language patterns test Flashcards

Language
Terms Definitions
What is voice?
grammatical pattern in a language for shifting the point of view or perspective of a sentence from, for example, the subject to the direct object (active, passive, get passive, middle voice) also remember the 'open' and 'eat' patterns
What is voice?
shift
It isn't Austro-Tai it is
Austronesian
How does Kapampangan indicate focus?
verbal affixes
Describe word order in Czech.
relatively free
How does Chinese track arguments?
-word order
-compounding
-topic-comment constructions:
ex: California, its climate is good
At this place, it is good to plant wheat
What kind of morphology does Kapampangan have?
agglutinating
Is the following adverbial clause finite or non-finite?
 
After he graduated...
finite
What is the Jesperson Cycle?
A pattern that shows negation strengthening through hisorical linguistics fron latin 'non dico' > old french 'jeo ne di' > mod. lit. french 'je ne dis pas' > mod. coll. french 'je dis pas'
What is the Jesperson Cycle?
a pattern...
What is durative aspect?
The event is continuous
What is indicative mood?
grammatical class of statements
What is inceptive aspect?
The event is beginning
What type of morphology does Luganda have?
agglutinating
Label the map of Asian languages.
Check yoself
What family do these languages belong to?
Vietnamese
Cambodian
Austro-Asiatic
What language family do these belong to?
Tibeto-Burman
Sinitic
Chinese
Sino-Tibetan
What is imperative mood?
grammatical category of commands
Fill in Comrie's classification of aspectual systems (p. 38)
No se
What are some examples of common agreement/case marking patterns?
 
-nominative/accusative
-ergative/absolutive
-agentive/non-agentive
-tripartite (intransitive subject, transitive subject, and transitive object considered separately)
 
-accusative imperfective, ergative perfective
-accusative pronoun, ergative other nouns
Who pushed the difference between nouns and adjectives, leading to adjective as a separate part of speech?
medieval grammarians
perfect tense
as past situation with present relevance
Applicatives?
in english a benefactive is placed between the verb an direct object, affixes on the verb is often used
What is the geneological classification of Luganda?
Bantu branch of Niger-Kordofanian
How does Guarani track arguments?
agentive/non-agentive affixes on verb
What is a numeral classifier?
makes a noun countable
What is stative aspect?
The event is a state
What is a proclitic?
attaches to a following word
What is subjunctive mood?
grammatical category including wishes, commands, etc. (statements that are contingent rather than factual)
What is an agglutinating language?
 
Give an example of one.
has easily separable morphemes.
 
ex: Turkish
Name some different labels for moods
indicative(statement), innterrogative, imperative, subjunctive(contingent rather than factual)
absolute tense=
refers to a point on a time-line
Aspects are?
different ways of viewing the internal temporal constituency of a situation
Define mood
a grammatical pattern in a language for indicating the speech act function of a sentence. Common distinctions are indicative (a statement), interrogative (a question), imperative (a command), and hortative ('let's [do something]'). Some languages have a subjunctive mood (used to express uncertainty).
What is a subject?
grammatical relation that, in the active voice, includes the most topical element of each sentence
 
some languages have evidence for subject as a grammatical relation, others don't
What are some tests (5) that often pick out subjects in different languages?
-agreement
-case marking
-imperatives
-dropped argument in infinitives
-participial clauses
What are some common tense patterns?
past, present, future
 
past, non-past
What is the vocative case of a noun?
direct address
What is an absolutive argument?
direct objects and intransitive subjects
What is aspect proper?
grammatical marker relating to the internal temporal constituency of a situation
What is an argument?
a noun phrase (generally) that receives an interpretation (role) with regard to a verb. The verb hit is said to have two arguments (x=the hitter; y=the person hit). The verb give is said to have three arguments (x=giver; y=gift; z=recipient).
What is impersonal passive?
construction that demotes the subject without promoting an object
What is passive voice?
subject typically corresponds to the direct object or benefactive of the active voice form
 
-sometimes said that passive promotes the primary object ot subject position
What is an example of a language where number is indicated through the verb?
Creek
What is the difference between the universalist/nativist approach and the relativist approach regarding the definitions of word, clitic, and affix?
universalist/nativist approach: 'word,' 'clitic,' and 'affix' have concrete definitions that apply to all languages
 
relativist approach: 'word,' 'clitic,' 'affix,' etc. must be defined in each language
What is the accusative case of a noun?
direct object
What are the seven cases of nouns in Czech?
nominative
genitive
dative
accusative
vocative
locative
instrumental
What is a word?
smallest element that can be pronounced on its own, that makes sense on its own, and that can appear in different places within a sentence
 
often felt to have fixed reference
 
elements within words usually occur in a fixed order
Explain dependent-marking v. head-marking.
some linguists distinguish between two basic strategies for distinguishing arguments:  dependent-marking is when the grammatical role of an argument in a clause is on the argument (via case, particles, or adpositions);  head-marking is when the grammatical role of an argument is marked on the predicate (via agreement).  Many languages have both types (as in Latin).
What is the ergative case of a noun?
transitive subjects
What is a relativizer?
special particle used for introducing or indicating a relative clause
What is Jespersen's Cycle?
adding an element to strengthen negation, then subtracting another one.
 
ex: non dico
(Old French) jeo ne di
(Mod. lit. French) je ne dis pas
(Mod. coll. French) je dis pas
Define a clause
a traditional term for a sentence-like unit that is embedded within another sentence. A relative clause is a clause that is interpreted as modifying a noun: the student that Mary saw last week. An adverbial clause is a clause that is interpreted as modifying another clause: After she left, I decided to go to sleep. A complement clause is a clause that functions as an argument: She said [that she was going to the party].
some authors define tense as...
...an affix of some kind
location and direction can be indicated in what ways?
prepositional and postpositional phrases, case, nouns e.g. on top of, or prefixs(creek) that specify the location(wall, a chair, enclosed space)
What is direct causative?
Shift in which a causative or transitivizing suffix is added to the intransitive to create the transitive version
 
ex: pinkal ('to be afraid') v. pinkali:c ('frighten, scare')
What is a postposition?
an adposition that comes after the object
How does the cognitive approach account for the apparent fact that all or most languages distinguish nouns and verbs?
similarities in different languages are due to similar ways we perceive the world and think about it (concept of prototypical nouns and verbs giving rise to larger categories)
What is a patient?
semantic term for something or someone affected by an action in some way
What are the three components used to describe basic word order?
subject, object, verb
How does Luganda track arguments?
pronominal prefixes found in verbs have a different form depending on whether the following noun is a subject or object.  prefixes agree in number and class with the NPs they index.
Explain the ergative case
ergative is the case of transitive subjects
Define genetive classifier
(used when a noun is being possessed and classifying nouns based on shape, etc.).
tense is not the same as aspect however...
...they commonly interact
agreement is what?
a phenomenon whereby the form of one word requires a corresponding form in another, helps distinguish the role of arguments in clauses
How do Comrie and Crystal define tense?
Comrie: a grammatical category associated with time
 
Crystal: the way the grammar marks the time at which the action denoted by the verb took place
 
key point: it's a grammatical marker, not a semantic one like "tomorrow"
Who developed the system for parts of speech that includes: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction, and interjection? And when?
Lindley Murray, in 1795
What is the difference between genetic classification of languages and typological?
genetic = families of languages
 
typological = based on shared grammatical features
What is a clitic?
a term (it means 'leaning' in Greek) used for a morpheme that is syntactically a word but phonologically an affix (i.e., dependent on another word). Examples include am in I'm laughing (where I am is said to "contract" to I'm), possessive 's (which has no uncontracted form), and pronominal clitics in Romance.  Clitics generally derive historically from independent words and may eventually develop into affixes.  Clitics often have special word order properties (e.g., second-position clitics).  They are sometimes said to "hop" or "climb" in such expressions as Italian Maria lo vuole vedere 'Maria wants to see him' (Crystal 2003:76) and so are of particular interest to syntacticians and phonologists.
What is the head, regarding a relative clause?
the modified nominal portion
What are serial verbs?
multiple verbs being used in a single clause
What is an adverbial clause?
dependent clause serving to modify a sentence
 
ex: when making tea/after he graduated
What is the basic word order in Luganda, and what would allow deviation from it?
SVO
 
deviation allowed by topicalization
What is argument tracking?
how in a sentence it's understood who is doing what to whom
What is lexical aspect, or Aktionsart?
inherent aspect associated with verb classes (e.g. state, activity, etc.)
What is the perfective aspect?
The situation is presented as an unanalyzable whole
Expressing the scope of negation means...
changing the focus by using emphasis, stress, pitch
Expressing the scope of negation means...
your changing something by utilizing what three things
some systems have 'metrical' system of tense providing...
...an appropriate and subjective measure of the interval between the frame and the tense locus
some systems have 'metrical' system of tense providing...
it is a measure, think of a movie scene
What is a common concern when dealing with commands in a language?
-politeness
-often thought that more polite expressions are longer than blunt expressions
What is a ditransitive verb?
transitive verb that may or must have two objects
What are some criticisms of Saussure's theory of meaning?
-assumption that concepts have sharp boundaries when they don't
-assumes 1:1 meaning across languages
-naively simple way of expressing meaning or too abstract as to be impracticable and non-functional
What is an applicative?
affix on a verb that adds an indirect object (or sometimes instrument or location)
What is the historical theory for why some languages are similar?
Similarities between languages may result from parallel evolution.
What is a historical approach explanation for why parts of speech exist in the first place?
A grammatical pattern begins with a single example.  Innovative speakers may spread that pattern based on similarities in meaning and function.
What is the absolutive case in Kapampangan?
marks core argument in intransitive forms and the patient-like arguments in transitive
What is a demonstrative?
word or affix used to point to an entity
What are the two types of aspect?
aspect proper-relating to the internal temporal constituency of a situation
lexical aspect-inherent aspect associated with verb classes
What are the two types of aspect?
a relation and an inherent thing
What is the status/use of grammatical terms like "definite article"?
Used as a metaphor to understand similarity of usage between languages.
What is the deictic use of a demonstrative?
pointing to something in the environment
What is a closed lexical class, according to Schachter?
contain a fixed, usually small number of words, and which are essentially the same for all speakers
 
articles, auxiliaries, clitics, copulas, interjections, negators, particles, politeness markers, prepositions, postpositions, PRO-forms, quantifiers
How many tenses does Luganda have?
twelve (six for time, times two for positive and negative)
What is "parallel" verb compounding in Chinese?
verb compound with two verbs either synonymous or similar in meaning
What were the two indexes Bernard Comrie suggested languages could be categorized by, in the 1970s?
-index of synthesis (# of morphemes per word)
-index of fusion (ease with which morphemes can be separated)
What do historical linguists claim there is a continuum between, with regard to word formation?
independent word > clitic > affix > indivisible part of a word
negation can be marked with what parts of speech?
particle, adverbs, affixs or special negative ausiliary verbs
What is the hierarchy of agreement and what does it mean?
subject > direct object > indirect object > other
 
If verb agreement is employed to signal the grammatical relation of any one nominal it will be the subject; as one moves to the right on the hierarchy, the frequency with which one finds agreement falls off drastically
How do you set up the parts of speech for a language?
look at morphology (inflection, derivation) and distribution (occurrence in frames)
What is an experiencer subject and why is it important?
the experiencer is marked in the dative and yet sometimes has subject properties (ex: I like movies)
 
often have split subject properties (problem for grammatical relations)
What is a presentational/existential construction and why is it important?
ex: There's a fly in my soup or There appeared a great crowd
 
often have split subject properties (poses a problem for grammatical relations)
How does the discourse approach account for the fact that all or most languages distinguish nouns and verbs?
language is shaped by how you use it, so the grammatical category of nouns serve a function distinct from that of the grammatical category of verbs
What might a historical linguist say about the "word" "I'm?"
it's a single word, but it derives historically from two words
What is an intransitive verb?
verb that may or must not occur with a direct object
What is the nominative case of a noun?
subject of a verb in a sentence
How does the nativist approach account for the apparent fact that all or most languages distinguish nouns and verbs?
 
Language is innate, so the reason why people shape language to their world is because we all perceive it similarly, and the distinction between a noun and a verb is inherent.
 
(This is Chomsky's approach)
Give an example of the present tense used to describe events in the past.
ex: So I'm walking down the street when this car comes out of nowhere.
Case can be idicating using what two things?
affixes that attach to the heads of NPs or prefixes that introduce the NP
What is a verbal noun? Give an example.
A noun that is derived from a verb (ex: worker, destroying, denial)
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