LARE - Section D Flashcards

General contractor
Terms Definitions
Cement Nail
Division 3
Division 15
protection; assurance; indemnification; terms usually applied to an obligation, pledge, deposit, etc., given by a party to a contract to the other party. The name some-times also is given to a party which becomes surety or guarantor for another. In the construction industry, bonds are considered security against default by the bidder or contractor during the respective process.
American Planners Association
National Environmental Protection Act
additional documents with clarification or parts of the contract added in negotiation after the innitial contract was written, and attached to end of contract...should also be signed.
American Institute of Architects
Center for disease control
Architectural uses of plant materials
transfer of benefits or rights
Program Evaluation Review Technique:
sequential diagram of construction based on experience
American Society of Landscape Architects
Opening the Project
·         Move-in requirements


·         Pre-construction Conference
general conditions
part of contract documents
abbreviation for reinforcing bar, sometimes referred to as rods. Round, steel bars placed in concrete and unit masonry walls for reinforcement purposes. Sized in 1/8" increments ex: a #4 is 1/2".

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
cellulose material with variable characteristics. failures: warping, checking, splitting or twisting,
ClaySilt Sand
Basic rock components of soil
model codes:
Southern Standard Building Code (SSDSC),
Uniform Building Code (UBC),
Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA),
National Building Code (NBC),
one of which is law in most jurisdictions.
errors in Shop Drawings:
responibility of LA
A collateral agreement for performance of another undertaking; a promise to answer for payment of debt or performance of an obligation if the liable person fails to make payment or perform the obligation.
Certificate or document which gives permission, a permission by a competent authority to do some act which, without such authorization, would be illegal or would be a tresspass or a tort.
Request for Proposals; usually an advertisement issued by agencies or owners requesting a written proposal for design services and includes the details of the project and proposal format.
Division 1 – General RequirementsDivision 2 – Site WorkDivision 3 – ConcreteDivision 4 – MasonryDivision 5 – MetalsDivision 6 – Wood & PlasticsDivision 7 – Thermal & Moisture ProtectionDivision 8 – Doors & WindowsDivision 9 – FinishesDivision 10 – SpecialtiesDivision 11 – EquipmentDivision 12 – FurnishingsDivision 13 – Special ConstructionDivision 14 – Conveying SystemsDivision 15 – MechanicalDivision 16 - Electrical
Changes in a particular material, source, or elements included in the work for which one product is replaced by another, usually by the contractor. The contractor may request a substitution in advance, if an equivalent product is found, but should not switch materials without consent of both the landscape architect and the owner.
Cost Overruns
Amounts exceeding the initial estimated budget for the work; the difference between the original contract price and the completed costs.
method of finishing concrete. Texture, non-slip surface, but can impede drainage.
exposed ag finish. after bullfloating and/or darbying spread agg evenly and embed by tamping w/ wood float or darby. After hardening, wet and brush to expose agg.
painting metal
short lifespan, dependant upon quality of material, application and surface prep. poor resistance to chipping. high maintenance. on steel a fish oil base paint is often used to provide rust resisting qualities. electro-chemically applied sometimes=more permanent. weathering steel(cortex) is good with paint because if paint surface breaks, metal underneath is already oxidized.
Liquid limit tests
Casagrande subsequently standardized the apparatus and the procedures to make the measurement more repeatable. Soil is placed into the metal cup portion of the device and a groove is made down its center with a standardized tool. The cup is repeatedly dropped 10mm onto a hard rubber base until the groove is closed for 13 mm (½ inch). The moisture content at which it takes 25 drops of the cup to cause the groove to close is defined as the liquid limit. Another method for measuring the liquid limit is the Cone Penetrometer test. It is based on the measurement of penetration into the soil of a standardized cone of specific mass. Despite the universal prevalence of the Casagrande method, the cone penetrometer is often considered to be a more consistent alternative because it minimises the possibility of human variations when carrying out the test.  
A quantitative unit of measurement referring to the total amount of light energy emitted by a light source, without regard to the direction of its distribution.
gas-forming agents
Concrete additive to increase workability and strengthen the bond of the concrete to the reinforcing,
Concrete Curing
chemical process (hydration) stops when all water evaporates away. colder water=slower hydration. frozen water=no hydration. hydration builds the concrete's strength. 40 to 50 degrees f minimum temp for curing.
Aerial photos
Excellent source of detailed renewable site data. Basis for detailed contour maps.
right of travel accross another's land or land where public roads or wires go over.
financial lingo for release of a surity bond.  A landscape architect requests exoneration through sibstantial completion or final inspection, when the project is mostly complete, minus a few minor punch list items.
disagreeing parties agree to abide by the judgement of an arbitrator
Progress Payment reports
"progress Payment Reports,"  monthly authorization documenting progress payments to the contractor.
-Professional construction management 2nd ed
Council Record
CLARB service :
-passed exam scores,
-education history,
-employment history)
is gathered and saved and distributed to states where you want licensure for an annual fee.
The person or organization hired by the owner to design the project. Duties consist primarily on the production of the plans and specifications from which the building will be constructed.
A method of organizing a building project in which a single entity undertakes the design and erection of the structure at a set fee negotiated in advance. Owner negotiates only one contract with one organization.
That which has the character assigned to it in its own essential nature but acquires such character as a consequence of the way in which it is regarded by a rule or policy of law; hence,inferred,implied or made out by legal interpretation
An agreement between two or more persons to defraud a person of his or her right by the forms of law or to obtain an object forbidden by law; a secret combination, conspiracy, or concert of action between two or more per-sons for fraudulent or deceitful purposes
One whose occupation is the building or erection of structures, the controlling and directing of construction.
Normally written change(s) made to the drawings, specifications, and other contract documents prior to receiving bids; all parties receiving the bid documents should be notified of the change, preferably in writing or else it may be reason enough to void the bids or contracts.
ADA Standards
Americans With Disabilities Act, which requires designers to make public buildings (even if they are privately owned) and outdoor spaces accessible to all people, regardless of age or physical ability
bar shock, specialties. and copper: Piping, wire, sheets, coils, specialties. resistant to corrosion.
prestressed concrete
concrete subjected to stretching (or stressing) of reinforcing bars or cables within, thereby developing greater stength, stiffness and crack resistance in the concrete.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
paving brick
solid. High compressive strength, variety of sizes and shapes, low permeability, wide range of tensile strength (also dependant on installation). Specification: spec type, grade, quality, finish, sand mold, and size (ex facing brick, grade mw, texture: extruded, 4"x8"x2"). for consistent color, require all brick from the same firing.
variety of surfaces and finishes, high strength but low tensile strength, resistant to chemicals and abrasion, used as a veneer or paver.
a light-colored horizon of maximum removal of materials(eluviation). prominent in podzolic and faint in chernozemic soils.Time-saver standards for landscape architects
Projecting brick or block in alternate courses to provide for a bond with the adjoining masonry that will be laid later.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
screen filter
sufficient for most potable water situations for bits of pipe that break off occasionally.
bridging takes smaller pieces of wood, two in each space between joists. one goes from the top of joist 1 to the bottom of joist two and the other, next to it goes from the top of joist two to the bottom of joist 1. Similar arrangements happen in a line between all the joists in a line. It also prevents twisting
Structural bond refers to tying a Masonry wall together by lapping units one over another or by connecting them with metal ties. Tensile bond refers to adhesion between the mortar and masonry units or their reinforcement. Pattern bond refers to patterns formed by the exposed faces of units.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
unified system
soil testing system developed for highways
duct tape
A generally gray waterproof tape used for many purposes; a vinyl, reinforced, multi-purpose pressure sensitive tape with a soft and flexible shell and pressure sensitive adhesive.. It is no longer used for constructing duct-work, as building codes require more advanced products.
Three ways brick can be used in courses n a wall
a clearing house for subcontractors to submit their bids for a particular project and for prime con-tractors to receive bids from the various subcontractors.
In California, a bid depository was found in violation of antitrust laws based on its rules for membership imposing fine, suspension, or expulsion to members not abiding by the rules.
Contract Clause: Termination
either party can terminate contract without cause, with notice of 5 or 10 days for reasons like -breach of contract, -fraud, -non-payment of professional fees, -extreme changes in scope, -discovery of hazardous site conditions that the client is unwilling to rectify, -a client who is unwilling to pay for recommended special consulting services or additional services not covered under terms. Clause should require client to pay for services up to that point, notice of termination, costs of termination and archiving project. la then would owe client a full set of drawings.
Planned Residential developments(PRD)
similar to PUD, only especially residential...more flexible than traditional subdivisions. 
right to take property of debtor, or property of debtor promised in case of non-repayment
a promise that a proposition of fact is true.
Risk of Shifting Techniques
typical risk-shifting clauses include indemnification clauses, surety requirements (bid bond, performance bond, and payment bond), "no damage for delay" clauses, etc. Another similar clause is the "condition precedent to payment" clause, which requires the prime contractor to pay his subcontractor only after he has been paid by the owner.
Substantial Completion
the state of completion whereby the building, or a part thereof, is rendered complete to the degree that the owner can use the building, or a part thereof, for its intended purpose.
Equitable Doctrine
Just and conformable to the principles of justice and right; existing in equity; available or sustainable only in equity or only upon the rules and principles of equity.
Performance Bond
a legal instrument which assures that if the contractor defaults, the surety company will complete performance or pay damages to the extent of the bond.
a formal declaration made by a party interested or concerned in some act about to be done, or already per-formed, whereby it expresses its dissent or disapproval or affirms the act against its will. The object of such a declaration generally is to save some right which would be lost to the party if its implied assent could be made out or to exonerate itself from some responsibility which would attach to it otherwise. In common jargon, a protest is considered the initial act in establishing a claim to retain a party's contractual rights.
Field Engineer
An engineer assigned to a project during the construction phase and located at the project on a full time basis.
Application for Payment
The contractor’s written request for payment for completed parts or portions of the work and for materials purchased, delivered or stored for a project. (See the definition of Certificate of Payment).
Zoning Regulations
Zoning restricts land use for public welfare in terms of limiting maximum building areas, heights, and densities, and land use types including parking
Warranty Period
Definite period of time during which the work or materials are guaranteed against failure or will be replaced in kind without additional cost to the owner. (Also see and compare this with Maintenance Period).
Professional Conduct
is embodied by mutual respect and understanding among practitioners.
Shop Drawings
Drawings prepared by the contractor to show details of fabrication or assembly and submitted to the landscape architect for approval prior to incorporating the detail into the work.
Anti-adhering agent
Used in Concrete Forming to prevent sticking to forms.
type M mortar
high compressive strength and greater durability than other mortar types, for reinforced masonry below grade and in contact with earth, as in foundations, retaining walls, walks, sewers and manholes.
decrease in the initial volume due to the removal of moisture from fresh concrete.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Global positioning
A typical GPS receiver calculates its position using the signals from four or more GPS satellites. Four satellites are needed since the process needs a very accurate local time, more accurate than a clock can provide, so the receiver internally solves for time as well as position.
euorpean systems based on metric sys. like astm
The application of mortar to the face or back of a masonry, sometimes called back-plastering.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
the process of recessing or sloping a wall back in successive courses. the opposite or corbel.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
The part of the masonry wall behind the exterior facing.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
form of agreement
signature page, part of contract documents
untreated soil mix
flexible pavement. surfaces resting on untreated soil mixes, like stone pebbles or crushed rock combined with fine material; generally placed on loose and compacted to 6" depth with a 3/8" to 1/2" cross slope.
Concrete Subgrade preparation
All unsuitable material (ie any material containing vegetable or organic matter; such as peat muck, organic silt, topsiol or sod) should be removed prior to installation of the pavement.
Define rough lumber
Lumber that's been sawed, edged & trimmed but not surfaced by planing.
Compound curves
Two curves of the same direction but of different radius that are joined directly together.To be avoided whenever possible.
Release and Waiver of Lien
Part of the Final Acceptance.
Required from contractor, is normally required prior to releasing final payment to contractor.
-Professional construction management 2nd ed
a material or method used in place of the base material or method specified for the project.
In a typical construction contract, the owner chooses the alternate or remains with the base requirement, giving it control over the total cost of the project. An alternate differs from an option in that cost is a factor in the selection of an alternate by the owner, whereas an option does not have cost as a factor and the choice is made by the contractor. (See OPTION)
Sovereign Immunity
a concept adopted by the United States from the courts in England, precluding any legal action against public bodies for either breach of contract or for tort claims. This doctrine is applicable at the federal, state, and local levels of government. However, over the last century, this doctrine has waned, especially in the area of tort claims. In most of the 50 states, sovereign immunity is no longer in effect, especially in the area of tort claims. At the federal level, Congress consented to being sued for breach of contract in 1887 by the Tucker Act, and in the tort field, Congress passed the Federal Tort Claims Act in 1946, permitting lawsuits against the United States for certain types of legal wrongs.
a party which takes over portions of a contract from the principal (prime) contractor or another subcontractor; a party which has entered into a contract, express or implied, for the performance of an act with the party which has already contracted for its performance. Most subcontractor contracts hold the subcontractor to the same terms and conditions which are established in the prime contractor's contract with the other parties. Generally, subcontractors specialize in specific building trade, and, as specialists, most subcontractors are licensed by the state in which they operate. The subcontractor's relationship to the prime contractor is that of an independent contractor.
the party at the instance of which the project is undertaken and the one which will take title to it when it is completed; the party in which is vested the ownership, dominion, or title to property. On a construction project, the owner typically contracts independently with the architect or engineer and with the contractor.
Notice of Acceptance
A written notice to the successful contractor (or design consultant) that their bid (or proposal) has been accepted and they will be offered the contract for construction (or consultation).
Construction Proposal Form
Form on which the contractors submit their bid; also known as the bid form, it sets forth the cost, time and scope of the work the contractor is to furnish for a specific project (It is best for the landscape architect to furnish this form so all contractors will use the same data and organization).
Sole Proprietorship
Business or firm owned by one person; profits and losses go to the owner; does not have to be just one person in the firm, however.
Liquidity index
The liquidity index (LI) is used for scaling the natural water content of a soil sample to the limits. It can be calculated as a ratio of difference between natural water content, plastic limit, and plasticity index: LI=(W-PL)/(LL-PL) where W is the natural water content
Schedule pvc pipe
e.g. SCH40 and SCH 80
Wall thickness is the same as steel pipe at the same schedule and pipe size, unlike Class PVC Pipe.  Used for precut threaded nipples for sprinkler risers in shrub beds. 
type N mortar
medium strength for general use in general masonry above grade
-Thickened joint
in concrete where slabs angle down and thicken at joint to be better anchored in subgrade.
finish nail
A nail with a very small head, easily driven below the surface, leaving a small hole readily concealed with putty, used for attaching trim.
to send back, a person back to jail, a case back to a lower court
land development and
growth management regulation
covers things like subdivision of land, hooking up to govt. utilities, making new public spaces, like roads. Sometimes requires analysis of a DRI(development of regional impacts).
Exculpatory Language
Clause in which a party who may suffer a loss agrees not to institute legal action against the party who may cause the loss
Anticipatory Breach (Anticipatory Repudiation)
Established when a contractor makes a positive and unequivocal statement that it will not or cannot substantially perform the contract, or when a contractor, by any voluntary affirmative act, renders substantial performance of its contract apparently impossible. Based on these two conditions,the owner may terminate the contract immediately or upon completion of a waiting period to determine the contractor's performance according to the contract writing. Owner must establish that the contractors statement is positive and unequivocal.
Division 1 – General Requirements
• 01010 – Summary of Work• 01100 – Alternatives• 01200 – Project Meetings• 01300 – Submittals• 01500 – Temporary Facilities & Controls• 01600 – Products• 01700 – Project Closeout
Surety Bonds
Generic term for a bond backed by a Surety (agency licensed to do so); guarantees certain actions of contractors.
feet of head
feet of water column. weight of column of water over a unit area. 1 cubic ft of water=62.4 lbs. one psi(pound per square inch)=2.31 feet of head.
percentage of construction cost
method of fee arrangement based on a portion of the project costs set by an estimate or actual bids. 
Deed of trust
a deed by the borrower to a trustee for the purposes of securing a debt.
creates a lien on the title and not a title transfer, regardless of its terms. unlike a morguage, can be foreclosed by a non-judicial sale held by the trustee. It is also possible to foreclose them through a judicial proceeding. Foreclosure process can be much faster for a deed of trust than for a mortgage, on the order of 3 months rather than a year. Because the foreclosure does not require actions by the court the transaction costs can be quite a bit less.
Uniform Commercial Code
a body of laws which governs the sale of goods in almost every state of the United States. Application of the Uniform Commercial Code in the construction industry is rare except in the area of shipping, handling, and purchasing of materials for the project.
Soil Activity
The activity (A) of a soil is the PI divided by the percent of clay-sized particles present. Different types of clays have different specific surface areas which controls how much wetting is required to move a soil from one phase to another such as across the liquid limit or the plastic limit. From the activity one can predict the dominant clay type present in a soil sample. High activity signifies large volume change when wetted and large shrinkage when dried. Soil with high activity are very reactive chemically. Normally, activity of clay is between 0.75 and 1.25. It is assumed that the plasticity index is approximately equal to the clay fraction (A = 1). When A is less than 0.75, it is considered inactive. When it is greater than 1.25, it is considered active.     wikipedia 
guarenteed maximum upsed, billed hourly
a form of fee arrangement used to ensure a client that the scope of a project will be billed at the actual number of hours, up to a maximum limit that the consultant will guarentee not to exceed.
Giving up of something for something in return
Consideration part of a contract (owner gives money, the contractor gives labor)
State of mind part of a contract
means that the individuals must be such that they are free to enter into the contract or not to enter into the contract
When a valve is a part of irrigation pipeline, the overall resistance to flow increases. Pressure drop through a valve can be calculated from
Equation 1.   The resistance coefficient K, for a given type of valve tends to vary with size as does the friction factor for straight pipe and is determined experimentally  
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