Anthropology test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Endogamy
...
herbivorous
jk
graminivore
seed eaters
microevolution
small scale
Polygamy
marrying one spouse
Roma: Rasa "tribe"-
PACKET
Increase in population density
...
estrus
ovulation of female mammals
Ahu
Stone platform for moai.
Fieldwork
Anthropologist submerging themselves in another culture
Bands
Egalitarian- Not stratified-small groups of related politically independent households-LEAST COMPLICATED POLITICAL ORG.-Nomadic-decisions made by adults-strive for consensus-dozens of people-mobile settlement
Phenotype
Racial classification basd on expressed physical characterisitics.
syntax
rules about putting morphemes together
Deviance
Differing from the cultural norm
Convergence
independent evolution of similar morphological features in distantly related taxa. (Wings in bats/ wings in birds)
Argon Argon
Volcanic ash/indigenous rock; recent-several million years; more precise than potassium argon
diastema
a space between two teeth
religion
beliefs and rituals concerning supernatural beings, powers, and forces
Morpheme
Smallest meaningful units of sound
-the stage “in between” during the process of transition-ambiguity, uncertainty
Totemism
Race
*System of social stratification based on cultural codes that interpret human phenotypes using an idiom of biology.
-"The concept of race is a social and cultural construction... . Race simply cannot be tested or proven scientifically,"
indo european was spoken
5-6000 years ago
Vitamin D
based on the pigment melanin
ethnic group
group identifying themselves as distinct based on cultural features
paleoanthropology
most likely to study human origins
Unilineal
Descent group membership based on links through either the maternal or the paternal line, but not both.
Oldowan
The first stone tool industry, beginning between 2.5 and 2.6 million years ago at the start of the Lower Paleolithic.
Franz Boas
Father of American anthropology/ Modern anthropology, said culture is an adaptation to the specific pressures of its society. He wanted to break down stereotypes by introducing the practice of cultural relativism
traditional economics
based on cooperation/generosity (not maximization)
wit and humor
themes in Yanomamo life
modernization
The process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies.
Central Mexican domesticated plants
Bottle Gourd, corn
hominoid
The broad-shouldered tailless group of primates that includes all living and extinct apes and humans.
VIII. Human Adaptation to Cold (summary)
Chart
Revolutionary
A revitalization movement from within directed primarily at a culture's ideological system and the attendant social structure.
Ideology
an orientation that characterizes the thinking of a group or nation
Ethnocide
destruction of a group's culture, without necessarily killing any of the members of the culture
mater
socially recognized mother of a child
Kinship
complex system of culturally defined social relationships based on marriage
Who are the cercopithecines?
Macaques, baboons, mandrills/drills
Dowry
gift from wife's family to husband's family
Corporate Group
A group that collectively shares rights (to property or resources), privleges and liabilities. Meet on a regular basis.
evolutionary psychology
emphasizes the interaction of nature vs nurture in understanding and explaining enculturation, human cognition and human behavior is "this" field
Examples of absolute chronology
argon, cross-dating, radiometric methods
Hominid
Member of hominid family; any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla.
Diploid
Having two sets of chromosomes, as normally found in the somatic cells of higher organisms.
sanskritization
people from lower castes can upward mobilize by acting like a higher caste
Palatal
Sounds made with palate. Ex: "Ya" sound in the word yellow.
anthropology
the scientific study of the origins, cultural development, and customs of human beings
Primatologist
A specialist in the behavior and biology of living primates and their evolutionary history.
Archaeology
specialize in recovery of material of past societies, reconstruct cultural patterns, often prehistoric populations
symbolic violence
what is perceived in the media
Patrilateral kin
All family members related through Ego's father.
Asian population
Half of all the World's population
Pidgin
language with no native speakers that develop in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages
Social Classes
A system of social stratification based on income or possession of wealth and resources. Individual social mobility is possible in a class system.
collaborative labor
unpaid labor by non-household members for one household's private production.
Yanomamo: Napoleon Chagnon-
He thought:
-Frequent use of clubs
-Arguments over woman and food
-Large villages often split
-During raids, women often abducted
-"the fierce people"
-French anthropologist Jacques Lizot- claimed Chagnon had exaggerated
-When Chagnon did his fieldwork, violence had reached a height because of stress from the outside- epidemics, loss of traditional ways of life
configurationalism
anthros that study this lense arent concerned with how a culture got a certain way, but how cultures are uniquely patterned or configured
refugees
UN defined "a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion"
Australopithecus africanus
Canine diastema reduced, Human like incisors
Africa only
Homo habilis has been found in:
balanced reciprocity
items are exchanged on the spot
haplotype
particular set of alleles at some number genetic loci that are transmitted together on the same chromosome
During what time frame are Japanese hip hop clubs most active?
1am-4:30am
Plants and animals domesticated in the new world
-maize (corn)-beans-tomatoes-potatoes-dogs-chilies-turkeys-llamas
Polyphones
matrilineal: women do most of the singing, different melodypatrilineal: men do most of the singing, same melody all the way through
Sociolinguistics
Studies the variations in the use of language among different groups within a society
law of independent assortment
different loci are transmitted independently of each other; an allele does not affect what allele is found at a different locus
Cultural consultants
people who teach an ethnographer about their culture
Key consultants
Members of the society being studied who provide information that helps the researchers understand the meaning of what they observe. Early anthropologists referred to such individuals as informants
matrilineal descent
Kinship traced thru the female line exclusively
early homo
hunting of large animals to supplement vegetation and scavenging
superstition
not really confident that it is going to influence the universe, but they do it anyways just to be safe
Creative Opposition
process in which people change their behavior as they consciously and actively avoid or spurn an external image or practice
linguistics
the branch of anthropology that is the study of languages
Encultration
Process by which culture is passed on from generation to generatioon because evrything is learned
Selection pressure, adaptations
traits spread through populations if there is pressure; traits that result in reproductive success within a particular environment
Bilineal descent
Traces kinship from both parents - less than 1/3 of cultures - USA, Europe and parts of S. Africa. Fits with small family unites that are spatially mobile
negative reciprocity
exchange conducted for the purpose of material advantage and desire to get something for nothing. (used car salesman)
reciprocity
the mutual give and take among people of similar status
Ethnocentrism
is the tendency to believe that one's ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one's own.
cultural relativism
the viewpoint that behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture
Collaborative Research
an approach to learning about culture that involves anthropoligists working with members of the study population as partners and participants rather than as "subjects"
stimulus diffusion
diffusion when only the idea migrates, not its practitioners, and the recipients build the practice from that idea
lorises
----- are found on the islands of southeast asia
Agriculture
Food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plows, animals and techniques of soil and water control.
Remote Sensing
Use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate site on the ground.
homo habilis
found by leakey, immediate ancestor of homo erectus; lived about 2-1.7/6 mya. first use of stone tools
load
anything put in or on something for conveyance or transportation; freight; cargo:
trasier traits
they dont have a tooth comb
they dont have tapedum luceum
dry nose
short snout
and have a grooming claw
hominins
the group that leads to humans but not gorillas or chimps.
industrial mode of reproduction
High birth rates. children are expensive and a liability
Congeneric primates
both species are found in the same genus; they share similar adaptations in morphology, locomotion, physiology, and food preferences. Compete for same food resources
primates
Which of the following does not have a breeding strategy that consists of producting a large number of offspring and letting "nature" take its course:
Socio-economic status
how a position is related to the division of labor, wealth
allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
domain of experience
An area of human experience (e.g., business, war, science, family life) from which people borrow meaning to apply to other areas.
Definition of religion
Set of beliefs and practices concerned with the supernatural
at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Natufians lived:
karl marx emphasizes religion's role as an
opiate of the masses
Adaptation
If a species has traits that do well in a particular environment (ecological or social) those traits will be selected for, and this species will become adapted to that environment.
if you marry ___ __, you might be maintaining the inheritance
parallel cousins
Tonal language
A language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation and meaning.
E.g. Mandarin Chinese has 4 tones: rising, falling, flat, & falling then rising. Each convey different meaning
Marriage & Politics
What are some things that are common to all societies?
Sociobiology
We are who we are swinging back to the nature. It what we are born with. Its deeper than into the secular structure its in your DNA
, the branch of biology that conducts comparative studies of the social organization of animals (including human beings) with regard to its evolutionary history
Generalized reciprocity
mode of exchange in which the value of what is given is not calculated, nor is the time of repayment specified
A Navajo gives ten of his sheep that he knows are infected with disease to a Hopi in exchange for a jeep. This is an example of
negative reciprocity.
What evidence supports that neandertals were good hunters?
butchered remains, they ate alot of meat, and they were group hunters with strategy because they didnt have projectile weapons
cultural construction of gender
ideas about gender, such as that there are only two (western), are culturally constructed and vary from culture to culture
(Replacement model) out of Africa Theory
•stringer and andrews 1988
•major tenets...
•complete replacement of other populations
•looking at transition from premodern to modern in Africa only
•by extension...
•transition to modern human speciation event
•no admixture of genetic material
•biologically different species
•haplotype ( a group of alleles that are linked on a single chromosome and tend to be inherited together)
Explain the misunderstanding between Richard Lee and the !Kung over his gift of a Christmas ox. What did Lee learn from this experience? What does the incident reveal about !Kung San culture?
in the christmas ox richard lee buys the biggest cow to give to the band for the christmas meal. when he tells the members of the group this they tell him that the measly ox will not feed nearly enough of them and that it is not that great. from this experience lee learned about the kgung method of leveling. they dont want him to think that he is better than the rest of them because he could afford the ox. he should have just brought the ox to the table along with the equal gifts that everyone else brings
What are the allele frequencies of the following population? 0AA 100 Aa and 100aa
A. 50% A and 50%a
B. 0% A and 100% a
C. 25% A and 75% a
D. 33% A and 67% a
E. 100% A and 0% a
Answer: C 25%A and 75%a
the relevant scripture passages that tell us about the image of God in humanity and what each one tells us.
Gen 1:26-27: to be made like him
Gen 5:1-2: being made male and female reflects his image.
Gen 9:6: If we reflect who God is, murder is a direct attack toward God.
1 Cor. 11:7: we hold the status of image bearer even post-fall
James 3:9: treat people as the image of God
a rearward extension of the heel, arches to give spring to the step, out big toe is aligned with the other toes
The human foot is different than that of other apes in that there is:
Validity
...
Concepts
Ideas
Lower Barbarians
potter
Distal
furthest from head/skull
hard goods
durable materials
Eukaryotes
have membrane-bround cellular organelles
Exogamy
Marry outside of clan
American marriage
love is basis
Diachronic
Studying societies across time.
david rockefeller
art as furniture
Lexicon
Vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning.
evolution
a characteristic of the anthropological perspective that requires anthropologists to place their observations about human nature, human society, or the human past in a temporal framework that takes into consideration change over time
infrastructure
3. tech demographics eco system
Priest/Priestess
A full-time religious specialist formally recognized by his/her role in guiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and influencing supernatural powers
Agriculturalist
BENEFITS are GREATER than costs
monotheism
belief in a single God
parameters
the statistical characteristics of some population or phenomenon
Heredity
gene - sequence of dnaKaryotupeChromosome - sequence of genes, 46Autosome - physical trait 44sex chromosome - determine sex 2homologous - traits line up 23
excavating sides, reconstruct human pre history, artifacts
archaeology
Consensus
Social action produced in accordance with social norms through one's freely-given assent.
*Hegemony=power based on consensus
___- links relatives through females only
matrilineal
Mana
The force, Embundance of power, supernatural power, essence, spiritual energy, spiritual force
jats
Broadly spread agricultural caste of north India and Pujab
kshatriyas
second level of the varnas; warriors
analog
trait that no shared ancestor had
body
concept of Culture by A.R. Radcliff-Brown, said to keep the entire social system in a steady state, or to maintain social equilibrium
commercial- scale
organized by impersonal market exchanges, commercial enterprises, contracts and money, and potentially encompassing the entire world
Where is the Monotheistic Religion found?
Nation/States
stratified
layered said of archaeological sites where the remains lie in layers, on upon another
Ambilocal residence
is preferred where economic circumstances mean that more people are necessary for a particular endeavor than can be provided by the nuclear family, but over all resources are limited.
low
$750 per year or less; Africa
iconic images
Culturally specific people, animals, and monsters seen in the deepest stages of trance.
Divination
A magical procedure or spiritual ritual designed to find out about what is no knowable by ordinary means, such as foretelling the future by interpreting omens
monoculture
the specialization of production of only one crop or product for which a territory is particularly suited. This can involve food crops like corn or rice, or raw materials like lumber, coffee, rubber, tea, and so on.
Bull Boys
Sexually mature, not yet initiated
applied anthropology
the application of anthropoligical data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identity, assess, and solve contemporary social problems
Ethnical Periods
Lewis Henry Morgan
19th Century Societal Evolution
-societal evolution viewed as progressive
(savagery->civilization)
-evolution=advancement of mental and moral powers through experience
-theory of societal evolution
Health-care Systems
Beliefs, customs, and specialists concerned with preventing and curing illness.
identity that is inherited, static, and biological (emic)
instrumentalist
___ is based on phenotypical, or physical characteristics such as skin color
race
Nazca lines
geoglyphs carved into surface of desert
b/c not a lot of rain or wind this helped preserve the lines
they were of lines, animals and shapes
foundon Nazca Plain b/c one of driest places on earth
made by taking top oxidized layer(mostly pebbles) off to expose the lighter earth underneath normally they clear 6 to 12 inches in depth
Eastern Archaic Period
Eastern Late Archaic period 5,000-3,200 ya; initial domestication of plants during this time
Sociality
The prefference for living in groups and interacting regularly with members of the same species.
Genes that are closer together have (more/less) of a risk of breaking?
Less
disease
Refers to a specific pathology; a physical or biological abnormality.
Basic Animal Terms
Fish/bird/snake (all cultures have these terms) + wug (either a worm or a bug) + mammal
bisexuality
sexual preference for members of both sexes
Historical anthropology
investigates how languages evolve and change through time.
bonobo
make love not war. female led community
Cultural Anthropology
The subfield of anthropology that focuses on variations in cultural behaviors among human populations
Mestizo
400 years of intermarriage b/w Spanish and Latin Indians; Spanish thought they are inferior
Big Man
Regional figure found among tribal horticulturists and pastoralists. This person occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurship and generosity to others. Neither his wealth nor his position passes to his heirs. The position depends on attributes and achievements, and he is a leader because people follow his leadership.
Prosimians
A subdivision within the primate order based on shared anatomical characteristics that includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.
potlatch
a native american celebration meant to show wealth and divide property among the people
colonialism
the active possession of a foreign territory and the maintenance of political domination over that territory
Contd.
b. A/A - normal function. Homozygous dominant.
c. A/a - mild anemia, mostly normal. Heterozygous - alleles are different.
d. a/a - sickle cell, die before age 20. Homozygous recessive.
___- the capacity of human languages to describe things not happening in the present
displacement
participant observation
In ethnography, the technique of learning a people's culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of time.
false
The spread of domesticated variants is called vegeculture.
Social scientists
Interested in finding out how different people act and why they act as they do
oceania
region in the south pacific that includes Polynesia, melanesia, and micronesia
Holistic perspectives
- focus in interconnections and interdependence of all aspects of the human experience in all places and times- past-present- biological-cultural
horticulture
-focus on farming, use only human labor-indigenous groups of Amazon rainforest, the forests of Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and the highlands of New Guinea-live in larger groups-populations sedentary-polygynous-egalitarian•specialized role when needed-beginning of ownership-concept of territory-polytheistic•gods in hierarchy
direct diffusion
2 cultures trade with, intermarry among, or wage war on one another
Bergmann's Rule
Within the same species of endotherms, populations with less bulk are found near the equator while those with greater bulk are found farther from the equator.
Dialect
a variety of a language that is characteristic of a particular group of the language's speakers
The Radiometric Revolution
radiocarbon dating (half life of carbon isotope)
Kayasa
What is Cricket used for in the trobriand islands?
emic
an insider's view of a culture. this perspective in ethnography uses the categories and ideas that are relevant and meaningful to the culture under study
myth
story dealing with the past; passed on and may not be true, but reflect suggested behavior
Charles Darwin
Women are related to inferior species, Evolution
Did Homo Habilils use fire?
no evidence of fire
Tylor's stages of evolutionism
1.animism; 2. polytheism; 3. monotheism
Six major primate groups
prosimians; anthropoids; new world monkeys; old world monkeys; lesser apes; great apes
Thalassemia
a genetic blood disease in which the hemoglobin is improperly synthesized, causing the red blood cells to have a much shorter lifespan
Animism
A belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized spirit beings separable from bodies
cosmology
a system of beliefs that deals with fundamental questions in the religious and social order
intimate kin (chapt. 9)
close relationship (mother, father, siblings, aunts, uncles, cousins, grandparents)
Means of production:
Land (resources)- private ownership of land, hunters and gatherers and how they use up water and land, often controlled by kinship groups such as the family
Labor- key resource, division of labor by gender, age, there is cooperative labor, and task specialization
Capital (technology)- tools used to create goods
structural suffering
human health problems caused by such economic and political situations as war, famine, terrorism, forced migration, and poverty
hierarchical society
some people have access to more wealth, rank, status, authority, and power than do other people.
selective sweep
process in which one allele increases in a population due to positive selection
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
-Organic forms were altered by environmental circumstances <WITHIN THEIR LIFETIME>!
Angkor heritage preservation
angkor wat--best known Khmer temple, largest religious structure builtangkor thom--later Khmer capitalruins of city mark the center of an archaeological district with several hundred temples, palaces, and other monuments of the Khmer civilization
Domestication
the use of animals as a means of production-for transport, as cultivating machines, and for their manure.
vocal quality
range of pitch rhythm, temp, etc. EX: emphasize certain words, fast, high or
Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium
a mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes
Ethical Relativism
You cannot make a moral judgement. Ex: Girls and Womens fingers chopped off. There is something the culture see's in it. They see it preserving life. Predicated on religious beliefs.
world wide web
system of linked documents that is access via the internet
Trobriand Cricket: An Indigenous Response to Colonialism Film-
p.412Cricket
-game came from England from Reverand M.K. Gilmore who was a Methodist, the early players were converts
-11 players in England, trobriand islands as many shows up can play
-"kayassa" is a term for the type of competition
-the game became ritualized and political
-The dress for the game represented warfare
A system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and bodily motions that convey messages.
What is kinesics?
vision and touch
Which two sensory organs were enhanced among early primates?
acculturation
a form of cultural change in which a minority culture becomes more like the dominant culture
What features does boisei have?
First known as Zinjanthropas
Dished Face Ht: 3'6-4'6 Wt 75-110lbs
Short canines, small front teeth, very large molars
3 positives of population increase
More businesses, more inventions, more civilizations
MNE's (multinational enterprise) (3)
most American or Japanese
China has 3 in top 500
largest by foreign assets: US, Japan, UK, France, Germany
Homo erectus and advanced technology
-bigger in overall body size
-larger brains than earlier homo- still half of modern people today tho
-more adaptable species
-Acheulean tools, fire, hunting
*big hand axes that facilitated foraging
*control of fire in order to live in temperate Europe
*large animal hunting
*about a million years ago
rite of intensification
A ritual that takes place during a crisis in the life of the group and serves to bind individuals together.
Contributed to living in areas with mosquitos, origin and spread of sickle-cell allele
Slash and burn agriculture
Two Kinds of Matai
1.)Tulafale - Tongan equivalent is the Matapule or "talking chief." (Samoa)2.) Ali'i - Chief
• Pan Troglodytes (common chimp)
the common chimp lives in male-bonded groups who are territorial and somewhat violent. All adult males dominate all females. They exhibit a wide variety of communication including sounds and gestures, kissing and hand-touching, and threatening postures (a grin is actually about dispelling tension, it can be a sign of fear). They are territorial and commit murder and infanticide. They also are highly emotional, bond tightly with kin, and love to engage in creative play. Social structure is termed fission-fusion (small groups of 4-6 individuals break off for days and then come together to form larger troops (50+).
What is Monism?
the view that a person is comprised of a self
arguments of peru v yale
belongs to people/needs to be studied by scholars
Gene regulation has a major effect on determining:
Body structure, appearance, and behavior.
What are the 3 defining principles of Inca
society?
10. Reciprocity:
(exchanging something for something else)
Redistribution
Yanatin:
"Yin and Yang"
When was Africa an island continent and what continent did it touch afterwards?
Prior to 16 MYA and southwest Asia
What were the first types of studies on primates?
Descriptive; go out and decribe what they saw
Ecofacts
...
define
...
Omaha
Patrilineal System
Culture Characteristics.
Shared.
Learned.
Dynamic.
Distributed.
Symbolic.
Ventral
the stomach side
goods
things humans use
chromosomal rearrangement
translocations, inversions, delections, #'s
bride service
bride's family works
Polyandry
woman takes multiple husbands
HBD Kettlewell
Moths in Britain
State
Complex sociopolitical system that administers a territory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power
Phratry
A kinship-based corporate group composed of two or more clans that recognize common ancestry.
enviroment
4. of model of structure
Subculture
Shares certain overarching assumptions of the larger culture while observing its own set of distinct rules
Communal Society
Also have: Shamanistic, Individualistic.
unilineal descent
matrilineal or patrilineal descent
boreal
describing environments with climates creating the northern limits of forest formation but south of artic environments
paleospecies
species determined from fossil record
shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviors and material objects that members of a society use to cope with their world and one anotherq
culture
Production
Transformation of the materials of nature into goods and services for human use
types of descent:
___ ___-membership in a descent group is based on links either on the father or mother line
unilineal descent
Homogamy
Marries someone like you; marriage between people with the same social characteristics
sedentary
characterized by or calling for continued sitting; remaining in one place
vaishyas
peasants; 3rd level of caste system
pleistocene
time where walking was selected toward, really dry, really cold, 2MYA-12KYA
gender
the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex
Creole Language
Advanced pidgin language that developed grammitical rules and have native speakers
radiocarbon dating
in archaeology and paleoanthropology, a technique for chronometric dating based on measuring the amount of radioactive carbon left in organic materials found in archaeological sites
applied sub-disciplines
medical anthropology, forensics, urban anthropology, development anthropology, contract anthropology
Polytheism
Belief in several gods and/or goddesses (as contrasted with monotheism--belief in one god or goddess)
holism
the part of the "anthropological perspective" that involves consideration of every part of a culture in relation to every other part and to the whole
Potlach
Native American groups on the northwest coast of the United States- 19th century
During a celebration called a potlatch a contending group would try to give its rival such a large gift that it could not be easily repaid. This would demonstrate their superior economic and social power. When these societies experienced a massive influx of manufactured goods as payment for their participation in the fur trade, the frequency and size of these competitive exchanges increased to the point where potlatching was defined by some observers as 'warring with property'
Theory
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
Social Life (batek)
Ethical Principles
Kinship and Family
Marriage and Divorce
Platonic Male-Female Relations
smallest collection of sounds that have meaning
syntax
a __ system has definite boundaries between castes
caste
Namoratunga
sites dates to 300 bc
found pillars with engravings which are associated with the Cushitic speaking people of S. Ethiopia
they have a calender w/ twelve months and 354 days
it is related to the rising of the stars, constellations, to the phases of the moon.
first archaeoastronomical find in Africa
clan
set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor
Use-wear analysis
archaeologists use to infer function of a tool based on traces of wear on its edges.
savanna
An environment that consists of open plains with tall grasses and patches of trees.
Genetic Drift
Allele frequency changes caused by chance effects, not affected by selection; most common in small population sizes.
food foraging
Hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods.
Onomatopoeia
words that imitate the sounds that they describe, ex: "Ring" it is a word for the actual sound
essentialism
process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed.
Alphabet
A series of symbols representing the sounds of a language arranged in a traditional order.
Descriptive linguistics
studies how languages are structured without reference to their histories or comparison with other languages
contest competition
direct combating. occurs with limited or clumped resources
Linguistic Anthropology
The subfield of anthropology that focuses on the natrue of human language, the relationship of language to culture, and the languages of nonliterate people
peddling and grocers
typical occupations of Arab Americans
True
True or False: Some Yanomamö families living and working near the missions have built individual and fully enclosed dwellings in order to hide their material possesions from other Yanomamö
surgical strike
an attack (usually without prior warning) intended to deal only with a specific target
Genetic Diversity
-human populations have low genetic variability (compared to chimpanzees)
-the greatest genetic diversity is in Africa
IX. Mutation
a. Ultimate sources of variation
b. Random with respect to need
c. Not all mutations are bad
d. Introduction of mutation changes allele frequencies
i. Environmental conditions select for or against
___- strategy of interacting with the supernatural in order to influence an outcome of a circumstance
magic
biocultural
Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture.
Culture
the acquired knowledge people use to interpret experience and generate behavior
William Rathje
The Garbage Project was founded by:
Physical Anthropology
Concerned with humans as physical beings
neaderthals
form of archaic homosapien found in west europe from 127 kya to 30 kya. large brains, elongated skulls, large faces, robust bodies
Seriation
RD based on putting things in relational groups
potassium/argon dating
a radiometric dating technique using the rate at which radioactive potassium found in volcanic rock decays into stable argon gas-half-life is 1.3 billion years
diffusion
traits are passed on to different cultures when they mix
Tundra
a type of landscape where the ground is frozen solid throughout most of the year but thaws slightly during the summer.
Archaeological anthropology
study of cultural behaviors in the historic and prehistoric past through analysis of the culture's ramins
Pheoneme
smallest unit of language that makes a difference in meaning
Proconsul (Miocene)
diverse number of taxa, proconsul is best known, skulls and teeth are apelike and rest of skeleton is like monkey
Monogamy
a system of marriage involving one man and one wife
ideal behavior
what people believe they should do; not what people really do
family
a group of people who are considered to be related in some way for example by blood or marriage
Mythology
belief in how the world came to be-biblical
Who lived in bands that worked together/ migrated together
Homo Sapiens
Holistic, comparative
holistic - many aspects of a multi-faceted system
comparative - to generalize aspects of the human, evidence is required
dominant
refers to an allele that is expressed in an organism's phenotype and that simultaneously masks the effects of another allele, if another one is present
Priest or Priestess
A full time religious specialist formally recognized for his or her role in guiding the religious practices of others and for contracting and influencing supernatural powers
functions of religion
Cognitive functions: To explain the unexplainable  Emotional functions: To give comfort and meaning  Social functions: To promote social control  Community functions: To build solidarity  Magical functions: To control the uncontrollable
Development anthropology
A subfield of anthropology aimed at improving people's capacities to maintain their health, produce their food, and otherwise adapt to the challenges of life in the contemporary world.
lineage (chapt. 9)
corporate descent group whose members trace their genealogical links to a common ancestor (corporate = single "body"; members find marriages partners in other lineages [exogamy])
Patterns of Culture
Margaret Mead compared three different cultures, that she claimed were all magical ridden with everyone fearing and hating everyone else, there were "paranoid", another part is that deviance should be understood as a conflict between an individual's personality and the norms of the culture to which the person belongs
artificial selection
taking two animals with a desired trait and breeding them to create a new line of animals possessing that trait
sumptuary rules
cultural norms and practices used to differentiate the higher-status groups from the rest of society.
sagittal keel
feature running along midline of the of the skull shaped like a shallow upside down V. Homo erectus
Remittances
The money that people send back to their country
centralization
is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location and/or group
Blumenbach (1781)
Used race as a scientific category; 5 races-Caucasian, Mongolian, Malay, Ethiopian, American.
__- a group of kin whose members can demonstrate a common ancestor through genealogical links
lineage
sickle-cell anemia
genetic blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed, decreasing their ability to carry oxygen to tissues
Critical Period
time by which one must learn a language in order to be able to learn that language
enthnographic field work and participant observation
major methods or cultural anthropology
comparative linguistics
a field of study that traces the relationships of different languages by searching for similarities among them
wind power
the power that can be hardness from the wind, it is an indirect form of solar power, since the sun drives the wind
ascribed status
a social position that a person is born into or inherits
The Azande: Structure of settlements-
-Polygyny
-Households are built around courtyards which provide ideal places for gathering and conversations, and each household has granaries (hut-like structure used to store grains)
Distinct male and female speech patterns, which vary across social and cultural settings.
What is genered speech?
digital divide
social inequality in access to new and emerging information technology, notably access to up-to-date computers, the Internet, and training related to their use
The Orangutan lives...
In Borneo and Sumatra and are aboreal-climbers
basic human needs approach
Projects aimed at providing access to clean water, education, and health care for the poorest of the world's people.
Agenda 21 the message: eco effiency (4)
patterns of production
alternative sources of energy
public transportation
water scarcity
direct evidence of domestication
-actually looking at plant or animal itself
-look at physical features, compare it to wild and see what has changed
-look at herd profiling (composition)
-look at where plants and animals are occurring, if it is outside their natural habitat
serial monogamy
A marriage form in which a man or woman marries or lives with a series of partners in succession.
Stature is controlled by what? Weight is controlled by what?
Genetics, environment and experiences
Relationship between Maui and Kaho'olawe
Mother and daughter with umbilical cord in between.
• Pan Paniscus (pygmy chimp or BONOBO)
Apparently, abundant sexual discourse diffuses social tensions among this species and they have little sexual dimorphism.
What is the apparent age theory?
That God created the universe immediately without signs of age
exploitative theory of social stratification
hierarchy exists because one group of individs seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes
Who are the main sending countries for labor migrants
Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka
What are some of the historic and modern
day rituals that are performed in caves,
based on ethnographic and ethnohistoric
sources?
3. Rain callings, witchcraft, communication, curing ceremonies, sacrifice of chickens
why is food production not considered to be a more stable means of subsistence?
there is less species diversity in crops
Distinguish between gender, sex and sexual orientation. What are some differences between the ways in which American culture and other cultures treat these? Why do you think these differences exist?
o Play a role in personality
o Some hint of gender differences they are studies that claim that men have different sense of morality there goal is to succed
o For women is not to hurt others
o Biological factors can distinguish for caring children
o Gender alternative models
§ These roles can vary from culture
o Biological as clear as we think
o Intersexed someone is someone born with physical characteristics of both sexes
o 60 million people live with intesexed
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