Anthropology Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Resettlement
...
Social differentiation
...
totem
non-human ancestor
cognitive
explains unfortunate events
Genealogies
Family lines, descent
pastorlism
domestication of animals
ritual
rituals are formal-stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped. people perform them in special (sacred) places and at set times.
Sherpa
Live in Nepal. Agro-pastoralist.
MALINOWSKI
ALL HUMAN NEEDS VITAL
ethnomedicine
study of traditional medicines
Nuclear Family
married couple + children
patrilocal
associated with patrilineal descent; married couples live in the husband or father's community where related males stay put and women move to the male's village
patrilineal descent
men have higher status
ethnography
fieldwork ( firsthand data collection)
sex
biologically based differences between men and women
health
successful activities in the world
system
culture is integrated like a
Etic
Research strategy emphasizing the ethnographer's explanations and categories; attempts an impatrial view of a culture.
Fundamentalism
a type of cultural/revitalization movement in which members attempt to address perceived social problems or disadvantages by restoring the perceived "fundamentals" or oldest, more important, and most "genuine" elements of culture
industrial state
-use sophisticated technologies -factory and office work intro'd.-urban growth-market econ-division of labor becomes more complex (tertiary secondary etc)-open society-nuclear family introd-role of elderly diminshed b/c of written records- secularized in religion
patrilocality
couples live in male's community
think PATRI = Paternal = Male
think LOCAL = area = community
Culture
-a mode of mediation
-anything that shapes action, consciousness, or perception
-bodily practices
-unconscious categories
-ideologies and beliefs
Historical linguistics
study of languages over time
Evolution
Transformation of species; decent with modification.
functions of language
emotional expression, social interaction, control of reality, recording the facts, an instrument of thoughts, and expression of identity
comparative method
the methodological approach of comparing data
prehensile
adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object (monkey's prehensile tail)
Gradualism
The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
Secondary Innovation
Deliberately apply some known principle to come up with something brand new
Polytheism
Belief in several gods and/or goddesses
Ethnocentrism
Judging beliefs and behaviors of others with own cultural values
hampi
medicine it has special animating qualities
Homo heidelbergensis
-increased brain size
-more rounded skull
-smaller molars
-no chin
supernatural
supernatural forces and events and beings collectively
Upper Paleolithic
Cultural period beginning roughly 30,000-40,000 ya and ending about 10,000 ya and distinguished by major technological innovations, the creation of the earliest human art widely recognized as such, and many other accomplishments. Best known from western Europe, similar industries are also known from central and eastern Europe and Africa.
ribosomes
structures in the cell where translation occurs
change
Concepts of masculine and feminine vary among cultures and _______ over time
affine
relative (usually spouse) that marries into your family
Eugenics
the "applied science or the biosocial movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population," usually referring to human populations
anthropometry
measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities, used to determine differences between groups, stature or skincolor.
Norms
shared ideas about the way things should be done, rules of behavior that reflect and enforce culture.
underdifferentiation
seeing less developed countries as all the same, ignoring cultural diversity
DNA
A long, two-stranded molecule in the genes that directs the makeup of an organism according to its genetic code.
the large eyes suggest they were nocturnal
...
Non-stratified
societies exist which have little or no concept of social hierarchy, political or economic status, class, or even permanent leadership.
language
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways accoding to a set of rules.
strepsirhine
suborder of the primates that include prosimians, excluding the tarsier
Relative Dating
Dating technique that establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials, rather than absolute dates in numbers (and rule of superposition). Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, and Paleomagnetic dating.
exogamy
mating or marriage outsides one's kin group
klasies river mouth sa
100,000-120,000 cannibals cremation, series of caves
seasonal habitation before the ocean went into caves
sea life being used
sea birds
mamamals
Bronze
First states/empires ruled by kings or queens. First writing-accounts and legal code. First science,mathamatics, and poetry. First metal tools/weapons-bronze. Earliest cities , monuments, craft-specialization.
cultural correlates to foraging
band-organized societies; highly mobile; sexual division of labor; egalitarian
Plesiadapiforms
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits
Why did domestication occur?
More suitable climate
population pressure
society
an organized group of people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture, and who act together for collective survival
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
Biological determinism
The belief that biological differences between different human populations explained their different ways of life (a group's way of life was determined by its distinct, innate biological makeup)
Questionnaire
Form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents, tends to be more impersonal.
Omomyidae
an omomyoid primate that lived in North America about 48 million years ago, over 200 specimens representing seven individuals found in this quadrant Accumulation of bones appears to be remains of a small primate that was being preyed on by an owl (owl like bird)
Modernization Theory
reasons why global inequality some nations don't catch up to more industrialized nations
bonobos
GG rubbing is most commonly found in:
6 Primate Characteristics
1. Well-developed visual senses2. Diurnal lifestyles3. Diverse locomotion; tree and ground4. Dentition5. Large Brain6. K-selected
Hominid
Member of hominid family; any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla.
specialized pastoralism
adaptive strategy of near exclusive reliance on animal husbandry
in depth interviews
part of the ethnographic techniques
Form
the result of a combination of style and function
Law
Legal code of a state society, with trial and enforcement
Patrilocal Residence
couples lives with or near husband's parents
Polygenic
Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes
life history
ethnographic biography of a person in a particular culture, Reveal how specific people perceive, react to, and contribute to changes that affect their lives
naive realism
almost universal belief that all ppl define the real world of objects, events, and living creatures in pretty much the same way
Turkana Boy
• Discovered in 1984 at Lake Turkana, northern Kenya
• Virtually complete skeleton of Homo ergaster boy
• Well-dated deposits 1.6 mya
• Compared to modern humans
- thick cranial bone
- prominent brow ridges
- low, flat forehead
- thick femur
- heavy musculature
- thinner spinal cord
Kin selection theory
behavioral favoring of ones close genetic relatives.
homo sapiens
160000 years ago derived from africa middlestone age
smaller more diverse
Neanderthals
• 1856 - Neanderthals were found in Germany in the Neander Valley (Valley = Thal in Germany)
• it was found in a cave in this valley that was on this cliff - not very easy to get to, so it wasn't reached for a long time
• these miners were working around this cave, but eventually had to go inside and came across this scull
• then leg bones, etc.. - a partial skeleton
• they didn't know what this was, they thought it was some sort of a cave-bear
• they gave it to a teacher who recognized it immediately, but as something new
• It was kind of like homo erectus
o Double brow - vs usual uni-brow
o Low forehead
o Long, low cranium
o Bones were generally more robust
o Also, they were a bit bowed - almost bent-like, which was odd
o Cranial capacity was surprisingly quite large
• 1520 cranial capacity - extraordinarily similar to ours
• They argued that this was an ancient race of human - far before Noah's flood
o Homo Neanderthalensis
• Mayer Virchow argued that these individuals suffered from Rickets - a vitamin D deficiency
• But he wrote the book on Rickets, so he should have know better that this was definitely not the case
• Neanderthals
o 5'5'' tall
o 135 lbs
o In this respect they are quite big compared to modern humans in relation to muscles
o We know that they were very muscular based on the markings left by their muscles attached to their bones
o Neanderthals didn't live in just one environment, but for those that lived in very cold areas, they were more short and thick, where as those that lived in hotter areas were more long and thin
o Swept back cheek bones
o Huge nasal apertures - they had big noses
o Mandible has no chin
o Teeth overlap modern humans in size
o Behind the third molar - big space
• Surprisingly, their incisors were worn significantly down
Earliest Neanderthals
• A lot of early Neanderthals are hard to date and its still not reliable
• 120 thousand years ago is the estimate at this point, but they could also be twice this age
• 30-28 thousand years ago is the estimated time we saw the extinction of Neanderthals
personified supernatural
Found in a variety of supernatural being such as deities, ghosts, and ancestors
feminization of poverty
increasing representation of women and their children among America's poorest people.
Dominance hierarchies
An observed ranking system in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination.
cultural anthropology
Study of patterns of human behavior, thought, and feelings
ascribed status
social status (race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying
ambilineal descent
ancestry is traced through either the father's side or the mother's side, but not both
What is the body weight index of dimorphism ratio between males and females
2.02
Thomas Malthus
The founder of demography, which is the science of population study. He assumed that the level of population is determined by the amount of food produced. Furthermore, he predicted that the population would grow faster than the food production rates. This came to be true due to the grave poverty in the world.
Independent invention
the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems. Leads to a development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.
Collateral Relative
Relative outside of ego's direct line, e.g., B, Z, FB, MZ
speciation or cladogenesis
splitting of a species into two
Cultural Relativism
the suspension of one's own personal bias in order to better understand another culture
"keeping an open mind"
a tool to help understand why people do what they do (even if you don't agree, you try to understand to know what they do)
Woman/Woman Marriage
30 Diff african groups; Nuer, zulu, ibo, nandi, Masai and more. Polygynous and patrilineal societies. In patrilineal society when divorced wife loses children and cannot own possessions.
Social Stratification
The emergence of social classes is a culture change characteristic of cities and states. Archaeologists have been able to verify the existence of social classes in ancient civilizations by studying burial customs and grave goods.
Negative reciprocity
getting as much for as little as possible, cheating/false scales may be used.
diachronic perspective
the study of how culture and biology change over time
Cultural loss
The process by which elements of a culture disappear over time, through natural/environmental changes, social pressures, or individual choices.
set square
the tool Hemienu used to level the stones of
Olduwan hand chopper
2.5 million years old (habilis); tool used to get the marrow out of bones and to break nuts; first evidence of patterned tool making; found all over
Polygenetic Inheritance
Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic.
hardy weindberg equilibrium model
hypothetical condition where there is no selection or otherslection or other forces of evolution acting on a population.
Universals of God
1. force has control over individuals and control over life and death. 2. force is more powerful than any human. 3 usually cant be seen heard or touched 4. usually there before and after you die
rites of intensification
rituals that take place during a crisis in the life of the group and serve to bind individuals together
Darwin was an Avid Reader of...
Charles Lyell - Uniformitarianism
Alfred Russel Wallace - Similar conclusions to darwin on evolutionism
Thomas Malthus - economist - published "Essay on the Principle of Population"
Labov's pronunciation study
students in inner city schools playing a grammar jeopardy; part of Black English Vernacular
tonal language
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation
 Reasons for Domestication Failure
 Diet
 Growth rate
 Captive breeding
 Disposition
 Tendency to panic
 Social structure
Bride Price
A gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride's family, 44%
Classic Neandertal Features:
-Found in Western Europe. - Long, low barrel shaped cranium. - Low forehead - Occipital Bun (bump on back of head) - Double Arched supraorbital tori - Chin recedes - Shovel shaped incisors. => Midface Projection (not found in any other primates) -Enlarged Sinus -Stresses between upper and lower teeth (taurodontism)
balanced reciprocity
a form of exchange in which items of equal or nea-equal value are exchange on the spot
What is the date and cc for H rudolfensis?
2.4-1.6mybp 752-810cc
6 categories of Kinship System of algorithm
Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese.
expensive tissue hypothesis
-if you reduce the size of your guy, gives you more energy which allows more tissue (possibly in the brain)
Internal Migration of Tongans
from the outer islands to the capitol island of Tongatapu. As of 2004, 70% of Tongans lived in Tongatapu and 18% of Tongans lived in the capitol city of Nuku'alofa.
Homo ergaster - when and where
africa, 2 mya, for sure our ancestor
Tools tend to be fewer and simpler among
mobile food foragers and pastoralists.
what is the changing emphasis in Neolithic tomb building?
whether or not the civilizations were rounded as a whole community or just the individual
The myth of the origin of Kava
reps kava 'onua and her sacrifice of her daughters life. A kava plant grew from her dead body.
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