Anthropology terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
horseback rider
material culture
lemurs, lorises, tarsiers
Intense emotional release
belief in several gods
creative blending of indigenous/foreign beliefs into new cultural forms.
primary subsistence
food getting activities
Benefits of raising children
Two types of aggression
Investigates written accounts along with historic sites.
horticultural and pastoral groups. Several bands or lineages with similar language and lifestyle in a territory. Lineage and Clan structure. More formal leader - tribal headman. ex: trobriand islanders
omaha system
characteristically patrilineal. In this system relatives are sorted according to their descent and their gender. Ego's father and his brothers are merged together under a single term and a similar pattern is seen for Ego's mother and her sisters.
similar structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species
Russian Jews
speak Yiddish, little tradition
cargo cults
postcolonial, acculturative religious movements in Melanesia
Gender Roles
tasks assigned to sexes
large bone in lower leg
examining societies using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science; an outsider's perspective
somewhat nomatic, settlement patterns based on seasons
G. P. Murdock
Human Relations Area Files
the study of sociocultural differences and similarities
The archaeological study of human remains, emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton.
Natural selection may operate either for or against a specific genotype in a population, but the net outcome is always the removal of ______________ alleles.
An evolutionary process whereby humans modify, either intentionally or unintentionally, the genetic makeup of a population of plants or animals, sometimes to the extent that members of the population are unable to survive and/or reproduce without human assistance.
Flawed Transmission
Transmission where things accidentally change over time
Forensic anthropology
Recovery, analysis, and identification of human remains in legal contexts
Closest living human relatives (ape), they don't live in cohesive stable social groups but rather in a multi-male multi-female group called a "fission"
The belief in impersonal supernatural power. Possession/manipulation of such power allows individuals to do things they/other humans can't normally do. Example: our concept of luck
Similarities due to adapting in similar ways. (Birds and butterflies)
Animal Domestication
Manipulation of genetic material, Restriction of herds and interference with their reproduction, Artificial selective breeding, Animals become wealth
urgent anthropology
Ethnographic research that document endangered cultures; also known as salvage ethnography.
Settling in a single, permanent location.
Hamiltons Rule
b=benefit of behavior to recipient
c=cost of behavior to actor
r=degree of relatedness of actor to recipient
includes the world's least priviledge and powerful countries. economic activities there are less mechanized than those in the semiperiphery. the periphery produce raw materials, agricultural commodities, and, increasingly, human labor for export to the core and the semiperiphery
the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
Biological Kin
Individuals that share kinship relations through reproduction
Distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern,or integration.
an anthropologist's written or filmed description of a particular culture
using different forms of the same language depending on social situation
Participant observation
technique of learning a peaples culture through social participation
first hand experience of the cultural being studied
Linguistic Anthropology
study of language, communication, how language is structured and how it has changed over time.
Adaptive Radiation
- Diversification of an ancestral group of organisms into new forms that are adapted to specific environmental niches
the formalized exchange of one thing for another according to set standards of value
Australopithecus Garhi
found with stone tools; gracile australopithecine; cranial capacity 450 cc; lived 2.5 mya. Gracile
Characteristics of Agriculture
Sedentary people with permanent settlements, large group size, Occupational specialists, socially stratified, mostly private land ownership.
bring together two or more beliefs from more than one cultural place
classify cultures into a series of stages of development, according to relative complexity
patrilocal band
a theoretical form of band organization based on exogamy and patrilocal residence
Rites of passage
Ritual ceremonies marking the transition from one phase of life to another
communal religions
In Wallace's typology, these religions have- in addition to shamanic cults- cults in which people organize community rituals such as harvest ceremonies and rites of passage
two spirit having qualities of both male and female
inventory of all words in the dictionary -- shows significance of words
Bison antiques
sometimes called the ancient bison, was the most common large herbivore of the North American continent for over ten thousand years, and is a direct ancestor of the living American bison
2 types of early hominids
Ardipithecus and Australopithecus
Paleocene plesiadapiforms
-not true primates, 65mya
-no post orbital bar
-gap between teeth
-grasping hands and feet link it to primates
Cargo Cult
A spiritual movement (especially noted in Melanesia) in reaction to disruptive contact with Western capitalism, promising resurrection of deceased relatives, destruction or enslavement of white foreigners, and the magical arrival of utopian riches
Franz Boas
father of Anthropology comes to America and does research and publish in all four fields
Farming method in which only hand tools are used; typical of most early Neolithic societies.
The practice or condition of being married to more than one husband at the same time
A subdivision within the primate order based on shared genetic characteristics; includes lemurs and lorises.
a stone tool with chisel-like edges used for working bone and antler
second reservation
the second reservation concerns the emphasis on adults, not children, for Kusserow did not interview children in a systematic way. Kusserow may be missing a very important dimension by not concertedly seeking children's views. Socialization is not a unidirectional process of adults shaping passive, receptive children, but a two way interactive dynamic in which children and adults are mutually influential.
- 1.1 kya-800 ya- corn, mounds, burials
evidence for food producing societies
-artifacts-biological differences between wild and domestic plants and animals
the study of the biology, behavior, social life, and evolution of monkeys, apes, and other nonhuman primates
an organism and entity that can cause disease
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
a afarensis
* lived 3.8-3 mya; bipedal confirmed by foramen magnum, spinal curves, hip bones, and foot bones; dental formula:; vegetarian; found in Africa; showed us that free hands and bipedalism came before larger brains and tool use; similar to apes: large canine that extended beyond the snout, gap on premolars that sharpened canines
Social Class
A category of individuals in a stratified society who enjoy equal or nearly equal prestige according to the system of evaluation
Complex society
a society characterized by a great deal of task specialization and differences in access to power and resources
having more than one husband at a time
The process by which a child learns his or her culture
Where do we see the Mayan civilization traced to?
Oldowan Tools
Oldest known stone tools, found in Ethiopia, Olduvai Gorge, found with hominids
culture traits serve the needs of the individual in a society (Malinowski)
a rule requiring a person to marry inside of a group (ex. caste system)
people tell him what they were doing; skeptical
a group mammals in the order Primates that have complex behavior, varied forms of locomotion, and a unique suite of traits, including larger brains, forward-facing eyes, fingernails, and reduced snouts
insular dwarfism
-animals get smaller when on islands so they think this happened to LB1 and he is a dwarf hominin
-ex: dwarf hippos and elephants
having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a chromosome pair.
someone who has come more recently the the shaur village, usually want to take the shuar land
Hybridization Model
Initial change from archaic to modern took place in Africa. These changes spread to other populations outside of Africa. Non-African populations weren't replaced but assimilated.
Patrilineal Descent
unilineal descent rule in which people join the father's group automatically at birth and stay member's throughout life
mendelian traits
A trait showing a classical dominant, recessive, or sex-linked pattern of inheritance. They are usually dichotomous and are controlled by a single locus
may be defacto
practiced but not legally sanctioned.
ex. blacks predisposed to being crimanals
Linnaeus and Race
- Created Taxonomy of humans
-Four separate groupings - europeans on top and blacks on bottom
What is the Cenozoic Era?
65 million years ago
Song duels
a means of settling disputes over wife stealing among the Inuit involving the use of song and lyrics to determine one's guilt or innocence
mode of production
specific set of social relations that organizes labor
field study
study of behavior in the setting where the behavior evolved
One stops the air and releases it. Ex: the letter "P" , K, T, D
carrying capacity
the number of individuals who can be supported in a given area within natural resource limits, and without degrading the natural social, cultural and economic environment for present and future generations
Olsen Chubbuck, CO
mass kill of bison driven into gully
demographic transition theory
proposes that there is a predcitable pattern to population growth as a country develops
A special event or ritual to mark the naming of a child
VIII. Homo erectus Significance
a. Larger body size
b. Limb proportions are more humanlike
c. Nariokotome Boy. 80% of a Homo erectus skeleton.
i. 1.6 MYA W. Lake Turkana
ii. Anatomically human from neck down. The skull had major differences, but the body was largely the same.
iii. 5'8" teenaged boy
iv. Probably would have been a minimum of 6 feet tall
hypertext markup language (html)
development of which meant that graphic images could be sent around the world.
general reciprocity
a form of exchange in which person share what they have with others but expect them to reciprocate later
Great Rift Valley
15 million years ago Africa and Eurasia begin sliding into each other causing the North east corner to bubble up resulting in Red Sea, Gulf of Aiden, Great Rift Valley

mixed forest covers the area of GRV
Artepithecus found on west side
Fossil record of the horse very dense here
The Holistic Approach is...
Multifaceted and covers many aspects of culture
Mutationis during meiosis are especially important because they_____
Can be passed to subsequent generations and will be present in all cells of the bodies of offspring
Swastika as a symbol
In buddhism: peace, welcome. As we know it (nazi) racial superiority
working class, proletariat
those who must sell their labor to survive; the antithesis of the bourgeoisie in Marx's class analysis
population facts
8 of 10 largest cities are now in developing countries. 3 billion people live in cities, 1 billion live in urban slums
What do you do to get another to marry you, sing/dance etc.
what is a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way?
writing system
tendency towards sociality
#11 tend to live in groups with social interaction
life expectancy at birth
measure of the average length of life for a newborn child
education, wealth and landownership
In Brazil what are some criteria that play into racism?(3)
Indian Trade and Intercourse Act
Passed in 1790, Delt with Land Issues. Accommodation or extinction. Treaties to establish boundaries. Created Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
What was the role of Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, Thomas Malthus, Charles Lyell?
Darwin (zoonomia)
- English naturalist
- Ideas of Malthus,
- Larmark, Lyell, and
- Wallace
- Theory of Natural selection
Suggested species descended from other
Joint paper on evolution and natural
selection with Darwin in 1858
 An Essay on the Principle of
 Demographer
 All organisms had capability to
over-reproduce and exhaust food
 struggle for existence
-founder of modern geology
What are 'core values?' What are some examples of differences between 'Western' and 'non-Western' core values?
Standards that people raise their children
the Quran, the hadith, the Seerah (biographies)
The life of Mohammad is known though what three sources?
Political ideology
several lineages
Effects of Fieldwork:
process involving bones
types of languages
rules of constructing sentences
the forming of fossils
on a contious level
1. 200 internationally recognized
2. Did no exist before WWII
3. 5,000 nations including tribes
4. 73% of states are pluralistic societies that have people from more than 1 nation.
Nation - A people who share a collective identity based on a common culture, language, territorial base, and history.
political system ruled by men
(gibbons and siamangs)
Gibbons are highly social, monogamous, and have bad tempers. They sleep in family groups in trees at night and form troops on the ground during the day.
example of physical
forensic( medical procedures)
complete acculturation, loss of original culture or ability to switch
Vertebrate animals distinguished by bodies covered with fur, self-regulating temperature, and in females milk-producing mammary glands.
The appreciation of qualities perceived in art
A group of similar species.
Kusserow’s metaphors for the child’s self
Organized armed resistance to an established government or authority in power.
-Jewish German immigrant
-How is your perception of the world impacted by cultural differences?
-Found that things that seem like they're dictated by genes can change
-Rejected Unilineal social evolution by the end of the 19th century
-Argued that differences of perception were rooted in different modes of classification
What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative data?
Crossing Over
Homologous chromosomes intertwine and exchange DNA.
cultural- Phenomena or mode of comparison not limited to a particular culture or group
sexual attraction to the same sex
Evolutionary Systematics
A traditional approach to classification (and evolutionary interpretation) in which the presumed ancestors and descendants are traced by time by analysis of homologous structures.
Salave Anthropology
Concern for documenting "vanishing" cultures negatively affected by colonialism
Sun centered universe which challenged the Church which said we had an Earth centered univers
Structural Violence
Physcial and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, and premature death) caused by impersonal, exploitative and unjust social, political, and economic systems
Survey Research
used for large populations
Draw inferences on large populations
More impersonal than ethnography
Ethnography can fine tune research
collection of stats
-modern humans are distributed from tropical Africa to high altitudes
- broad expansion of where humans live
wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
European wild oxen, ancestral to domesticated cattle.
Hardy-Weinburg principle
demonstrates algebraically that the homozygous and heterozygous individuals will remain the same if certain conditions are met
the study of the occurrence, distribution, and control of disease in populations.
According to analysis genetics what percentage of physical variation lies within so-called racial groups?
when you are consanguineal relatives with your mother's side
a population of related species; a local pop of closely related interbreeding species; get increase of inbreeding; can outcross as much as possible, but still be more inbreds, random breeding, known to have allele frequencies.
moist area around nostrils of many mammals
The group of catarrhines that includes both apes and humans.
relied more on leaf and fruit vegetation
native american group on the north american pacific coast studied by Francis Boas
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language.
infraorder of the order primates that includes the Old World monkeys, apes, and hominids
Potassium-Argon; Argon-Argon Dating
absolute dating techniques which measure the amount of radioactive decay compared to the elements' half lives. A-A allows dating of very recent sediments.
Lucy's baby
3.3 million year old fossilized toddler uncovered in North Ethiopia, no prolonged childhood dependency, walked upright but hints that ancestors had not completely left trees
based on observations of the world rather then on intuition or faith
Abstract Rules from behavior
relationship with land
relationship with one another
relationship with supernatural
balanced reciprocity
exchanges between ppl who are distantly related; expects something of equal value in return
Dental Ape European Ape, All oreo skeleton ever found are crushed and deformed though fairly complete, skull morphology shows short snout, sagittal crest and small brain, Locomotion-tripod like bipedalism Extinct!
Chemical Dating
Methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time
who was one of boas' first students
A clan tracing descent through the female line.
Somewhere (away from an office or library) where practical work is done or actual data is collected
A smaller study group chosen to represent a larger population.
Small outcropping of valley on the west side of the Nile River. Ancient shoreline excavation site
refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canons (rules and standards), categories, distinctions, and boundaries
________ is a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization of another based on physical characteristics.
Primary innovation
the creation, invention, or chance discovery of a completely new ideas, methods or device
5 Characteristics of culture
shared ideas/behavior
culture is learned
culture is adaptive
cultures change
culture is a system
sedentary pastoralism
animal husbandry that does not involve mobility
influences decisions but does not dictate them
cultural knowledge
Psychological theory of religion
The emotional or affective satisfactions that people derive from religion
Sexual Dimorphism
Marked differences in male and female biology, beyond breasts and genitals
A domestic group, or people who live in the same place and share assets and certain responsibilities
directional selection
selection for one allele over the other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in 1 direction
classic ethnography
goal is to present an accurate, objective, scientific account of a different way of life, written by someone who knew it firsthand. This type of ethnography takes a community and studies the entire culture. Included are topics such as family relations, political and social structure, economic exchange, and religious traditions, or rituals
Archeaology Anthropology
humans in the past
based on material remains (artifacts)
the geological epoch 34 million to 24 million years ago during which definite anthropoids emerged
The Five perspectives of behavio
Phylogeny, Ontogeny, Proximate stimulus, The Behavior itself, Function
natural selection
the principle of mechanism by which individuals having biological characteristics best suited to a particular enviroment survive and reproduce with greater frequency then individuals w/o those characteristics
La Chapelle-aux Saints
- They reconstructed a Neanderthal Skeleton
- Marcelan Boule
- French Museum of History - did his own reconstruction of the Neanderthal that we know today based on the La Chapelle-aux Saints concept
How people make and find meaning in their lives
True or False: The nuclear family is the fundamental building block of all human societies.
cultural relativism
The idea that one must suspend judgement of other people's practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms
the view of cultural diversity in a country as something good and desirable; a multicultural society socializes individuals not only into the dominant (national) culture but also into an ethnic culture
marriage to a person belonging to a tribe or group other than your own as required by custom or law
Inclusive fitness equals
direct fitness (individuals fitness) + indirect fitness (fitness gained through relatives)
Bronislaw Malinowsk
1922-field work in Trobiand Island and used participant observation (was completely involved in the community in which he studied). Arganounts of the West Pacific
Extended Family Household
Household with three or more generations
gene pool
the total complement of genes shared by reproductive members of a population
Social Darwinism
this perspective claims that due to evolution or "survival of the fittest" that some societies are superior to others.
Big Man
Only found in New Guinia. Wealthy. Like a political office. Not elected or appointed. Doesn't get paid. Has a lot of authority in village. Trying to coerce villagers to give him pigs and other valuable items. When he collects the things he throws a feast for other big men to form alliances with them. Provides loans to his people. Settles disputes. mediator. No ultimate authority. General reciprocity (for feasts) & redistribution (how he helps own people). Ongka's Big Moka. Kawelka Tribe. New Guinea.
Multiple Intelligences-
The idea that the intelligence of any one person can be considered as made up of several different and not necessarily correlated factors, rather than mapped on a single linear dimension like IQ.
Cultural pluralism
term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and whose values and practices are accepted by the wider culture.
general anthropology
the field of anthropology as a whole, consisting of cultural, archaelogical, biological, and linguistic anthropology
One of the "halves" of a society, when kin groups are combined in such a way as to create a binary division within society.
behavioral science
sciences that try to figure out why humans do what they do
a type of marriage in which a husband engages in marriage or sexual relations with the sister of his wife, usually after the death of his wife, or once his wife has proven infertile.
New Age
the trend of a growing number of Americans and Canadians who are choosing to identify as atheists, agnostics or having no religious affiliations
Cultural relativity
when each culture is examined in its own terms
the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classification of its phonemes
Significance of increased cranial capacity
more intelligent and increased capacity for social learning.
Cultural Resource Management
A form of applied archaeology that involves identifying, evaluating, and sometimes excavating sites before roads, dams, and buildings are constructed.
Sir Charles Lyell
- Published "Principles of Geology" - built off Hutton
**Uniformitarianism - natural forces that occur today will continue to occur in the future.
- Discussed strata, fauna, and paleontology.
male sex, but act as females; found in India, Pakistan; use female pronouns for identity
Foods that are not eaten (4 reasons)
Personal idiosyncratic preference, Health reasons, Moral reasons, Religious reasons
 A. Robustus
• Dates between 1.8 and 1 million years ago
• Found in southern Africa
• Originally thought to be herbivore but has been determined to be an omnivore
• Not thought to be ancestral to us
 Functions of Unilineal Descent Groups (Clans)
 Regulate marriage
 Economic functions
 Political functions
 Social functions
Homo neandertalensis/ Homo sapiens neandertalensis (distinct species, or sub species?) -WHEN? -SITES
*130,000-35,000 years ago *Found in Neander Valley *Sites: Eastern and Western Europe, Middle East, Siberia (furthest extension of territory), Near East.
spheres of exchange
Paul Bohannan; Tiv (group of people in West Africa) has 3 hierarchically ranked economies: everyday goods, ritual objects and titles (brass rods), rights over people; conversion and conveyances; intro of colonial currancy as an all-purpose currency (collapse)
Who, what and where was Australopithecus garhi discovered?
In 1997 Yohannes Haile-Selassie discovered in in Bouri, Ethipoia
Who is usually accused of witchcraft?
directed at socially marginal or anomalous individuals. There were punishments for becoming a witch
Principles of evolution by natural selection
Surplus offspring, variation within a species, differential survival and reproduction, heritable traits, over generations new species evolve.
Free Trade Agreement (FTA)
the agreement that came into effect in 1989 between Canada and the United States to allow goods produced in each country to cross the border tariff-free
homo erectus - anatomical characteristics
stature increased by a third from homo habilis
Enculturation is the process of transmitting
culture from one generation to the next.
how do the buildings at skara Brae lend to the interpretation that the people who lived there were a close-knit community?
the linked houses with underneath tunnels
How do the functional theory of inequality and the conflict theory of inequality differ from each other?
The functional theory is about it is necessary to maintain a society's state of equilibrium. Some positions in society are more functionally important than others and everyone plays a certain role. In the Conflict theory, each individual struggles to maximize their beneifts and this leads to change.
hereditary makeup
leveling systems
difference in pronunciation
Military? - Teotihuacan
Isolating mechanism's include
Culture,Time,Geographic Barriers,Size
End of Allotment, Checkerboarding
number of Arabic states
Relevant spacing:_______ _______= (1-1/2–4 feet)
flexible descent rule, neither patrilineal nor matrilineal
[9/17/2010 11:23 AM] Cercopithoidae: Old World Monkeys
A. boisei
large teeth, face
sagittal crest
must kill animal
problem with meat
Mesopotamian domesticated plants
wheat, einkorn, barley
Basseri: il-rah
Yearly migratory route.
-its considered to be property of that tribe
-Many tribes use the same piece of land
Agricultural Labor
Working in the Fields
Theoretical perspective that holds that the primary task of Anthropology is to account for the similarities and differences among cultures and that this can best be done by studying the material constraints to which human existence is subject. How does Cx make a living? How does environment determine how they live?
Ascribed status
inherited by an individual
Knuckle walking
special case of terrestrial quadrupedalism; African great apes
If long limbs of equal proportion are advantageous for terrestrial locomotion, why do African apes have long forelimbs?
both terrestrial and arboreal behaviors
(south America) healer, has the ability to help or harm
Non-destructive means of archaeological data recovery
Survey,Geophysics, Magnetism, Resistivity, Ground Penetrating Radar
The theory (associated most closely with Claude Lévi-Strauss) that the significance of an item (word, role, practice, belief) is not so much in the particular item but in its relationship to others. In other words, the "structure" of multiple items and the location of any one in relation to others is most important.
own domesticated animals, large sense of group identity, 50-1000 people
highland Papua New Guinea
environmental circumscription, warfare, and dense populations have not led to state formation
domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep, pigs
Captain Fitzroy
Captain of the HMS Beagle
the geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state
"two-footes"- walking up-right on both hind legs- a characteristic of humans and their ancestors
Sacred impersonal force in Melanesian and Polynesian religions.
Was Confucius a founder of religion?
internalized control (chapt. 11)
self-imposed by individuals
relatives who trace kinship through either mother of father's side
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
A linguistic capacity that allows humans to talk about things and events that are not present.
single midline bone visible just posterior to palatine
Argues that there is one initial origin of humanity.
condition where organisms is not bale to breathe in adequate amounts of oxygen, low levels of O in blood, no breath.
a politically organized body of people under a single government
A distinctive set of standards and behavior patterns by which a group w/ in a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards w/ that larger society
The modern scientific study of all aspects of language
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
groups of interacting organisms ( a group of people united by a common way of life)
a cultures way of categorizing the world.
type of prosimian with many tarsier like features that appeared in the early Eocene
Something used to make payments for other goods and services as well as to measure their value.
Iniquity means:
To depart from the right; Lawlessness
tree ring dating; only useful when wood is preserved, most accurate and useful for dating of structures
corn was..
domesticated in Mexico 9,000 years ago
Clovis culture
New World population characterized by the Clovis point with the earliest site dated to 11,000 years ago in the Southwest United States
Linguistic Divergence
The development of different languages from a single ancestral language
same as Olympian religions except all supernatural phenomena are manifestations of or are under the control of a single eternal omniscient omnipotent and omnipresent supreme being (catholics, islams... )
restricted behavior
certain ways of behaving are acceptable only for some members of society, but not for the society as a whole
humans, apes
hominoids superfamily = --- and ---
Used to define people based on perceived physical differences that imply hereditary differences.
Ribonucleic Acid
Single stranded nucleic acid that perfroms cirtical functions during protein synthesis and comes in three forms: Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, and Ribosomal RNA
When an organism has physical traits and behaviors that allow it to survive in a particular environment
Man goes and lives with wife's family
Monogamous family
a social group, found among lesser apes and other primates, consisting of a single mated pair and their young offspring
the action of individuals, alone or in a group, that create or transform culture
biocultural anthropology
the area of anthropology that examines the mutual influence of biology and culture on one another
Two Spirits
third gender in Native American Plains Indians
In the Hardy-Weinberg Equation p + q should equal ________.
The primary message systems
Sender sends message, receiver receives and reacts verbally or non verbally
Domestic-public dichotomy
involves the differences in who takes an active role in public tasks such as trading, making decisions in the village, negotiating etc. and who is not in the public but at home- inside dealing with domestic chores
Culture is Learned
Not born with it
Not instinctive
Taugh directly or learned indirectly through observation
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
language is shaping process and it guides us to think and behavior that people use to see the world in a different perspective
In a rite of passage, the ritual removal of the individual from society
Stones on top of the Menhurs that interlock
general purpose money
3 functions: means of exchange, standard of value, means of payment
"Dog and "cat" are examples of free morphemes
XI. War
a. Eaten by troops. Guerillas eat gorillas.
b. Poached for bushmeat trade. Soldiers will poach the meat and sell it in local markets.
c. Killed deliberately to claim territory during warfare.
the ability to influence the ideas and actions of others to set the agenda for the group and to control human and other resources.
a set of ideas, values, and attitudes about reality
alternate forms of a single gene (ex: A-B-O blood system)
Moral relativity
no moral standards, anything goes. Not an anthropological belief
the science of the forms of life existing in former geologic periods, as represented in their fossils
working land owned by others for a share of the yield
any of the modern or extinct bipedal primates of the family Hominidae, including all species of the genera Homo and Australopithecus
Discrimination (De Jure)
Legal policies and practices made to harm a certain ethnic group.
sub, sub, subset of groups, all from a common ancestor
Four stages of religious evolution
Animism, Ancient Savage Philosopher, Polytheism, Monotheism
Key consultant
A member of the society being studied, who provides information that helps researchers understand the meaning of what they observe; early anthropologists referred to such individuals and informants.
the majority of the people who do that which is either socialization or culture. Culture determines what is normal or abnormal (Franz Boas)
Raymond Dart, Robert Broom
dart: first discovered africanus in 1922 south africa; broom: discovered mrs. ples, coined parantropus
parental investment
the time and energy parents expend for their offspring's benefit
-Lived in small groups - Took care of eachother - Brain surgery (reduce pressure in brain) - Come into contact with Anatomically Modern Humans.
Primate Olfactory Senses
Decreased reliance on the sense of smell (Olfaction)
Hidden Transcript
the critique of power by the oppressed that goes on offstage in private where the power holders can't see it
The Etoro
The society in which men believe that semen is necessary to give life force to a fetus
the view that there is a reality out there that can be known through the senses and that there is a single, appropriate set of scientific methods for investigating that reality
Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis are...
chrono species of one another, they change gradually
argon/argon dating
used decay rate of Ar into argon gas. Useful for very small sample
Race as cultural
People of the same race identify in the same ethnic groups, developing cultural similarities
Where are NWM primarily found?
South America, Central America, and southern Mexico
Which of the following is not a short-term response to cold?
A. Increased metabolic rate
B. Shivering
C. Vasodilation
D. Increased food consumption
E. Vasoconstriction
Answer C: Vasodilation
what are the three forms of RNA
Messenger, transfer, and ribosomal
Laetoli, Tanzania (what was found here and what did it mean?)
Tracks of australopithecine footprints found here showing they walked upright.
3 Phases in the Rites of Passage
-Separation from existing identities
-Transition from one identity to another
-Incorporation of new identity
What is "participant observation?"
taking part in the events one is observing, describing, and analyzing
Def. and example of edogamy
marriage within a group or category of ppl i.e, cousins-in-law
Humans are different than other mammals in ways that affect mating patterns
Pair bonds in multi male, multifemale system
-only slight sexual dimorphism
Extended juvenile period, require lots of parental investment.
Central place foraging
-division of labor
Concealed ovulation and no breeding season
Language and complex tool use
What other ways are there in which an alliance may be established?
Suitor service, adoption, capture, inheritance, gift exchange
 There are only a few places in the world where domestication developed
 Fertile Crescent
 China
 Mesoamerica (Mexico)
 South America (Andes)
 Eastern United States
 3 places in Africa
 Papua New Ginea
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