Lab Practical 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Agnatha
Trematoda
flukes
posterior, human
back
druses
compound crystals
scapula
shoulder blade
rectus abdominis
abs
Necator americanus ova
tonoplast
the vacuolar membrane
Pseudopodia(movement, ingesting)
Cercozoans, Radiolarians
digital extensors
outside forearm
fruit dispersal
-wings -animal feces -animal fur
S =
1 - W
flukes
D= EukaryaK= AnimaliaP= PlatyhelminthesC= Trematoda
have chlorophyll b
Kingdom Plantae
Universal Receiver
Blood Type AB
phalanges
finger and toe bones
endiosymbiosis in protists
primary and secondary
urethra
connects bladder with external environment
Paramecium
single-celled protist, (know structure pg. 43)
Arachnida
spiders, ticks, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, mites
Advanced True Fungi
Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes
Lungs
Essential respiration organs, where gas exchange occurs
peristalsis
wavelike muscular contractions that move food through out the alimentary canal
what organisms are eukaryotes?
animals and plants
organism that produces a capsule
Streptococcus pneumonia
solute
a substance dissolved in a solution
Denaturation
Changing an enzymes structure and function.
Phylum Bacillariophyta
diatomsshells consist of two halves
Pancreas
produces hormones and juice for digestion
3 classes of enzymes
carbohydrases, lipases, proteases
monocot
flower plants that have one embryonic seed leaf, or cotyledons -corn -no vascular tissue ring, spread out
examples of homospory organisms
bryophytes and most pteridophytes
Protostomia II: Phylum Arthopoda (Metamorphosis)
Simple/Incomplete metamorphosis (Grasshopper)...Complete/Holometabolous metamorphosis (Butterfly)
skewed distribution
direction is where the tail points
pyruvate
a product of glycolysis; pyruvate is reduced to ethanol or lactic acid during anaerobic fermentation
Rf Value
(Distance moved by pigment)/ (distance from pigment origin to solvent front)
Primitive True Fungi
lack regular septation, lack dikaryotic phasePhylum ChytridiomycotaPhylum Zygomycota
Pituitary glad
very important gland that regulates many aspects of homeostasis, connected to the hypothalamus
chondrocytes
cartilage cells, lie in small chambers called lacunae
___ is a process that involves movemtn of molecuels in a solution
diffusion
true/ false: all cells have a plasma membrane
true
-its enzymes are able to metabolize sugars via alcohol fermentation -produce CO2, which causes dough to rise
baker's yeast
homologous structures
features that are alike in structure because the species share a common ancestor
corpus luteum
formed by the follicle cells that remain after ovulation, produces hormones that prepare the uterus for potential arrival of a fertilized egg
optimal conditions
the range of values for environmental factors such as temp and pH at which an enzyme functions best
Name a substrate and its enzyme
Substrate-Hydrogen PeroxideEnzyme- Peroxidase
Bronchi
Divided by the trachea, a caliber of the airway in the respiratory tract
structure of esophagus
mucosa, submucosa, muscular layer, and serosa
osmosis will continue as long as there are more water molecules on one side of the membrane
osmotic pressure
degrees of freedom
( # columns * #rows) - 1
homologous chromosomes
the two chromosomes of a pair, each homologue has same site (loci) for the same genes, although alleles may be different
What does the ectoderm in the gastrula eventually form in the mature organism?
-skin-nervous system
smooth muscle
larger in middle and has a single nucleus
2/4/8 cell stages
animal pole on top, vegetal pole on bottom
effects of pH on enzymes
extreme pH denatures enzymes, optimal pH=7, exceptions are pepsin & trypsin
3 types of ribs
true ribs, false ribs, and floating ribs
as water molecules evaporate through the plant’s stomata
more water molecules are pulled upward
What is the difference between a catalyzed and an uncatalyzed reaction?
Catalyzed reaction proceeds much faster than uncatalyzed because the catalyst lowers the activation energy.
how does iodine indicate the presence of starch
it turns blue/black, slides into starch coil to give color
what causes the "dub" sounds of the heart?
clsing of the semilunar valves (pulmonary on right, aortic on left)
3 parts of a neuron and flow of signals.
dendrites collect signals --> cell body --> axon
digestive system in animals with bilateral symmetry
there is a gut tube that runs from the mouth to the anus
orthograde
spine vertical
!http://www.palaeos.com/Eukarya/Units/Rhizaria/Images/Foraminifera.jpg! !http://www.emmapayne.net/site/pix/radiolaria.jpg!
eukarya rhizaria
chyme
partially digested food
!http://www.cheshirewildlifetrust.co.uk/IMAGES/watch_earthworm.jpg!
animalia annelida oligochaeta
!http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/Annelids/Eunicid1.jpg!
animalia annelida polychaeta
prognathism
when premaxilla extends out
Order: Lepidoptera; Family: Lycaenidae; Blue, Hairstreak, copper butterflies; unforked claws,banded antennae, hair on tibia
order of intestine layers
lumen→circular→longitudinal
!http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week9/9webimages/porifera.jpg!
Eukarya Opithokonta Animalia Porifera
An increase in CO2 ____pH
lowers
Asexual Benefits
rapid mitosisno mate searchingoffspring clonesno sexual selection
excretions
byproducts of metabolism and nitrogenous wastes TOXICurea, ammonia, uric acidfiltration, selective reabsorbtion, secretion
!http://biology.uwsp.edu/faculty/RSchmitz/RJSinvert/invertimages/hydra1.gif!
Eukarya Opisthokonta Animalia Cnidaria Hydrozoa
phenetics cladistics
2 methods for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships of organisms
Describe tiger tops.
*contains gel barrier-serum seperator, no need to draw off serum after
What is histology?
The study of tissues.
leukocytes
white blood cellsfight infection and produce antibodiescan move out of blood vesselsdigest injured tissue
homo neanderthelensis
occipital bun, enlarged nasal area, 130,00-30,000, heavy brow ridge, europe and M.E., mid-facial prognathism
In the female, the respiratory volume values are ______ smaller
20-25%
medulla oblongata
called spinal bulb, controls heart, respiration, and vasomotor reactions
vesicles
fluid filled sacs inside the cell that transport wastes out of the cell. Carry on enzymatic activities. They protects the plasma membrane.
mammals lung ventilation
NEGATIVE pressure↑ volume in thoracic cavity↓air pressure in lungs
lambda max
wavelength where a substance absorbs most strongly
Adaptive response comes in two forms. They are...?
humoral
cell-mediated
_____ are laced throughout the alveoli walls to allow for gas exchange.
pulmonary capillaries
What is hemoglobin for?
-transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide
Parts of the microscope
ocular lens, nosepiece, objective, stage, condenser, iris diaphragm, light source, body tube, arm, mechanical stage knobs, coarse -focus knob, fine focus knob, base
glucose and urine
glycosuria: amounts of glucose in urine exceed normal amounts
Describe parenchyma cells.
Parenchyma is the simplest tissue type. Parenchyma cells have thin cell walls and large central vacuoles.
___ appear as empty spaces arrange in a sunburst patter, with a large hole, the _____ forming the middle of the sunburts
sinusoids
central vein 
I OlfactoryII OpticIII OculomotorIV TrochlearV TrigeminalVI AbducensVII FacialVIII AcousticIX GlossopharyngealX VagusXI Spinal Accessory XII Hypoglossal
Name the 12 cranial nerves
What facilitates water reabsorption and from where?
-antidiuretic hormone of teh posterior pituitary-aldosterone of the adrenal cortex
What is a neuron?
The highly specialized structure of the basic cell of nervous tissue.
A cardiac action potential consists of 3 different stages:
rapid depolarization
plateau depolarization
repolarization back to resting phase
What is the renal medulla divided into?
-cone shaped renal pyramids
4 types of integumentary glands and their function
sweat gland-body persperation, lactiforous (milk) glands, sebaceous (oil) glands), ceruminous (earwax) glands
By what are the vaginal epithelium cells influenced?
The presence of estrogen.
the maximal amount of air that can be forcully expired after a mixmum inspiration
Vital capacity (VC)
list the 11 organ systems of the body
respiratory, urinary, nervous, muscular, reproductive, skeletal, lymphatic, integumentary, disgestive, endocrine, cardiovascular
What are the three main plant tissues called?
Parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma.
What does blood urea nitrogen measure?
-the urea nitrogen content of whole blood as an idicator of kidney and/or liver function
The main function of the kidenys is...?
regulation of osmolarity of body fluids
Where is the ampulla located?
It is the enlarged part of the ductus deferens; boars do not have an obvious ampulla.
what is the function of the basement membrane?
It keeps epithelium attached so skin can regrow
What happens to sperm before it is released?
A tail is attached, the head contains the dna and it causes fertilization.
anthophyta
flowering plants
!http://diverge.hunter.cuny.edu/%7Eweigang/Images/11-12_cyanobacteria_1.jpg!
Bacteria. Cyanobacteria
!http://record.wustl.edu/2002/04-26-02/images/worm.jpg!
animalia chordata cephalochordata
!http://mortgageworkshop101.com/Etx%20Pro%20Pics/Millipede.jpg!
animalia arthpoda diplopoda
!http://www.geocities.com/rainforest/vines/8983/lizards/snakeliz.jpg!
animalia chordata lepidosauria
homo erectus
primate with torus
hypotonic
solution of lower concentration
!http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Mammalia.png!
animalia chordata vertebrata mammalia
Increase substrate concentration , _____ time for hydrolysis to complete.
increase
hard palate rugae
aids in swallowing
bipedalism
hindlimb longer than forelimb, short feet and and toes, lumbar lordosis, valgus knee, adducted big toes, hindlimb propulsion
a tubular structure that transport secretions of a gland.  Comprised of cubodal epithelium, arranged in a doughnut pattern
duct
how many bones fuse the coccyx
4
iodine test
starch presencedark blue/black = positiveyellow = negative for starchamylase + starch = maltose + glucose by color change
hypothesis
testable statement that proposes a possible answer to your question
australopithecus anamensis
thick enamel, relatively large canine, 47-55 kg, 3.9-4.2 MYA, BIPEDAL
The muscle layers in the muscularis externa are run ____ first then _____.
longitudinally
circularly 
Describe green tops.
*contains heparin which interferes with thrombin formation-available as sodium, potassium, or lithuim salt.-not permanent, so clot may form -can be spun immediately
structure that passes throught the vertevral foramen
spinal cord
small intenstine
duodnem: beginning of small intestine, stomach to the jejunum.jejunem: long, coiled mid-section of the small intestineileum: end of small intestinemesentery: connects the intestines to the dorsal abdominal wall
What are the small circular indentations found on slides thats are uteri?
Uterine glands
Vasopressin is also known as __________.
It is called __________ in birds.
antidiuretic hormone
vasotocin
gastric glands extend deep into the _____.
lamina propria
What three physiological activities result in urine formation?
1) filtration2) reabsorption3) secretion
Dorsal Body Cavity
Encloses the cranial and vertebral cavities
blood pressure
measure force exerted by blood on elastic walls of artery mm Hgsystolic: ventricles are contractingdiastolic: heart is at rest, health of cardiovascular systemhigh: blood vessels lost elasticitysys/diasphygmomanometer measures bp in brachial artery
What are chloroplasts?
The site of photosynthesis, the process by which light energy is converted into a form of energy that the plant can use to grow and reproduce.
___ are found in the small intestine but are more numerous in the colon
goblet cells
What is IRV?ERV?
-maximum amount of air inhaled after a normal inhalation (3100mL)-opposite
protein and urine
large size, usually not filtered in nephron
tidal volume
amt. of air that is inhaled and exhaled during a normal breath (400-500 mls for males at rest)
What is consistantly acidic urine a sign of?
-metabolic or respiratory acidosis-methanol poisoning-metabolic disorders
What is in a frog stomach?
Rugae to increase surface area
The Scrotum: 4 Major layers
*Skin *Tunica dartos (muscle) *Scrotal fascia *Parietal vaginal tunic layer
the maximal amount of air which can be inspired after a normal expiration
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
The tsetse fly feeds on the blood of animals and humans. Once inoculated
 by an infected fly, the trypanosomes proliferate and gradually invade 
all the organs of the host. Most of the parasites are effectively 
destroyed by the host's natural
acute myeloblastic leukemia
minute respiratory volume
amt. of tidal air that passes in and out of the lungs on one min.
What distinguishes the lobes of the lungs?
-the major branches of the bronchi
Define these parts of the Urinary Tract
- kidneys
- ureters
- urethra
- renal arteries
- renal veins
- where urine originates
- convey urine from kidneys to bladder
- drains the bladder
- diverge from descending aorta
- drains the kidneys
Cardiac cycle is made up of 3 stages.
What are they labelled as and what occurs at each stage?
P wave - atrial depolarization
QRS complex - ventricular depolarization
T wave - ventricular repolarization
Why is the shape of cervix so important?
It increases the surface area, which is very important for mucous production.
What is unique about the mare's ovaries?
The outside of the ovary is called the medulla while the inside is called the cortex. The CLs actually are growing on the inside of the ovary rather than on the outside.
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