Anthropology midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
reproductive success
Bride service
soft violence:
PR/advertising. morals/values
everything below skull
Two types of Kinship
sounds we can make
tribal societies
horticultural/pastoral economy; organized by village or descent group; fairly egalitarian; leadership of "big men" & "head men"; generosity important in determining power
Robert Carneiro
warfare and circumscription
Strepsirhines and Haplorhine are...
political systems with centralized bureaucratic institutions to establish power and authority over large populations in clearly defined territories
Pruning and grooming behavior (facilitates social life)
Swidden farming
Widespread form of horticulture.
Farming that entails the cutting down of forests, burning of tress, and growing crops for 2-5 years, then moving because nutrients are too low
Only effective if the population is small & there is an adequate amount of land.
E.g. Maya of central America's tropical forests.
E.g. Kayapo of Brazil's Amazon rain forest.
Might be necessary in tropical environments because the soil is usually thin and nutrient-poor.
Sexual Dimorphism
Differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
The Self
Culturally-constituted ideas about what it means to be a human
marriage outside the group-small groups, dispersed populations
species characterized by massive molars and muscles for chewing, dating from 2.5 to 1.4 million years ago
Relying on domesticated animals. Requires regularly moving animals to fresh pasture land, usually in a yearly cycle that follows the seasons. Herders also called "pastoralists"
concept that implies hereditary differences between peoples and is used to justify social stratification
-the oldest mummy-found in Europe
distinctive method of stone tool production used during middle paleolithic, core was prepared and flakes removed from surface before final tool was detached from core.
a complex theoretical perspective that applies a humanistic approach to ethnography with a focus on individuals and their voices
Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership.
Recognize both sides of family, nothing to prevent you (by rule) from inheriting from either side of the family
Physical anthropology
primatology is a branch of
The social categories based on physical sexual characteristics and the meanings, behaviors, and values associated with these categories.
A personal born with reproductive organs, genitalia, and/or sex chromosomes that are not exclusively male or female.
Archeological anthropology
studies prehistoric cultures through excavation. many archeological anthropologist work for state and federal government
psychological anthropology
studies the relationship between culture and personality, how psychology can help explain culture (Benedit&Mead)
no badabo
mythical name for original humans
Organized armed resistance to an established government or authority in power.
Internalized control
implicit threat, shame, divine punishment
Independence Training
Child-rearing practices that foster independence, self-reliance, and personal achievement
Ojibwa: Anishinabe-
-It literally means "human being"
Major cultural changes people are focused to make due to intensive firsthand contact between society.
in societies practicing shamanism: one acting as a medium between the visible and spirit worlds
-From Sahlins
-The laws kings have such as the proclamation "this river is now tabu"
-After the encounter with the British, the kings start putting tabus on trade, taking it out of the realm of religion and it becomes mercantile, tabus then become self-interested as opposed to spiritual, they become anything put aside
-The chiefs, post contact with the British, were "quick to adapt the power of tabu to the regulation of trade. Yet, in thus submitting the concept of tabu to pragmatic improvisations, the Hawaiian rulers went some ways toward redefining it... the decisive subversion of the system was a work of the people in power: an abuse of power"
-Tabus were once always related to the divine, even so called economic or conservational tabus (ex. Consecrations of food to be used in honor of the gods)... but then, "the ritual power of tabu... became dominant in pragmatic structure of trade"
Tribal Cultivators-The Village Head
Yanomamo (Chagnon)
-Leadership position: village head(always a man)
-limited authority
-must lead by example and persuasion to get something done
-lacks right to issue orders
-Headman is called on when conflict to listen to both sides->gives opinion and advice
-no power to impose punishments
-first among equals
-lead in generosity (more generous than any other villager)
-garden provides much food consumed in village feast
ethnic group/ethnicity
people who share cultural beliefs
are the characteristics shared by most of the ancient advanced civilizations? 

would archaeologists classify or characterize the ________ (Maya, Inca,
Ancient Egyptians, the Khmer)
as a complex or state-level society?

Worshiping or believing in only one god or spiritual force.
Scientific Approach
When conducting fieldwork or studying people the anthropologists keeps their distance from the subjects to get fair observations. They will not help them even if they are dying.
Applied Anthropology
Not officially a subfield. Takes theory and methodology from all of anthropology and utilized them for real-world application
tool for cutting the stalks of cereals, especially wheat. Prehistoric sickles were usually stone plades set in wood or antler handle.
Style Shifts
Varying one's speech in different social contexts.
Asexual reproduction in which a cell divides to form two identical daughter cells.
anthropology 2
study of exploration of human diversity in time and space
variation in pitch to change meaning (it is the same word that has the different meaning); ex: how one says a word can be taken positively or negatively or (Really? (high) Really? (low) ReaaaalllY?)
physical feature that is sticking out or pushed forward, such as the faces in apes and some hominid species
the economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living.
Historical Particularism
Discover past influences on given culture that shaped its form today and emphasize that each culture has its own unique past
a network of relatives within which individuals possess certain mutual rights and obligations
Marriage within one's own tribe or group as required by custom or law.
transfer of wealth from the brides family o the grooms family at the time of marriage
use of machine technology and chemical processes for the production of food
true people
What does the term Ju/'hoansi literally mean?
An organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well-being...they are bound together by a general sense of common identity and depend upon one another by features of economics, communication, and defense systems
depends on the care of domesticated herd animals. does not require direct competition with humans for the same resources. majorly found in East Af (cattle), North Af (camels), southwestern Asia (sheep and goats), central Asia (yaks), and subarctic (caribou and reindeer).
the process in which countries are increasingly linked to each other through culture and trade
Achieved and Ascribed
what are the social statuses
gasoline-electric hybrids
a car that combines traditional gasoline with a rechargeable electric battery to improve fuel efficiency
○ Discovered by Raymond Dart in 1924, box of fossils embedded in limestone received at his lab, contained sub adult (3-4 r old) Australopithecus africanus species
regional symbiosis
people resides in an ecological habitat divided into different resource areas.
people who make their living herding livestock
Minimal human family unit; Temporary units including the family of orientation as a child, and the family of procreation as an adult
Nuclear family
Period of Distortion
obsessive drinking, murders, violence, womanizing, culturals disentegrating
adaptation to a new climate (a new temperature or altitude or environment), short term changes towards environment, ie sweating in the heat, not growing more glands just sweating
Food Procurment System
The Behavioral Strategies that a particular group uses or has available to secure foodstuffs.
Couple settles in the vicinity of the husbands kin
Cross cousins
children of a brother and a sister
unilineal descent
members traced their descent from a common ancestor through an accepted sequence of known linking antecedents
A language used to determine how we look at the world.
crow system
similar to the Iroquois system, but further distinguishes between the mother's side and the father's side. Relatives on the mother's side of the family have more descriptive terms, and relatives on the father's side have more classificatory terms.
Modern synthesis
Darwin knew natural selection, but not source of variation. Mendel knew how it worked. Darwin + Mendel = modern synthesis
Example of ethnography
Mead and Freeman study in Samoa
Shaman beliefs
1. Spirits exist and the play important roles both in individual lives and in human society.
2. The Shaman can communicate with the spirit world
3. Spirits can be good or evil
4. The Shaman can treat sickness caused by evil spirits
5. The Shaman can employ trance inducing techniques to incite visionary ecstasy
6. The Shaman's spirit can leave the body to enter the supernatural world to search for answers.
7. The Shaman evokes animal images as spirit guides, omens and message bearers.
Cultural anthropology
the study of patterns of human behavior, thought, and feelings
The great ape that seems for closely related to humans
Kula ring
A form of balanced reciprocity that reinforces trade relations among the seafaring trobirand people, whoninhabit a large ring of islands in the southwestern pacific ocean off the eastern coast of papua new guinea and other melanesians.
avoiding inbreeding
a theory for incest taboos that focuses on the negative effect of limiting a gene pool.
the approved use of power, based on personal characters or on the holdings of formal public office
Adaption Radiation
a relatively rapid evolution of many species from a single common ancestor.
Ethnic Group
A group within a society that maintains a subculture based on religion, language, common origin, or ancestral traditions.
Dialogic Question
What do the culture's participants say about their ideas and practices? What do they say about what I claim to know about them? What do they say about my observing and reporting about them? How do they change as the dialogue proceeds? Where do I articulate their perspective in my reports?
- fish off South African coast, though to be extinct
- part of lobe fin fishes; limb-like
- development of limbs & skeletal anatomy abnormal
- actual bones; similar to humans
- humorous &femur
- may have existed before fish moved to land
orangutan, gorillas, chimpanzees, bonobos
4 types of great apes
Carrying Capacity
Limit that the environment can carry without degrading it.
Lineage or branch of a genetic tree marked by one or more specific genetic mutations.
(skull) mandible
lower jaw (single bone after about one year of age)
an article or thing of very little value.
marriage of one woman to two or more men at the same time
The exploration of human diversity in time and space.
What is anthropology?
Rice in AR
more than 20 varieties of wild rice
two types of domesticated rice
must be grown in flooded fields
Biological Research Methods: Molecular anthropology
Genetic analysis to assess evolutionary relationships
:ancient and contemporary populations
:reconstruction of migrations and settlement
A regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief, who is at the head of a ranked hierarchy of people
Balanced reciprocity
exchange of goods or services at an agreed "price" over an agreed time period; special "contract"
processual connection
creating a long chain of beliefs one symbol leads to another which leads to another. state formation in china was a result of creating literacy, armies, and irrigation programs. literate buracracy managed irrigation which increased productivity which increased tax revenue, the army must protect this sytem to keep a surplus to feed them
political capital
The freedom we have to regulate our own lives and the access we have to societal leaders and decision makers.
Fictive kin
People who and not blood relatives of an individual but occupy the place of biological kin and are referred to by kinship terminology
phenotype inheritence
Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic.
- basic unit of life- Prok and Euk- somatic cells- make up tissue- gametes - sex cells
the "Mukula Log"
exudes red latex which represents the bloodshed by a boy when he is circumcised. the presents that red latex- nealing -adulthood musculairty - good husband
misconceptions about evolution
1. bigger is not always better, larger size requires more energy to survive; need to come to a balance between the advantage of increased size versus the disadvantages of increased caloric need
2. newer is not always better; traits of recent origin are not necessarily any better than traits of ancient origin, age of the structure has no bearing on its useful need
3. natural selection does not always work;response to a natural selection will not necessarily lead to a species adapted to tolerate air pollution; we are more likely to go extinct than to adapt
4. There is not an inevitable direction to evolution
5. there is no one perfect form. what is adapted for one environment now, may not be well adapted for a different environment
6. natural selection does not always produce perfect structure (ribs)
7. all structure are not adaptive; may structure are a by produce of other changes no adaptive value of their own
8. current structures do not always reflect initial adaptations; structures with given functions now may not have evolved specifically for that function
Is this a marked (no equivalent form) or unmarked (General form) Lexeme?
This can be used for both males and females because brotherhood are used in a name for many associations and organizations
Relativistic fallacy
The idea that it is impossible to make moral judgements about the beliefs and behaviors of others
What is k-selective?
few offspring at a time, high amount of parental care involved, longer life span, long pregnancy, long maturation period
Barrel Model of culture
why culture changes, shows a simple framework to imagine what a culture looks like from an analytical point of view, how one culture goes from one place to another
ideology of class
a set of behavior characteristics of a stratified society that justifies the division of a society into groups with differentiated rights and privileges as being natural and right
What is Allen's rule?
The further you go from the equator, the shorter the limbs will be
diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM)
list of all mental disorders, and lists cause, prognosis, and how it effects.
Archaic Homo sapiens
800 to 400 kya - africa, eurasia, east asia
- today: less prognathic, larger brains, thinner cranial bones
- then: low forehead/brow ridges, no chin, occipital torus (bump on back of skull)
They enter affected communities and talk to people.
What is a characteristic procedure of the work applied anthropologists do?
Who coined the term "rite of passage"?
Arnold Van Gennep, a Belgian anthropologist in the 1900s
Out of Africa Hypothesis and Multi-regional Continuity
What are the 2 main hypothesis for where Anatomically modern humans evolved?
3 forms of linguistic sexism in English
how it ignores women; how it defines women; how it depricates women
Primitive mammals
Upper Barbarians
Ethnocentrism vs.
Cultural relativism
Chinese early Neolithic:
One Culture Influences Another
Sympathetic (imitative) magic
voodoo dolls
Marriage exchange
gifts at wedding
Edward Taylor
Father of Anthropology
sacred masks
performances of history
Franz Boas
later 1800s, historical particularism
examines, interprets, analyzes, and compares the results of ethnography- the data gathered in different societies. It used to make statements, and generalizations about the culture.
core vocabulary
what a nonspecialist says
genetic anemia; hemoglobin is improperly synthesized causing the red blood cells to have a much shorter lifespan
violence between individuals; when regular, effective alternative means of resolving a conflict are not available
long story about important events
characteristic of projects that require major changes in natives' daily lives, especially ones that interfere with customary subsistence pursuits
describing environments with climates creating the northern limits of forest formation but south of artic environments
bottleneck effect
large population suddenly reduced.
random change in the genotype
-Women live with husband after marriage
-Adult sons are expected to move into their moethers' brothers' households.
-Daughters move into their husbands' households after marriage
-Example: Trobrianders
"babel" means what in hebrew?
to confuse
Groups functioning by a distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns while still sharing common standards with that larger society
High standing; respect earned by accomplishments
biological race
geographically isolated subdivision of a species
religious behavior
communicated acceptance of someone else's supernatural claim (that cannot be explained)
Formal Interview
A structured question/answer session carefully notated as it occurs and based on prepared questions.
grouping and finding patterns in artifacts, "like type goes with like time"
strategies used to control or manipulate the supernatural
residence is found where geographic mobility demands independent nuclear families.
population genetics
part of physical/biological; study hereditary differences in human populations
ethnographic fieldwork
Extended on-location research to gather detailed and in-depth information on a society's customary ideas, values, and practices through participation in its collective social life.
i. Reduced dentition: Implies a transition from a herbivore diet to omnivore
ii. Bigger brain: In terms of physical capacity
iii. Moderate body size: More gracile form. No curved finger bone and no opposable big toe.
iv. First stone tools: Tools found in proximity to fossils
Triboian Islands- traced line of descent from the mothers line- matrilinear society- not related to both mom and dad-only mom
thinking about thinking. refers to circular relationships between cause and effect. a reflexive relationship is bidirectional; with both the cause and the effect affecting one another in a situation that renders both functions causes and effects.
use of geographical territory for purposes of maintenance and projection of power; the cntrol of strategic locations in pursuit of political goals
Gender Valuation
Many societies value offspring differently according to gender (see Miller)
•Tibetans: first born girl=mother's helper
•Chinese: girl marries out, cannot perpetuate lineage (patrilineal descent)
•North Indians: girls are expensive because they marry out and require dowries
•Batek: no apparent difference. Bilateral descent couple can live near/help either set of parents
Honinids excluding the African apes; all the human species that ever have existed.
trying to understand before, without placing value judgments
1. Spread of ideas, customs or practices from one culture to another.
2. Ralph Linton says that 90% of a cultures content comes from diffusion.
objects that are either remains of biological organisms or results of geological processes
Study of sound contrasts (phonemes) in a language.
All Genera are assigned a subfamily; by putting two or more genera in the same subfamily, you indicate the genera are closely related; names of subfamilies always end in -inae
action theory
The theory that self-serving actions by forceful leaders play a role in civilization's emergence.
the vocal cords remain still when words/letters are being pronounced. Ex: There are no vocals cords used when saying the letter "P."
non-governmental organization
increase benefits that women derive from economic development
The smallest unit of sound that carries a meaning in language. It is distinct from a phoneme, which can alter meaning but has no meaning itself.
Neanderthalensis vs. Sapiens
N: larger brain
occipital bun
thick brow ridge
more robust
5-6 inch smaller
cold adaption
-larger nose and sinus
S: larger frontal lobe
expensive tissue hypothesis
Longer development period, enhanced diet, could have more babies instead of a big brain
Biological Anthropology
The subfield of anthropology that focuses on the biological evolution of human and human ancestors, the relationship of humans to other organisms, and patterns of biological variation within and among human populations. Also referred to as physical anthropology
Hasidic Jews
Ultraorthodox, 200,000 live in NY, Holocaust survivors. Their appearance includes beards, earlocks, black suits and black hats for men. Women wore head coverings and long dresses with sleeves
Competitive feast among Indians on the North Pacific Coast of North America.
A subdivision within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics that includes lemurs and lorises
Texas/Mexican segregation/racialization
Mexican "race" was developed to establish a general workforce that was "renewable" and cheap for American farmers
People or processes that can reveal hidden
knowledge about the past, present, or future
d. Macroevolution
i. Speciation
ii. Changes to species over time
can be about 10,000 people
and 100,000 animals
The study of living and fossil primates.
Fictive Kinship
the treatment of non-relative (either by blood of marriage) as if they were actually kin. This is usually manifested through kin terminology that is applied to non-kin.
The study of living and fossil primates.
a difference between idividuals of the same species
piece of stone from which smaller flakes are removed.
What does the word "genba" mean?
Actual Site
archaic culture-new technology
copper tools and woodworking implements (axes and gouges)
feminization of poverty
# of single-parent, female-headed households has doubled since 1959, with the largest proportion of these being minorities
a replica (or cast) of the internal surface of the braincase that reflects the impressions made by the brain on the skull walls. Natural versions of this are formed by the filling of the braincase by sediments.
non-random mating
patterns of mate choice within a population
What is culture shock and who gets it?
Slash-and-Burn Cultivation
An extensive form of horticulture in which the natural vegetation is cut, the slash is subsequently burned, and crops are then planted among the ashes; also known as swidden farming
Animals that move through the trees by swinging hand over hand from branch to branch. They usually have long arms and fingers. Humans are descended from extinct brachiators.
the exchange of goods and services, of approximately equal value, between two parties
1st set of species
Lemurs/Loris, Tarsius, Marmoset or Ateles (spider monkey)
which early people had evidence of art?
Homo Sapiens
individual mass tourists
arrange itinerary by themselves; more interaction with local people and bigger degree of flexibility
Reasons why primates are endangered
habitat destruction; hunting; trade/export;
___ is ability to control resources in one's own interest
Cosanguineal Family
A family of blood relatives consisting of related women, their brothers, and the woman's offspring
passage from one status to another is symbolically comleted
Primative Trait
Common to a clade and its ancestors
band (chapt. 11)
small group of related households occupying a particular region that gather periodically but that do not yield to their sovereignty to the larger collective
a system where people take land away happened in medieval period peasants were forced to live on the land owned by others who were higher ranked
(T/F) Humans are the only primates to have a culture, make tools, or hunt prey
the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle
smaller chips of stone knocked from a larger stone core
The (Pre-Darwin) History of Evolutionary Thought?
- Carolus Linnaeus
-Georges Cuvier
-James Hutton
-Sir Charles Lyell
-Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Differences between peasant and tribal societies
politically dependentfixed settlements-not nomadic (larger populations)
Terracing, Irrigation, etc
terracing is when farmers cut into hillsides to create level plains to plant crops without them getting washed away in the rainy season; irrigation is the construction of canals and waterways to control water during the dry season.
slash and burn
the removal of plant materials by cutting and burning preparatory to planting
Cultural Resource Management (CRM)
The application of archaeology to preserve and protect historic structures and prehistoric sites.
Interpretivist Approach is
- the humanistic approach; they see Anthropology as one of the humanities; treating culture like a book and trying to interpret it
Some humanities classes: philosophy, English, Foreign Languages, Art, or Music
Vertical mobility
An upward or downward change in a person's social status
Cultural Transmisison
it is because of language that people can learn from and teach each other.
Matrilineal kinship
A system of descent in which persons are related to their kin through the mother only.
Clifford Geertz's definition of culture
Emphasizes symbols and symbolic forms.
Indigenous peoples-
People who inhabited a land before it was conquered by colonial societies and who consider themselves distinct from the societies currently governing those territories.
Indigenous Rights- The realization, emerging slowly in the late 20th century, that even the least powerful societies have rights that must be protected.
Ex: Canadian Government
-300 to 500 million in the world
-almost every country and continent has indigenous groups, sometimes being the majority
Ex: Cherokee Indian
A series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order.
What is alphabet?
Active at night and at rest during the day.
intangible cultural heritage
UNESCO's view of culture as manifested in oral traditions, languages, performing arts, rituals and festive events, knowledge and practices about nature and the universe, and craftmaking. Also called living heritage.
Explain the Crow kinship system.
like Iroquois, but further distinguishes between mother's side and father's side. Relatives on the mother's side of the family have more descriptive terms, and relatives on the father's side have more classificatory terms. Thus, Crow kinship is like Iroquois kinship, with the addition that a number of relatives belonging to one's father's matrilineage are grouped together, ignoring generational differences, so that the same term is used for both one's father's sister and one's father's sister's daughter, etc.
migration rate
the rate at which people move into and out of a territory
Language Family
A set of languages that share a common ancetor
Out of Africa theory
-every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa, who then dispersed into the wider world displacing earlier forms such as Neanderthal.
-early 1990s by research on mitochondrial DNA studies by Allan Wilson and Rebecca Cann which suggest that all humans ultimately descended from one female: the Mitochondrial Eve.
Marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time; a form of polygamy.
Holism/ Holistic view
To perceive something as a whole, that every aspect of a culture fits with another and is not understood on it's own
nuchal torus
Projection of bone in the back of the cranium where neck muscles attach; used to hold up head
Importance of foraging in human history
present around the globe; the originial subsistence strategy, low enviromental impact
__ __- no one person or group has any more priviledge to resourcs, power or prestige than any other
egalitarian societies
Control Based on Direct Force
Those who are stronger dominate the weaker
"Understanding Hindu Traditions" - What is polytheism?
Worship of many gods including the 3 goddesses: al-Lat (the great mother), Manat(goddess of fortune, life, and death), and al-Uzza(the mighty one), hundreds of others.
Rites of status reversal
A change to step up and play opposite roles
Ethnic labels and the situational negotiation of identity
People pick and choose when to show their ethnicity; some avoid it all together; people judge what to label themselves; might identify themselves differently to "outsiders"; (Chicano, Hispanic, etc.)
What are some facts about the White throated capuchin?
very dexterous with hands, known to public, easily trainable
Humanitarian Emergencies.
(7,000-5,000 B.P.)
Homo habilis
"the handyman"
lower paleolithic
homo erectus
Hula Kahiko
Traditional Hula
includes chimps, gorillas, humans
to uncover by digging
yet to be rigorously tested
Report on a single culture
brings about disease
invention of horticulture
Margaret Mead
American anthropologist, spread anthropology into modern culture, reported on the sexual ideas of Polynesian Cultures, wrote "Coming of Age in Samoa"
Small quadrapedal monkeys that probably ate insects and fruit
King as god? - Egypt
Bronislaw Malinowski
1. Established Functionalism.
2. Functionalism is linked to Holism.
3. Father of participant observation.
complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power; has a government
Small autonomous groups, usually associated with foraging societies
biomedical anthropology
The subfield of biological anthropology concerned with health and ilness
Married couple resides in wife's (mother's) community
technique for recovery of plant remains from archaeological sites. Sediments or pit contents are poured into water or heavy liquid; lighter carbonized plant remains float to the top for recovery.
[9/17/2010 8:56 AM] Hominids (Humans and human ancestors - distinct from apes)
Descriptive Linguistics
structure and rules of language
Polish American Population descendants
9 million today
Love Marriage
individuals selecting their partners on the basis of feelings and preferences
Convergent evolution
independent oeration of similar selective forces; process by which analogies are produced
sexual desire and behavior (not reducible to sexual orientation object of choice)
a political movement and doctrine seeking to overthrow capitalism and to establish a political system such as that which prevailed in the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1991
Undeciphered symbols painted on cave walls in relation to the naturalistic depiction of animals - could possibly depict feeding animals before shooting them, holes for animals to fall in, or reindeer/caribou/bison/peeing cat
Something, verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else; have no necessary or natural connection to the things they signify or for which they stand
Survey Research
Involves sampling, impersonal data collection, and statistical analysis.
belief that animals, plants, trees, and other physical objects possess within them an unseen spirit, or soul, that gives them life
Navajo people who are tanshumant pastoralists
Market Principle
profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states
A natural substance(often a protein) produced by specialized cells in one location of the body that influence the activity or physiology of cell in a different location.
judging other cultures from the perspective of one's own culture
A specific set of environmental relationships. A unit of study within ecology
The spread of United States corporations, which in turn produces a homogenous global culture.
Franz Boas-
Kwakiutl: (a term Franz Boas used)
-known as American modern anthropology
__ __- taking brothers as husbands
fraternal polyandry
genetic flow
A mechanism for evolutionary change resulting from the movement of genes from one population to another, introduction of alleles from one gene pool to another
Societies in which everyone has about equal rank, access to, and power over basic resources.
a group of local populations that share differentiable phenotypic traits
Cultural Relativism
An approach in anthropology that stresses the importance of analyzing cultures in their own terms rather than in terms of the culture of the anthropologist
Big Man
highly influential individual in a tribe; no formal authority but has skilled persuasion and wisdom
a prohibition, which, if not observed, leads to a penalty inflicted by magic, spiritual force, or religi
The everyday speech of a particular country or region, often involving nonstandard usage
Religious Specialists
--Shamans and Priests.
--Their task is to guide, supplement religious practices of others
Market Globalization
The process by which capital, technology, products, and services cross national boundaries at prices largely determined by global supply and demand
Ian Hadder
said that environmental and social changes had to do with production of agriculture
key informant
an ethnographic interview subject who has been selected by judgment sample; a knowledgable native who plays a major role in teaching the ethnographer about the informant's culture
Societies that promote violence
-Rewards (BachaBazi)
-Protecting valuable resources (Yanomami)
-Part of a code of honor (Honor killing)
-Religious justification (Army of God)
New hominin species founded in 2004 and 2005 that lived on an isolated island i Flores in Indonesia. A descendent of H.erectus, marked by the unusual small size of body and chimp-sized skull.
an unlineal descent group composed of at least two clans that supposedly share a common ancestry, whether or not they really do.
a feature of human language wherby people are avle to talk about events in the past and future
A change in gene frequency over time
Middle Stone Age: Belonging to the period of human culture from about 15,000 years ago to about 7,000 B.C.E. characterized by complex stone tools and greater social organization
Assortive Mating
mating of individuals with similar phenotypes
linguistic anthropology
Study of how language influences social life. It originated from the endeavor to document endangered languages, and has grown over the past 100 years to encompass almost any aspect of language structure and use.
portion of the DNA molecule containing sequence of base pairs that is the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity
sequences of DNA bases that specify the order of amino acids in an entire protein, a portion of a protein, or any functional product
Charles Dawson
Dies national hero
Discovered skull at Piltdown
Eoanthropus dawsoni
-no brow ridge
Found: Occipital, Frontal, Mandible, Canine
=more modern in appearance than that of neanderthal the jaw was similar to an ape
modern size human brain
condile missing on jaw (mandibular-joint)
structural racism
any form of racism occurring specifically within institutions such as public government bodies, private business corporations, and universities  
-Race is a system of social categorization that is hierarchical
-Racism is based on this subjective and arbitrary hierarchy
-Racism reproduces social inequality
-For these reasons, racialized identities, solidarities, and forms of resistance are valid and important
set of learned ideas and behaviors that humans acquire as members of society.....the acquired knowledge that people use to interpret their world and generate social behavior
to make known by open declaration; publish; proclaim formally or put into operation (a law, decree of a court, etc.).
Marriage Schemas
The set of understandings people of common cultural background have about what marriage is, what it means, how it works.
cultrual relativism
the perspective that each culture must be understodd in terms of the vaulues and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another
Bilateral descent
both maternal and paternal lines are used as the basis for reckoning descent and for establishing the rights and obligations of kinship
the power and solidarity of the state as created by the consent of the governed.
food production
human control over the reproduction of plants and animals
daughter language
languages that descend from the same parent language and that have been changing seperatly for hundreds or even thousands of years
The study of the emergence of humans and their later physical evolution.
free morpheme
can stand on its own (a word)
assigning a market price o more and more of the goods and services hat a society once exchanged outside the market
Life Histories method
Reveal how specific people perceive, react to, and contribute to changes.
Homo sapien speech and emotion
Articulated speech, cognition, self-awareness, foresight, creative and emotional expression
Core Values
those values especially promoted by a particular culture, the primary or dominant values that are accepted throughout the organization
Classical Maya center on the edge of the Peten, lord Pakal and his lineage and the temple of
all that lies beyond our ability to touch and grasp and completly understand
Mohenjo-Daro (mo-henjo-dar´-o)
An early Indus Valley city in south-central Pakistan.
Summarizing Symbols
As people create apt metaphors, they often mark them with a symbol that sums up an entire semantic domain. These are called summarizing symbols. Such symbols sum up, express, or represent for people in an emotionally powerful way what "the system" means to them. To many people, for instance, "the American flag" stands for "the American way." But the American way is a complex collection of ideas and feelings that includes such things as patriotism, democracy, hard work, free enterprise, progress, national superiority, apple pie and motherhood. The flag is a symbol that focuses our attention on all these things at once.
Paul Bohannan
Tiv of Nigeria and spheres of exchange
Culture shock
can be experienced going into the field and going back into own, losing the symbols/ values of own culture, intermediate state
a form of food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plows, animals and techniques of soil and water control
Cultural resource management
A branch of archaeology tied to government polices for the protection of cultural resources and in involving surveying
n. the study of the human race, its culture and society and its physical development
A. afarensis; Laetoli
Found in East Africa, has ape-like features (small brain, prognathism), bipedal (knee joint, fossil footprint)
belief that one god exists and has a plan.
oldowan tools - who, what, where
homo habilis, non-local stones
Matrilocal residence
A residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the wife's mother's place of residence
the strand of DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotes that contain hundreds of thousands of genes
Selection Mutation Balance
-equilibrium that occurs when the rate at which selection removes a deleterious gene is balanced by the rate at which mutation introduces that gene
-the frequency of genes at selection-mutation balance is typically low
Tylor's definition of culture
He believes culture is primitive culture, a complex whole (knowledge, belief, morals, art, law, custom) any other habits acquired by man as a member of society (society)
belief system
Any specific system of belief about a deity often involving rituals , a code of ethics, and a philosophy of life
Ideas that are taken on faith and cannot be scientifically tested
Belief systems
Social Learning in Animals
Mainly leads to the spread of behaviors that could be learned individually.
Forager survivorship and mortality
very high mortality rate, mostly in children and due to disease and lack of food.
Uses for Fire
warmth, safety at night, dry hides and meats, soften foods and remove toxins
Point mutation
An error at a particular poinr on the DNA molecule.
Serial Monogamy
Promise to be faithful to a person at one time ( marry/divorce)
San Foragers of the Kalahari Desert
modern foraging groups in South Africa's Kalahari Desert; they still practice hunting and gathering.
Did Adam die when he ate the fruit?
Yes, he died spiritually
Child care of bushmen
It is long and intensive. women carry children long distances, babies nurse for 3.5 years, interbirth interval is about the same as nursing 3.5 -4 years
Rise of States Hypothesis: Circumscription Theory
competition for limited resource in a circumscribed environment leads to warfare
fits Peru
What were many hominid fossils covered in?
Breccia (cement-like matrix of sand, soil, and limestone)
III. Yoga for Healthy Body and Mind
a. Spinal Health. Yoga focuses on spinal health.
i. Our spine is the backbone and foundation of our bodies, both structurally and energetically.
b. Flexibility. Yoga: 'Your youth is measured by the flexibility of your spine'.
c. Strength. Placing yourself in specific bodily postures, or ossenas, will help to strengthen specific glands.
To say that food foraging societies are egalitarian means that
the only status differences are age and sex.
What do most cultures believe in after a person has died. i.e. afterlife?
it is a transition. they become either ancestors or ghosts.
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