Anthropology Test II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Humans
US!!!
Plesiomorphy
An ancestral trait
Nucleotide
polymer of DNA
Prosimians
biologically primitive primates compared with anthropoids; lack color vision, or have single claw on a hand or foot; rely on smell; have smaller brains relatively to body size. many are nocturnal and small; many are vertical clingers and leapers; found in the Old World
diet
Dentition: teeth = BLANK
Sivapithecus
Miocene, Indo-pakistan, similar orangutan face but probably just convergent evolution
phylum chordata
animals with spinal cords
Lorisodea
Breaks into Lorises and Galagos.
Allele
biochemically different forms of genes
Developmental adaption
a permanent phenotypic variation derived from interaction between genes and the environment during the period of growth and development.
Gorillas
largest living primate; found in africa; males have larger canines and crest bone on top of their skulls; fully mature males have silvery gray hair on their backs; terrestrial knuckle walkers; arms longer than legs; eat leaves; small social groups; ~a dozen individuals;
Suborder: Haplorhini
which contains the infraorders tarsiformes (tarsiers), platyrrhini (New World Anthropoids) and catarrhini (old world Anthropoids--apes and humans); argues that Tarsiers are more closely related to monkeys and hominoids because they lack the wet nose associated with improved smelling ability that lemurs and lorises have
Anthropoidea
-Probably emerged around 50 million years ago
-Have largest body sizes and brains
-reduced reliance on olfactory senses and more on vision
-have post-orbital closure
-have fusion of mandible
-have nails
-longer gestation and maturation rates
Archaeology
The branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures.
Bourgeoisie
capitalist/ruling class, own the means of production and the ability to purchase labor
Artifact
any physical remains of human activity.
Brachiation
hand over hand movement through trees
Middle Awash
Ardipithecus locale, Ethiopia, has many fossils of hominins
Enculturation
the process by which a societies culture is transmitted from one generation to the nextand individuals become members of their society.
bonoboes
have longer legs, higher centers of gravity and narrower chests; higher forehears and differently shaped faces than chimps; knuckle-walkers; walkupright; some sexual dimorphism; rainforests of zaire; eat fruit, plants and animal protein; don't hunt; multimale/multifemale groups;females are most dominant;dominance of males depends on their mothers; have sex
Howler Monkey
Genus: Alouatta; have enlarged hyoid bone, creating a large resonating chamber capable of making sounds that can be heard far away;prehensile tails, eat fruit and leaves; sexually dimorphic; multimale/multifemale groups, can have uni-male groups;
notocord
flexible internal rod that runs along the back of an animal
Features of primates
-Oposable thumbs
-five fingers and toes
-binocular stereoscopic vision (our eyes are in the front of our heads and cover much area
-post-orbital bar (bone just outside eye in skull)
-reduced snout: less reliance on smell, more on eyes
-reduced dentition: incisors, canine, premolars, molars
-Humans: 2.1.2.3
-prolonged gestation (baboons: 170 days, humans: 266 days)
-long to mature, therefore long-living
-small "litters" (generally one)
-petrosal bulla: bone that covers inner ear
-epidermal ridges (finger prints)
Ethnography
A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
Petty bourgeoisie
manage/control the means of production and labor (but do not own them)
Prognathism
a jutting forward of the facial skeleton and jaws.
development
Subadult finds give insight on the BLANK (growth) of a species.
Mutation
the spontaneous changes in DNA that creates genetic variety
Industrial Melanism
an increased amount of dark pigmentation (as of skin, feathers, eyes or hair) in an organism, caused by anthropogenic alteration of the natural environment in terms of industrial pollution.
"Eve" Hypothesis
Transition to modern H.Sapiens in one population. Also Spreaded from africa to other regions and Replaced archaic populations without interbreeding.
reticular formation
received sensory input from higher in the brain and passes these back up to the thalamus; sleep arousal, vomiting
Catarrhini Characteristics
-Old world monkeys: found in Africa and Asia
-closely-spaced, downward facing nostrils generally
-Dentition: 2.1.2.3, 8 premolars
-Catarrhini breaks into Cercopithecoidea and Hommodea
Civilization
Marked by the presence of a phonetic alphabet and contains no subdivisions. It is the sum of all human achievement.
cultural capital
a package of culturally and socially determined norms and standards that are necessary for success in a society
Dental arcade
the tooth row as seen from above
actual, soft
Fossils cannot tell us BLANK behavior and BLANK tissue traits such as hair, skin color, eyes, etc.
Meiosis
division of sex cells, results in 4 different daughter cells
Sarich and Wilson
Proposed the Molecular Clock. Use fossil record to link immunological distance data to time, any branching point can be used to set the clock
market exchange
the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices set by rules of supply and demand.
binocular stereoscopic vision
overlapping fields of vision with both sides of the brain receiving images from both eyes, allowing for depth perception
Smith and Jones
Came up with "Arboreal Hypothesis": in complex environments, you need good depth perception, and are therefore less reliant on smell. (This is not true for all primates.)
Orientational Metaphor
The fact that the concept HAPPY is oriented up leads to English expressions like "I'm feeling up today."
Australopithecus
What does the "A." stand for in "A. Afarensis"?
True
In many ways, all of the members of the genus Paranthropus were very similar. They were about the same size and weight, were quite sexually dimorphic, had similar postcranial anatomy, and relatively small brains. The two main species in this genus are Paranthropus robustus and Paranthropus boisei. True or false?
Random Genetic Drift
Changes in allele frequency happens by chance rather than by selection
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
molecule of RNA encoding a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product.
four legged mammals limbs
slope downward from the shoulders and hips
Conduit Metaphor
"I GAVE YOU THAT IDEA"
When you have a good idea, try to capture it immediately in words.
Cranial capacity
the volume of the brain case of the skull
"K" Vs "r" reproduction
From the beginning of the Cenozoic period there had been a growing trend towards a more K reproductive strategy (less offspring, more parental investment) rather than an r strategy (multiple offspring, less time, less investment)
Example of Random Genetic Drift
Changing a blue-eyed population to a brown-eyed population
False (they are merely the point in hominin evolution we began with for the purposes of our class; there are earlier hominins)
Australopithecus are the earliest hominins. True or false?
Paranthropus (para = beside, anthropus = humans)
What genus is named for its evolution being "parallel to humans"
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