lab practical Flashcards

Terms Definitions
reproductive value
tympanic membrane
define ova
egg cell
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Fungi
ear bone
surrounds inner ear
vertebrates: over dermis, stratifiedinvertebrates: simple, possible true dermis
Pelvic Girdle
surrounds reproductive organs
only on compound microscope
has four objective lenses attached
D-Eukarya S-Excavata P-Jakobida _Giardia_
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Porifera "sponges"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Arthropoda C-Arachnida "mites"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Urochordata "sea squirt"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Vertebrata (Craniata) C-Lepidosauria "snake"
D-Eukarya S-Opisthokonta K-Animalia P-Chordata SP-Vertebrata (Craniata) C-Mammalia
covers oval window of cochlea
secrete and maintain extracellular matrix in cartilage
High Environmental pH
lots of OH
What is the relationship between enzyme concentration and initial reaction rate?
part of the ear we see
Spermatic cord
vas deferens and surrounding tissue
Mechanical Stage
has a caliper attached
holds slide
_______ are water conducting cells found in some b
life table
summarizes data on survivor-ship and fecundity
Define cysticercosis
Cysticercosis is a systemic illness caused by dissemination of the larval form of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium
Diploid number of chromosomes in fast plants (Brassica rapa)
calcaneum and astragalus
two elongated tarsals in frog
hair root
anchors the hair into the skin
produces enzymes to break down fats and proteins and secretes hormones to regulate blood sugar
reproductive organ to carry sperm to female and excretory organ for urine
What solution was used in electrophoresis?
agarose solution
in the binomial Zizaniopsis miliacea, Zizaniopsis
generic; specific
reproductive value
the number of female offspring that will be produced by the average female aged x between that age and when she dies
State the function of acetone or ethanol used in the Gram stain
the decolorizer
the small amount of non-yolk cell at the animal pole of a bird egg is called the ____
positive after-imaging
cones can also become bleached if exposed to intense light of the proper wavelength for a sufficient period causing this when looking at a white paper
large intestine
extracts water from feces and returns it to the body
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
microscope that uses reflected electron beams to produce a very fine resolution image
the seeds of gymnosperms have tissue from 3 genera
female gametophyte
Name two medically important genera of bacteria that produce endospores
Bacillus and Clostridium
epaxial muscles
on dorsal side of the vertebral column in fish
Focusing Knobs
two of them: coarse adjustment knob, fine adjustment knob
which of the following is NOT a synapomorphy ofmam
live birth
death assemblage
age of death of a random sample of individuals
2 phenotypes invovled in a test cross
heterozygous x homo recessive
What were the sample proteins during lab 2 and what color were they?
Serum Albumen-blue(only one artifically colored, not really blue)
Cytochrome C-orange
State the function of safranin used in the Gram stain
counterstain or secondary stain
How to Stain a Slide
place a drop of stain(iodine)on one side of the cover slip
place a paper towel on the other side of the cover slip
the paper towel will pull the iodine through the cover slip and into the onion making it easier to see under the microscope
state the criteria used to describe a bacterial colony
shape, margin, elevation, texture, size, appearance, pigmentation, and optical property
state the route of transmission for entamoeba histolytica
cysts ingested in contaminated food or H2O
What is the estimated size of an amoeba in millimeters?
.1 mm
3 pointer widths @ 100X
Phylum Gymnamoeba
Klinefelter's Syndrome
neck region
monocot leaves
long/ stringy
Graham-positive cocci
Staphylococcus aureus
Haploid stage dominantPenicillium/Aspergillus
biceps brachii
inside upperarm
development of neural tube
Streptococcus- cocci in chains
T/FEnzymes immediately catalyze substrates and no complexes are formed
D= EukaryaK= FungiP= Basidomycota
Make nutrients or energy
caudal of tail bone
can be unicellular, colonial, filamentous, or multicellular -all are aquatic
which are rings of leaves
conveys information about ancestors and descendants of an organism
something that researchers administer to the experimental units i.e. glucose or protein given to yeast
the physical appearance of traits
Antibodies against B
Blood Type A
first cervical vertebra, articulates with the base of the skull and the axis
have developing seed within an ovary
-facultative anaerobes -prefer an O2 rich environment -switch to fermentation if no O2 is present
peritoneal membrane
membrane that surrounds peritoneal cavity, visible on first incision of fetal pig
the study of naming and classification
study of cellular structure and function
In Myxomycota, the desiccated dormant resting stage is called...
Hyphae live in a network called...
two types of bone
spongy, and compact.
in the osmosis lab, solutions whose psi was greater/less than the psi of the potato allowed water to flow into the potato
most conspicuous stage in moss life cycle
the breaking down of molecules into various components -release of energy from the breaking of chemical bonds
Which is haploid (2n): the gametophyte or the sporophyte.
study of relatedness of living and extinct organisms
a measure of variation between each set of replicates, equals the range between the highest and lowest values
Phylum Annelida leech
the irreversible increase in size of an organism
Algin, polysaccharide used as a thickening or emulsifying agent
Brown Algae
propels urine from kidney to urinary bladder
minimal stimulus that must be reached before contraction will occur
living elongated cells arranged end to end for conduction of sugar in phloem
sieve-tube elements
-anus develops from blastopore first -fate of cells is not determined early on -second opening developed is mouth
radial cleavage -> deuterostomes
What does the coronary artery do?
feeds the heart
a measure of the acidic or basic properties of a solution
a reddish pigment found in beets that is localized almost entirely in the large central vacuole of its cells
Phenol Red indicator
Yellow in acidic solutionRed in neutral to basic solution
Dominant life stage of Fucus is what?
Diploid Sporophyte
Low Power Microscope
magnification of ocular (10) x magnification of objective (4) = total magnification (40x)
what is the prokaryote mode of nutrition
all four modes
-take place in the stroma -use ATP and NADHP to convert CO2 to the sugar G3P -return ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NADHP+ to the light dependent reactions-Calvin cycle
light independent reactions
function of esophagus
food tube running from pharynx to stomach
seminiferous tubules
tightly coiled tubes that make up male testes
the organism moves with pseudopodia and eats with phagocytosis. it also has vacuoles
D= Eukarya"Protozoa"MC= AmoebozoaSC= lobose amoebasitalics Amoeba
green filaments moved in...
green fuzz. zoom in= green grass blade
* distal area of green tips move independently & sporadically (finger bend)
-alternation of generations with a multicellular sporophyte that is dependent on gametophyte resources-spores
phylogeny between charophyceans and bryophytes
What does the pancreas do?
-helps with digestion (stomach acids, enzymes, break down foods)-blood sugar regulation
an early stage of a zygote that is the result of the invagination of cells of the blastula into the blastocoel
what are the two types of cells with structural differences?
prokaryotes and eukaryotes
condenser iris diaphragm
a knurled ring or lever than can be opened and closed to regulate the amount of light reaching the specimen
in an unstimulated axon, how does sodium move?
tiny inward leak via diffusion, although Na channels are closed
What are the guidelines for writing the scientific name of an organism?
-Genus and specific epithet-Genus is capitalized-Specific epithet is not-Underline or Italicize
What are the 3 germ layers of the gastrula called?
endoderm (inner layer), ectoderm (outer layer) and mesoderm (middle layer)
Parts and functions of a microscope
1. eye piece - magnifying lens u look into (ocular)2. objective lenses - interchangeable magnifying lenses3. revolving nose piece - mounting for objective lens4. condenser lens & diaphram - focuses light onto the slide, controls light intensity5. mechanical stage adjusters - move the slide on the stage6. coarse focus - to focus quickly, never used w/ high power7. fine focus - to make small adjustments in focus
Giardia lablia
Cellular Drinking
knee cap
-“other-feeders” -must ingest organic forms of carbon (i.e. other organisms) -are the consumers of the biosphere
Ascaris lumbricoides roundworm
salamander, frog, toad
5 Kingdom System
flower types
solitary or inflourescence
between pteridophytes and gymnosperms
formation of egg cells
D= EukaryaK= AnimaliaP= Porifera
test for starch
IKI test
produces sperm and hormones
-sex that produces eggs -can homogametic (XX), heterogametic (ZW in birds) or diploid in bees
produces and retains egg cells
Baccili- rod shaped prokaryotic cells
the arrangement of microtubules radiating from a centriole
snails slugs
K= AnimaliaP= MolluscaC= Gastropoda
test for simple sugars
Benedict's test
concentration of sodium ions is greatest inside/outside the axon
seeds are housed in fruits
receptacle seeds
event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing
"water loving", the phosphate group and glycerol of a phospholipid
organisms that use oxygen for respiration beyond glycolysis
horse shoes crabs
K= AnimaliaP= ArthropodaSP= ChelicerataC= Merostomata
Other Algae
Phylum Rhodophyta, Phylum Dinophyta, Phylum Chlorophyta
kills ingested bacteria, begins food breakdown, releases food at a constant rate
"connected' to pinky finger, inside arm
seedless vascular plants
-> early seed plants appear -vascular system
evolution with a single branch within the evolutionary tree
example of mechanical cellular work
beating of cilia
renal arteries
carries unfiltered blood from the aorta to the kidneys
Function of the kidneys?
-remove waste-regulates blood pressure-stimulates bone marrow to produce RBCs
organelles where food is made and stored
a starch indicator that changes from yellow to dark blue in the presence of starch
D= EukaryaP= ChordataC= Amphbia
Asci form within a structure called an...
passes food from pharynx to the stomach
breaks individual amino acids off the ends of protein molecules produced by pancreas
two parts of photosynthesis
light dependent reactions, light independent reactions
this group has plants with no vascular tissues
practical classification
classifying things for a certain use (library)
a process used by anaerobes in which pyruvate from glycolysis is reduced to either carbon dioxide and ethanol or lactic acid
ocular micrometer
small glass disk with thin lines numbered and etched in a row
Law of Segregation
-3rd Part of Mendel's particulate theory-also called Mendel's first law-says that when gametes form, homologous chromosomes segregate so that only one of the homologous pair is contained in a particular gamete
Uterine Horn
point where the uterus and oviducts meet
the highest posible value for solute potential is ___
zero (pure water)
example of chemical cellular work
pushing endergonic reactions that would not occur spontaneously
Graham negative cell
Bacterial cell having a wall composed of a thin layer of peptidoglycan, an external membrane of lipopolysaccharide, and a periplasmic space between; appears pink after the Graham staining procedure.
all the differing forms of a gene (a maximum of two alleles for each gene)
primary oocytes
cells that are produced by the mitosis of oogonia
What does the endoderm of the gastrula form in the mature organism?
-digestive tract
2 things that determine which way water will move through a semipermeable membrane in nature?
solute concentration and pressure
more upright and leafy
compared to the physical aspect of liverworts (hepaticophytas), that of the moss is _______.
What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic:- no membrane bound organelles and nucleus- smaller than eukaryoticEukaryotic:-membrane bound nuclear area, and many organelles-more complex
parts of nerve stimulation experiment equipment
oscilloscope (counts # of nerve signals arriving at the recording electrode), nerve chamber with nerve, stimulator
Function of the epiglottis?
The function of the epiglottis is to block off food and liquids from entering the trachea
what makes an AP in one kind of neuron propagate faster than one in another neuron?
larger axon diameter
Protostomia II: Phylum Nematoda (Male vs Female)
Testis and Vas Deferens -vs- Uterus, Oviduct and Ovary
how many whorls in a flower?
-1. The sepal on the outside -2. The petals lying inside the sepal -3. The stamens enclosed by the pedals -4. The carpal in the center of the flower
digestive tract in animals with radial symmetry
there is only one opening into which food goes in and waste comes out -this chamber is known as the gastrovascular cavity
water in a monocot root moves inward, why?
bc the water potential in the soil is greater than that in the stele
ventral/anterior: frontdorsal/posterior: backmedial: toward midline verticallateral: toward the side of the bodycranial: towards headcaudal: towards rear or tailproximal: closer to the point of attachmentdistal: farther from the point of attachment
abuscular mychorrhizal fungi
eukarya alveolata ciliophora
Eukarya alveolata dinozoa
Eukarya Archaeplastida Plantae
Describe fibrinogen
-mesh for platelets-clotting
Order: Hymenoptera; Family: Colletidae; Plasterer bees; 3 submarginal cells (even) jugal lobe longer than discal cell.
What are mycologists?
Fungus experts
animalia chordata vertebrata cephalapidomorphia
What controls micturition?
-sphincter vesicae-sphincter urethrae
dense irregular connective tissue, fibroblasts, adipose, macrophages, collagen, elastic and reticular fibersPapillary layer: papillae (small projections) extend into epidermal regionfingerprints: whorls, loops, archesReticular layer
theca cells
elongated with parallel arrangement
europe, late eocene, omomyid, leaper,, bunodont, nocturnal
Immediately interior to the epitherlium, brochioles contain a thin layer of ______.
smooth muscle
What are frog vomerine teeth?
for grasping
muscular layer
2 smooth muscle layerscircular: peristalsis (propel food along tract)longitudinal: segmentation (aids in mixing food with enzymes)
Vesicular glands
*Paired glands contribute large portion of ejaculate volume *Anatomy varies greatly between species
miocene, hominoid, 1st ape, e. africa, no tail, 15-50 kg, bony ear tube,, sexual dimorphic, pronounced snout,
Pepsin operates best in ___ pH environments
What are thrombocytes?
-platelets -1/2 size of RBC's-involved in blood clots
Thoracic Cavity
Encloses the pleural, mediastinum and pericardial cavity
supportive connective tissue
cartilage: resilient tissue that provides flexible support and gives shape to ear, nose, epiglottisbone: rigid tissue that serves as the body's frameworkprovides support and protection of internal organs
Excurrent Duct System
*Efferent ducts *Epididymal ducts *Ductus deferens *Allows for final maturation, storage and delivery of spermatazoa to the pelvic urethra
homo habilis
2.3-1.8 MYA, E. Africa, smaller teeth, canines reduced, flatter face, brain size 500-800 cc, skull more rounded
What are the different types of casts?
-hyaline -granular-waxy-RBC-WBC
connective tissue
composed of cells and usually fibers in a ground substancejoins or insulates body partssupport or protect the bodytransport substances
leydig cells
groups of triangular shaped cells @ the broders of seminiferous cells
These two physiological objects cann affect heart rate.
vagus nerve
sympathetic system
a loose matrix of cells and ground tissue
lamina propria
What causes the lysing of red blood cells in the hemacytometer?
-acetic acid
What are the 4 phases of mitosis.
PMAT...prophase-, metaphase, anaphase, telephase.
What is the vestigial string hanging from the ends of the ram's penis?
The urethral process
how larger a load is moved by a given force
Describe lavender (purple) tops.
Contains EDTA to bind up calcium. This prevents coagulation and used for CBC and cytology of body fluids (preserves cells well).
tidal volume
volume of air that passes into and out of the lungs during normal restful breathing
Neonates receive immunity by _______. How?
passive transfer
from dam to offspring via placenta or milk
What does blood exit the glomerulus through?
-efferent arteriole (much smaller than afferent)
What is a tissue?
A group of similar cells doing a specific function.
The VC deaces in paralytic polio is due to
partial paralysis of respiratory muscles
How is the total resolving power calculated?
By multiplying the magnification of the ocular lens (10x) by the magnification of the objective lens.
What are three things that cause anemia?
1) reduction in formation (lack of iron, nutrition2) blood loss: parasites, lacerations3) increased RBC destruction: malaria, immune disorder
What is residual volume?How can this be calculated?
-volume of air that remains in lungs after amaximal exhalation (1200mL)-25% of VC in females, 33% in males
What is the end of each renal pyramid called and where do these project to?
-renal papilla, which project into a calyx.
heart muscle
PPr/PPe = SVr/SVe
animalia annelida polychaeta
animalia platyhelminthes turbellaria
eukarya stramenopila bacillariophyta
Actinopods/Radiolarians: types of symmetry
animalia chordata vertebrata actinopterygii
ratio or forelimb to hindlimb
Actinopods/Radiolarians: types of shell
Silicious tests
secreted by the pancreasemulsify fatsacidic chyme enters duodnem → neutralized by bile and pancreatic secretionsbile salts act to emulsify fatslipid droplets can then be broken down by lipasefat →emulsified→ fatty acids + glycerol
In plant reproduction, fertilization does not happen without what?
adapid, late eocene, europe, sagittal crest,, 1-2 kg, well- developed molar shearing crest
An increase in temperature ___ pH
Sexual reproduction Costs
Longer meiosismate searchinggenome dilution
produced by pancreas and salivary glandsbegins starch digestion in mouthhydrolysis frees maltose and glucose from starch polymerIodine presence test - Benedict's reagent (detect reducing sugars)
What plastids contain pigments other than chlorophyll?
au. robustus
s. africa, 2-1 mya, reduced canine
pia mater
saran wrap-like meninge that covers over the folds on the brain
What double walled epithelium where glomeruli embed?
-Bowmans capsule
What happens in the gill lamellae?
gas exchange
instrument used to detect and measure the amount of light absorption at a specific wavelength
permits readouts in transmittance, absorbance, and sometimes concentration
What Phylum are cellular slime molds from?
a very thin tunic made of simple squamous epithelium that surrounds the outside of the organ.
When empty, transitional epithelium can be seen as what two distinct cells?
-cuboidal and columnar cells
Describe blue tops.
*contains sodium citrate which ties up calcium-usually used for coagulation testing
carry oxygen rich blood away from the heartthicker walls
Prostate Gland
*Near the junction of bladder and pelvic urethra *Surrounds the urethra *Only accessory gland in the dog
Olecranon Process
on the ulna and where the tricep muscle inserts
serous acini stain _____ ( what color)
a deep purple
What are nephrons in the cortex called? How about the remainder nephrons?
-cortical nephrons-juxtamedullary nephrons
hyaline cartilage
found in apex of nose between ribs, and sternum
What is the most important source of information for humans
their sight
the amount of air insipred or expired during normal quiet respiration
Tidal Volume (TV)
What is the funnel end of each ureter called?
-the pelvis
How long can the process of spermatogenesis range?
anywhere from 40-75 days
What is a Nephron?
basic functioning unit of kidney, 1 million/kidney, urine is formed from 3 different processes: filtration, reabsorption, secretion
What are the main components of blood?
-cells (formed elements) 45%-plasma (92% water, 8% solids) 55%
What are they layer of cells which immediately surround the oocyte?
The corona radiata cells
We test for starch hydrolysis by ____
adding iodine reagent.  Black means starch is present and hydrolysis did not occur.
Which slide kinda looks like a platypus lookin thing?
The epididymis and the ductus deferens, and if something seems to be in the vas deferents, it is most likely sperm cells.
How many nephrons are estimated to be in each kidney?
-about 1 million nephrons!-80% in cortex, the rest partially in the cortex and medulla
What are the proper sequences of staining?
-dip and blot 5 times in fixative, then eosin, then hematoxylin-lastly, blot back of slide with PT to remove excess stain
In which species is the bulbourethral gland most important, and what is its role?
This is a large accessory organ in the boar, and it is responsible for 95% of the ejaculation. After the initial ejaculation, the seminal plasma created by the bulbo will turn gelatinous and he will continue enjaculatoin for quite some time.
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