding Hindu Traditions" - What are the goals or pursuits in life listed in the film?
Artha, Kama, Dharma, Maksha (rebirth).
The "soft" path (5)
be more efficient in water use
re-think demand for water
link groundwater and surface water management
manage water at most local level possible
keep water quality standards at federal level
Irrigation
Circumscription
Long distance trade
conquest
What are the theories for Origin of States?
Gross National Happiness
Policy has 4 pillars, what everyone pursues in life, blend of economical development/spiritual developments; Buttanese
home range
the area in which an animal normally ranges
Hmong culture and refugee experience
Patriarchal society; mixture of Buddhism and spiritual religion; 8 tonal language; "persistent people"; had to migrate to California and Wisconsin after the Communists won in the Vietnam War
Nuer/Dinka (Lost Boys)
Sudan; Refugees from civil war who relocated to the U.S.
East African Rift Valley
A geological feature stretching from East Africa to the Middle East that is the richest context for the recover of early hominin archaeological sites
Multi-state nation
a nation or cultural group that is divided accross 2 or more state borders
Thomson's nose rule
average nose length increases in cold areas
During gestation, human mothers must put a lot of energy toward _____ & ______.
Brain and body development
North America
11,800 ya is the fist date of people in Alaska
endocast
A cast of the inside of a skull; helps determine the size and shape of the brain.
the role of ideology
1. legitimating the existing order; 2. mediating contradictions; 3. mystifying the sources of exploitation and inequality in society
What is Behavioral Ecology
Behavioral Ecology is the study of behavior as an adaptation to the environment.
selective perception
the idea of only seeing what you want to see
deregulated cash flows leads to
more short term money flowsmany economic crisesgovernment limited and cant cope
American Indian/ Native American
A member of any of the indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The ancestors of the Native Americans are generally considered by scientists to have entered the Americas from Asia by way of the Bering Strait sometime during the late glacial epoch.
rule of hypodescent
the child of a mixed race couple will be presented with the race of the parent with the lowest status
Face developed why?
Tools!! They took over the job of face as a third hand
ideal vs. real behaviors
What people claim to do and what they actually do. ex) would you go swimming in the sacred river Ganges? Can't believe what a native says.
"soul," "spirit," "heart," and "body"
In the Old Testament, these terms do NOT denote specific body parts because the Old Testament is uninterested in the way in which these parts are related to the activity of the body as a whole.
According to the oral tradition of storytelling why must the chimps live in trees forever?
Because the forrest god punished them becuase they took a babie from a woman
Apply some of the eight questions about meaning to a familiar cultural symbol from American culture or Runa culture (coca)
coca is a symbol because people report that it is culturally important. people are emotionally aroused by it. the symbol appears in many different contexts from work to social contracts to religious celebrations. ideas about the coca leaf and practices associated with it are numerous as can be seen in the hallpay process and the phukuy of offering the sami, the ideas are numerous as well as how it connects them to inca and mary, as well as a community. rules are strict concerning how goca is administered first by gender then by status.
Stoneworking
...
Culture Change
...
relative dating
...
folivores
BLANKS eat leaves
Strepsirhines
lemurs, lorises, galagos
C4 environment
wet, wooded environment
shaman
part-time practitioner of magico-religious rites of divination and curing who play important role in mobilizing public opinion and eliminating sources of conflict
Nother Sudan
Islamic, Arab customs
pastoralists of Northern Kenya
Ariaal
Sexual dimorphism
physical difference between sexes
The sperm contains ______ chromosomes.
23
Cultural Capital
the way you talk/dress
site
accumulations of artifacts, features, ecofacts and/or human skeletal remains that represent places where people lived, died or carried out certain activities in the past
2.3 mya
A. Boisei how old?
unclear families
opposite of nuclear families
amino acid
components of a protein
skepticism
Imagination and ________ are significant to the pursuit of science.
Genotype
genetic makeup of an individual
Discrimination
De facto-practiced, but not legally sanctioned; de jure-part of the law; apartheid in South Africa was an example of de jure discrimination
Symbol
something, verbal or nonverbal, that arbitrarily stands for something else
Diffusion
Borrowing of cultural traits between societies.
lineage
lineal descent from an ancestor; ancestry or pedigree.
ethnosphere
sum total of all world cultures
ethnolinguistics
current ethnic groups and their language identity
Brownislaw Malinowski
trobriand islands
stayed during WWI est part-obser method
infl stucture lists consider society and culture in entierty
goal is to grasp the natives pov, his relation to life, to realize his vision of his world
emic- percepective studying as a part
etic- perspective studying as an outsider
Hadza
foragers living in Lake Eyasi, Tanzania in the Rift valley lake basin, men get meat and honey, women get tubers and plants, *divisons for labor*
Social Control
External enforcement through open coercion
Rael
founder of the Raelian Religion; flying saucer sect; believes that fatherly aliens made humans and put us on the earth; salvation will be found through technology in the form of cloning and the transfer of the consciousness into the new body
Applied Anthropology
using anthropology to solve contemporary problems. The use of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems. Ex) public anthropology, forensics
The Lua'
horticultural society in southeast asia. depended on slash and burn until 1960s. maintain a pattern of varied vegetation zones around village. due to mass migration of people from Vietnam war and increase of disease they have become intensive agriculturalists
market principle
profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand
Shamanistic cults
Part-time specialist called a shaman
Intermediary between ordinary people and supernatural
Called upon in times of stress and anxiety
Goes into trances
Is paid a fee for services
Found in all societies
Most common in foraging societies
Linnaeus
Father of taxonomy (naming system) with binomial nomenclature for all species (homo sapiens)
Anthropology Sub-Field with Largest Representation
Cultural Anthropology
What dates are Australopithecus anamensis believed to have lived?
4.2-3.9 mybp
Olympian religions
arose with state organization and marked social stratification. add full-time religious specialists- professional priesthoods. Polytheism. more typical in farming societies
Savanna Hypothesis was falsified by...
paleo-environmental evidence indicating wooded habitats for late Miocene hominin sites
-earliest fossils of hominins were found in wooded habitats
___- a couple establishes a residence apart from either spouses family
neolocality
Refugees
special type of person, uniquely in need of aid, helpless victims of maelstrom of international conflict far beyond their control.
There are observed examples of natural selection (pages refer to Ember textbook):
...
family
a social unit that shows economic cooperation, management of child rearing, and common residence
descriptive or structural linguistics
how contemporary languages differ
cultural control:
control through beliefs/ values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals.
Sepulveda
argued that Biblical text stated that natives were inferior and destined to slavery
cocacolonization
process by which products and customs associated with western-european culture are introduced into indigenous people groups; challenging, altering, or displacing traditional cultures
Cultural Control
Control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals.
Molecular anthropology
Genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaption, and variation
australoputhecus
the genus including several species of early bipeds form southern, eastern, and central africa- living between 1.1 & 4.4 million years ago, one of whome directly ancestral to humans
Worldview
The collective body of ideas that members of a culture share concerning the ultimate shape and substance of their reality.
Allopatric
Share the same area with other species
Multiregional hypothesis
The hypothosis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world
Theories of Class
Durkheim's model views social difference, including class, as functional by creating social solidarity; two types - mechanical and organic solidarity
Arcy-sur-Cure
A site in northern France where excavators discovered a rich collection of ornaments, bone tools, and Chatelperronian stone tools
Gender egalitarianism
Equality of gender roles and power
Neanderthal
The quintessential "cave man" was a member of the group:
the core
the geographic center, the dominant position in the world system, includes the strongest and most powerful nations
Social Construct
constructed on notions of phenotypical variation assumed to associated with ranked social categories of persons
International Culture
Cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries.
what is the cross-cultural study of humankind’s perception and use of space?
proxemics
What is the difference between race and ethnicity? How are both ideas culturally constructed?
.
Old English
The earliest form of the English language, used up to about AD 1150. Looks like Greek/German (Not recognizable)
culture shock
a state of bewilderment and distress experienced by an individual who is suddenly exposed to a new, strange, or foreign social and cultural environment.
personal survey
a survey undertaken personally by a reseacher
cro magnons
The first modern humans in Europe, dating from 40,000 years ago.
Clan
A group of people who see themselves as related because they are descended from the same mythical being
Allen's Rule
protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas
hammerstone
An elongated stone that is used to knock flakes off a core in stone tool manufacture. It will be battered and worn on the ends.
normative culture
definition of culture that says that culture has ideas, values, or rules for living
klinefelters syndrome
a chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome resulting in an XXy condition; affected individuals typically have reduced fertility
Key Informants
People you develop a relationship with who you can ask questions to and they can have connections to people in the community
kula
a trading network, linking many of the Trobriand islands, in which men have long-standing relationship for the exchange of everyday goods such as food as well as highly valued necklaces and armlets
100
how many days of the year is heterosexual limited to in the etoro society?
positive identity
The attribution to people of personal characteristics believed to be desirable.
Discontinuous Variation
- Phenotypic variation in which there are a discrete number of phenotypes with no intermediate types
- Ex: Pea color in Mendel's experiments
bilateral descent
line of descent traced through both the maternal and paternal sides of the family
ethnography
a written account or description of a particular culture, usually including its environment, economic system, kinship arrangements, political systems, and religious beliefs, and often including some discussion of culture change.
uncentralized
marriage and kinship are the basis for social organization
Social Races
groups assumed to have a biological basis but actually defined in a culturally arbitrary, rather than a scientific, manner
The Gebusi
The society where male initiation of young men involves ideally refraining from sex with women but also engaging in receptive oral sex with older men; more variation in practice
Patrilocality
when you live and congregate with your fathers side
Modern synthesis postulates that...
Speciation occurs when subpopulations would become isolated by geographic barriers or when different subpopulations encountered niches
->Results in development of reproductive isolation
-> New Species!
Human Genome Diversity Project
-Began in 1991, collection phase 1994-1999
-Sought to identify genetically 'distinct' human populations (isolated indigenous groups), around 700
stratigraphy dating
can give a comparitive age like the site is older or newer than this other site, without site disruption
Intensive agriculture
The production of food by use of complex and high-yield methods like irrigation, fertilizer, draft animals, and permanent fields.
What is the name given to the period of first cultural domestication?
Neolithic
social stratification
happened after surplus of food - not everyone is needed anymore so different jobs and differences are put in place
Formal Sanctions
Done by the powerful to less powerful. Unsed by professionals with legitimate right granted by society. Fine, imprisonment, corporal punishment, execution. More common in chiefdoms, primary form of social control in states.
language dispersal hypothesis
The theory that the spread of agriculture across Europe was the result of the migration of farmers who spoke Indo-Europe languages
New world monkeys
Central and South America
• 2-1-3-3 dental formula
• New World: Have flat, wide noses that face out
(platyrrhine)
• Old World: Have narrow noses that point down
(catarrhine)
Identity
The sense of self that comes from both individualistic characteristics and group membership, which are always in dialog with the larger social context in which an individual is embedded.
Gender
The gender of an individual is used to differentiate kin. ex- spanish primo/prima
Characteristics of Hell
1. A place of unquenchable fire
2. A place of memory and remorse
3. A place of thirst
4. A place of misery and pain
5. A place of frustration and anger
6. A place of separation
7. A place of undiluted divine wrath
8. A place prepared from Satan and his followers
9. Eternal
(red blood cell) polymorphism
genetic trait with at least two alleles each with frequencies greater than 1 percent
sexual division of labor
the specialization in work between men and women
Before Charles Darwin, scientists found it difficult to understand how a species could change. In order to understand evolutionary change and for the concept of natural selection to be developed, it was necessary for biological scientists to....
consider the uniqueness of individuals within a population rather than the entire species as a unit
Linguistic Productivity
to use the rules of a language to produce entirely new expressions that are comprehensible to other native speakers
identity where it is fluid and exists only in opposition to another group--socially constructed, political in nature, segmental opposition --etic
nature and nurture
Definition of anthropology
It is the study of humankind in the past & in the present, and in all places
Are OWM arboreal or terrestial?
Both; smaller bodies are arboreal and larger bodies are terrestial
what are the types of mutation
1. Point mutation2. Phase shift mutation3. Chromosomal aberrations4. Aneuploidy (nondisjunction)
human vs ape pelvis
The pelvis shape of human is short and wide, the
apes is long and narrow
Mendel's law of segregation
The two alleles of a gene found on each of a pair of chromosomes segregate independtly of one another into sex cells
Describe the three levels of cultural relativism, and select the level that you would adopt if you were doing fieldwork in Andean Peru.
moderate doctire you wont judge them until you have observed the culture and determined if there is any cultural importance.the comparison taboo is comparing cultural values between two cultures based on comparisons, we try to be as scientific as possible about it. the strong doctorine is witholding all judgement and if you have any problem with the practice the problem is with your ethnocentric ideas. i would use the moderate doctirine because I am an opinionated person but am open minded enough to give everyone a chance to prove to me that something has value.
do humans live in extremely broad ranges of environments of fairly uniform environments?
they live in extremely broad ranges of environments.
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