explains unfortunate events
Family lines, descent
domestication of animals
rituals are formal-stylized, repetitive, and stereotyped. people perform them in special (sacred) places and at set times.
Live in Nepal. Agro-pastoralist.
ALL HUMAN NEEDS VITAL
study of traditional medicines
married couple + children
associated with patrilineal descent; married couples live in the husband or father's community where related males stay put and women move to the male's village
men have higher status
fieldwork ( firsthand data collection)
biologically based differences between men and women
successful activities in the world
culture is integrated like a
Research strategy emphasizing the ethnographer's explanations and categories; attempts an impatrial view of a culture.
a type of cultural/revitalization movement in which members attempt to address perceived social problems or disadvantages by restoring the perceived "fundamentals" or oldest, more important, and most "genuine" elements of culture
-use sophisticated technologies -factory and office work intro'd.-urban growth-market econ-division of labor becomes more complex (tertiary secondary etc)-open society-nuclear family introd-role of elderly diminshed b/c of written records- secularized in religion
couples live in male's community
think PATRI = Paternal = Male
think LOCAL = area = community
-a mode of mediation
-anything that shapes action, consciousness, or perception
-ideologies and beliefs
study of languages over time
Transformation of species; decent with modification.
|functions of language||
emotional expression, social interaction, control of reality, recording the facts, an instrument of thoughts, and expression of identity
the methodological approach of comparing data
adapted for grasping especially by wrapping around an object (monkey's prehensile tail)
The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
Deliberately apply some known principle to come up with something brand new
Belief in several gods and/or goddesses
Judging beliefs and behaviors of others with own cultural values
medicine it has special animating qualities
-increased brain size
-more rounded skull
supernatural forces and events and beings collectively
Cultural period beginning roughly 30,000-40,000 ya and ending about 10,000 ya and distinguished by major technological innovations, the creation of the earliest human art widely recognized as such, and many other accomplishments. Best known from western Europe, similar industries are also known from central and eastern Europe and Africa.
structures in the cell where translation occurs
Concepts of masculine and feminine vary among cultures and _______ over time
relative (usually spouse) that marries into your family
the "applied science or the biosocial movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population," usually referring to human populations
measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities, used to determine differences between groups, stature or skincolor.
shared ideas about the way things should be done, rules of behavior that reflect and enforce culture.
seeing less developed countries as all the same, ignoring cultural diversity
A long, two-stranded molecule in the genes that directs the makeup of an organism according to its genetic code.
|the large eyes suggest they were nocturnal||
societies exist which have little or no concept of social hierarchy, political or economic status, class, or even permanent leadership.
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways accoding to a set of rules.
suborder of the primates that include prosimians, excluding the tarsier
Dating technique that establishes a time frame in relation to other strata or materials, rather than absolute dates in numbers (and rule of superposition). Lithostratigraphy, Biostratigraphy, and Paleomagnetic dating.
mating or marriage outsides one's kin group
|klasies river mouth sa||
100,000-120,000 cannibals cremation, series of caves
seasonal habitation before the ocean went into caves
sea life being used
First states/empires ruled by kings or queens. First writing-accounts and legal code. First science,mathamatics, and poetry. First metal tools/weapons-bronze. Earliest cities , monuments, craft-specialization.
|cultural correlates to foraging||
band-organized societies; highly mobile; sexual division of labor; egalitarian
mammalian order or suborder of mammals that may be ancestral to late primates, characterized by some, not all primate traits
|Why did domestication occur?||
More suitable climate
an organized group of people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture, and who act together for collective survival
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
The belief that biological differences between different human populations explained their different ways of life (a group's way of life was determined by its distinct, innate biological makeup)
Form used by sociologists to obtain comparable information from respondents, tends to be more impersonal.
an omomyoid primate that lived in North America about 48 million years ago, over 200 specimens representing seven individuals found in this quadrant Accumulation of bones appears to be remains of a small primate that was being preyed on by an owl (owl like bird)
reasons why global inequality some nations don't catch up to more industrialized nations
GG rubbing is most commonly found in:
|6 Primate Characteristics||
1. Well-developed visual senses2. Diurnal lifestyles3. Diverse locomotion; tree and ground4. Dentition5. Large Brain6. K-selected
Member of hominid family; any fossil or living human, chimp, or gorilla.
adaptive strategy of near exclusive reliance on animal husbandry
|in depth interviews||
part of the ethnographic techniques
the result of a combination of style and function
Legal code of a state society, with trial and enforcement
couples lives with or near husband's parents
Refers to one phenotypic trait that is affected by two or more genes
ethnographic biography of a person in a particular culture, Reveal how specific people perceive, react to, and contribute to changes that affect their lives
almost universal belief that all ppl define the real world of objects, events, and living creatures in pretty much the same way
• Discovered in 1984 at Lake Turkana, northern Kenya
• Virtually complete skeleton of Homo ergaster boy
• Well-dated deposits 1.6 mya
• Compared to modern humans
- thick cranial bone
- prominent brow ridges
- low, flat forehead
- thick femur
- heavy musculature
- thinner spinal cord
|Kin selection theory||
behavioral favoring of ones close genetic relatives.
160000 years ago derived from africa middlestone age
smaller more diverse
• 1856 - Neanderthals were found in Germany in the Neander Valley (Valley = Thal in Germany)
• it was found in a cave in this valley that was on this cliff - not very easy to get to, so it wasn't reached for a long time
• these miners were working around this cave, but eventually had to go inside and came across this scull
• then leg bones, etc.. - a partial skeleton
• they didn't know what this was, they thought it was some sort of a cave-bear
• they gave it to a teacher who recognized it immediately, but as something new
• It was kind of like homo erectus
o Double brow - vs usual uni-brow
o Low forehead
o Long, low cranium
o Bones were generally more robust
o Also, they were a bit bowed - almost bent-like, which was odd
o Cranial capacity was surprisingly quite large
• 1520 cranial capacity - extraordinarily similar to ours
• They argued that this was an ancient race of human - far before Noah's flood
o Homo Neanderthalensis
• Mayer Virchow argued that these individuals suffered from Rickets - a vitamin D deficiency
• But he wrote the book on Rickets, so he should have know better that this was definitely not the case
o 5'5'' tall
o 135 lbs
o In this respect they are quite big compared to modern humans in relation to muscles
o We know that they were very muscular based on the markings left by their muscles attached to their bones
o Neanderthals didn't live in just one environment, but for those that lived in very cold areas, they were more short and thick, where as those that lived in hotter areas were more long and thin
o Swept back cheek bones
o Huge nasal apertures - they had big noses
o Mandible has no chin
o Teeth overlap modern humans in size
o Behind the third molar - big space
• Surprisingly, their incisors were worn significantly down
• A lot of early Neanderthals are hard to date and its still not reliable
• 120 thousand years ago is the estimate at this point, but they could also be twice this age
• 30-28 thousand years ago is the estimated time we saw the extinction of Neanderthals
Found in a variety of supernatural being such as deities, ghosts, and ancestors
|feminization of poverty||
increasing representation of women and their children among America's poorest people.
An observed ranking system in primate societies ordering individuals from high (alpha) to low standing corresponding to predictable behavioral interactions including domination.
Study of patterns of human behavior, thought, and feelings
social status (race or gender) that people have little or no choice about occupying
ancestry is traced through either the father's side or the mother's side, but not both
|What is the body weight index of dimorphism ratio between males and females||
The founder of demography, which is the science of population study. He assumed that the level of population is determined by the amount of food produced. Furthermore, he predicted that the population would grow faster than the food production rates. This came to be true due to the grave poverty in the world.
the process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems. Leads to a development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances.
Relative outside of ego's direct line, e.g., B, Z, FB, MZ
|speciation or cladogenesis||
splitting of a species into two
the suspension of one's own personal bias in order to better understand another culture
"keeping an open mind"
a tool to help understand why people do what they do (even if you don't agree, you try to understand to know what they do)
30 Diff african groups; Nuer, zulu, ibo, nandi, Masai and more. Polygynous and patrilineal societies. In patrilineal society when divorced wife loses children and cannot own possessions.
The emergence of social classes is a culture change characteristic of cities and states. Archaeologists have been able to verify the existence of social classes in ancient civilizations by studying burial customs and grave goods.
getting as much for as little as possible, cheating/false scales may be used.
the study of how culture and biology change over time
The process by which elements of a culture disappear over time, through natural/environmental changes, social pressures, or individual choices.
the tool Hemienu used to level the stones of
|Olduwan hand chopper||
2.5 million years old (habilis); tool used to get the marrow out of bones and to break nuts; first evidence of patterned tool making; found all over
Two or more genes contribute to the phenotypic expression of a single characteristic.
|hardy weindberg equilibrium model||
hypothetical condition where there is no selection or otherslection or other forces of evolution acting on a population.
|Universals of God||
1. force has control over individuals and control over life and death. 2. force is more powerful than any human. 3 usually cant be seen heard or touched 4. usually there before and after you die
|rites of intensification||
rituals that take place during a crisis in the life of the group and serve to bind individuals together
|Darwin was an Avid Reader of...||
Charles Lyell - Uniformitarianism
Alfred Russel Wallace - Similar conclusions to darwin on evolutionism
Thomas Malthus - economist - published "Essay on the Principle of Population"
|Labov's pronunciation study||
students in inner city schools playing a grammar jeopardy; part of Black English Vernacular
a language in which the sound pitch of a spoken word is an essential part of its pronunciation
| Reasons for Domestication Failure||
Tendency to panic
A gift of money or goods from the groom or his kin to the bride's family, 44%
|Classic Neandertal Features:||
-Found in Western Europe. - Long, low barrel shaped cranium. - Low forehead - Occipital Bun (bump on back of head) - Double Arched supraorbital tori - Chin recedes - Shovel shaped incisors. => Midface Projection (not found in any other primates) -Enlarged Sinus -Stresses between upper and lower teeth (taurodontism)
a form of exchange in which items of equal or nea-equal value are exchange on the spot
|What is the date and cc for H rudolfensis?||
|6 categories of Kinship System of algorithm||
Eskimo, Hawaiian, Iroquois, Crow, Omaha, and Sudanese.
|expensive tissue hypothesis||
-if you reduce the size of your guy, gives you more energy which allows more tissue (possibly in the brain)
|Internal Migration of Tongans||
from the outer islands to the capitol island of Tongatapu. As of 2004, 70% of Tongans lived in Tongatapu and 18% of Tongans lived in the capitol city of Nuku'alofa.
|Homo ergaster - when and where||
africa, 2 mya, for sure our ancestor
|Tools tend to be fewer and simpler among||
mobile food foragers and pastoralists.
|what is the changing emphasis in Neolithic tomb building?||
whether or not the civilizations were rounded as a whole community or just the individual
|The myth of the origin of Kava||
reps kava 'onua and her sacrifice of her daughters life. A kava plant grew from her dead body.