LARE section A Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Lag screw
Division 4
Solid contour
Proposed contour
Construction Specifications Institute
consumer product safety commission
Landscape Architectural Accreditation Board
metamorphic or sedimentary?, abrasion resistant, easily worked, variety of colors, finishes, grains, sometimes weathers, higher maintenance, pervious,
Americans with disabilities act
nhpa national historic preservation act of 1966
historic american landscapes survey.   
modifications to the contract documents issued during the bid period.
Addenda become official parts of the contract documents and are legally binding to the signatories of the contract.
the intentional or voluntary relinquishment of a known right. Waiver is essentially unilateral, resulting as legal consequence from some act or conduct of parties against which it operates, and no act of the party in whose favor it is made is necessary to complete it. In the construction industry, an owner may waiver his or her right to a signed change order for work incorporated into the project when the following conditions exist: the owner is aware of the change but does not object; the item is of such magnitude that the change could not be made without the owner's knowledge; the changes are necessary but were not foreseen by the design professional; and some subsequent oral agreement (the architect's orally approved substitution and/or change with which the owner agreed) waives the requirement of a signature.
American Society of Civil Engineers
Division 7
Thermal & Moisture Protection
United States Department of Agriculture
post structural members. various metal base anchors, plates, clip angles and bearing plates are available for securing posts to slaves of concrete footings.
A thermosetting polymer composed of resin and a hardener. An adhesive with high strength and low shrinkage during cure. Epoxies are tough and known for their resistance to chemical and environmental damage, as well as their usefulness as structural adhesives.
settling a contract dispute with facilitiated negotiation.  Alternative to litigation.
Insurance-fire, vandalism:
provided by contractor during construction.
testimony taken before or outside court
Continuous Treatment
An uninterrupted,unbroken series of activities or events. This theory is sometimes employed in the determination of statue of limitation clams regarding the commencement of the time for the claim.
The act of hampering, hindering, disturbing, intervening, interposing or taking part in the concerns and affairs of others. in the constrcution industry, when a contractor ahs work interupted by the acts of the architect or owner, it may file suit on the grounds of interference. Prior to liabilty being assessed, most courts require that interference with the contract be intentional and not merely negligent.
Council of Educators in Landscape Architecture
collapse slump the concrete collapses completely
Bid Bond
Bond guaranteeing the successful bidder will accept the contract; each bidder normally submits one (or a check), normally for 50% of the bid amount; but can be any reasonable pre-set amount; bid bonds are returned or voided for unsuccessful bidders.
method of finishing concrete. Creating smooth hard surface from steel magnesium or aluminum tool.
a dark-colored horixon with hight content of organic matter mixed with mineral matter. prime growth medium.
Concrete Admixtures
additives that can increase workability, resistance to freezing and weathering, chemicals and curing rate.
long galvanized-metal nail that is driven down through a timber and into the timber or timbers below, to strengthen a structure and fasten the timber in place.
Grading plan
Shows exisitng and proposed contoursas well as the outline of all buildings, roads, walkways, trails, walls, drop inlets,catch basins, spot grades and other structural elements.
1. removal of property deemed potentially harmfull(ex weeds that are a fire hazard, illegal shed) 2. reduction in money distributed to each creditor when there is not enough money to pay all creditors
tort law:
a civil wrong-doing against another entity or person where there is a breach of a legal obligation to the entity or person resulting in a legally defined harm to the entity or person.The courts will provide a remedy for the wrongdoing in the form of payment of actual or compensatory damages, and in cases of particularly repulsive wrongdoing, the courts may also award punitive damages. In LA, this covers neglegence, liability. Don't injure anyone through neglegence.
Licensure violations:
1. practicing or offering to practice landscape architecture without being registered (in practice law states)-- 2. advertising or displaing a card or other device that indicates to the public that one is a landscape architect when not registered-- 3. assuming or using the title landscape architect without being registered--- 4. using an expired or revoked landscape architect license-- 5. presenting false evedence to the technical board of registration with the intent to obtain a license to practice landscape architecture.
standard legal conditions inserted at the "front end" of a construction contract.
These conditions are typically titled "General Conditions," "Supplemental Conditions," and/or "Special Conditions" and are inserted at the front end of the project manual.
Foreign Corporation
An organization not incorporated in the stat or jurisdiction in which it is performing work. A contractor must meet the legal requirements of the stat in which it is performing work.
Where the intention is not manifested by an explicit and direct word but is gathered by implication or deduction from the circumstances.
Unjust Enrichment
doctrine stating that persons shall not be allowed to profit or to enrich themselves inequitably at another's expense. A typical example of this doctrine is when an owner withholds payment to a contractor for work already performed, claiming that work is not acceptable. The value of the performed work far exceeds that portion which the owner considers unacceptable.
Punitive Damages
relating to punishment; having the character of punishment or penalty; inflicting punishment or a penalty.
Instruments which record, by means of letters, figures, or marks, matter which may be evidentially used; the deeds, agreement, title papers, letters receipts, and other written instruments used to prove the facts.
Case Law
The aggregate of reported cases forming a body of jurisprudence or the law of a particular subject as evidenced or formed by the adjudged cases; distinct from statues and other sources of written law.
Compensation for a loss or injury suffered; compensation which may be recovered in the courts by any person who has suffered loss, detriment, or injury, whether to his or her person, property, or rights,through the unlawful act, omission, or negligence of another.
Liquidated Damages
The definite dollar amount, per calendar day (normally) agreed upon by all parties in advance of the work the contractor (or, the landscape architect if he/she is a party to design services contract) will forfeit to the owner as a result of the delay in the event the work is not finished on time.
Liability Insurance
(Also see Errors and Omissions Insurance) Includes all types of insurance covering individual or group liability, including auto, personal injury, and professional liability insurance.
Public Practice
From of practice for governmental agencies (federal, state, and local); normally the agency’s mission relates directly to an administrative response to an enabling law of some sort.
Proprietary Specifications
Those specifications limited to a single manufacturer’s product; specifier states outright the actual make, model, catalog number or the installation specifications of a manufacturer.
a layer of material, aggregate or coarse graded concrete between the subgrade(soil) and the top course of the paving.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
the chemical reaction of water and cement that produces a hardened concrete.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
appearance of excess water rising to the surface shortly after the placing of concrete.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Aolian soils
wind-born deposits, blow sands, dune sands, loess, adobe
depends on loading (live and dead), beam spacing, and sizing, joist spacing and sizing and decking size and spacing. Span, spacing and connections are inseparable variables influenced by the above and species and grade.
wood screw:
wall tile: used in masonry products.
horizon A3/b1
transitional layers, distinct only in well-developed soil profiles.Time-saver standards for landscape architects
pozzolanic admixture
Concrete admixture used to reduce permeability of water and resist sulfates
Back bearing
The 180-degree opposite of the azimuth or bearing. Also know as back azimuth
The matrix is the most extensive and common patch type – the one that dominates the landscape. Defining the matrix also depends on the object of interest, and also depends on the scale of investigation
summary judgement
where the judge announces the findings of the court
support sheet
an abbreviated or expanded note sheet for bidding- with calculations used to come up with the numbers
Development and subdivision
tools of communities in development regulation: -regulations for development and division of land,
-grading and utility permits for building,
-short plats,
-binding master plans,
professional licensure
police power of the states.  First enacted in 1953. 
Types of Bonds
Bid Bonds, Performance Bonds, and Payment Bonds
Change Order
A document issued by the architect directing the contractor to erect some portion of the building in manner different than described in the original plans and specification. This change must have an effect on the price and/or time of the contract in order to constitute this.
Damages, Liquidated
A specific sum of money expressly stipulated by the parties to a bond or contract as the amount of damages to be recovered by either party for a breach of the agreement by the other. Amount established in the contract writing to be withheld by the owner on a daily basis for every day part the stipulated completion date of the contract.
Turnkey Contract
a method of organizing a building project in which a contractor and a designer agree to provide a finished building at an agreed-upon price. Upon completion of the project, all the owner has to do is "turn the key" in the door. Most turnkey projects are built for the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD).
Transmittal Form
Essentially a cover sheet that gives pertinent information about a document attached or being sent separately (a “paper trail” to document the sending.
Tort Law
law concerns civil wrong doings (as opposed to criminal acts) and the individual must seek action (indicates what you cannot do);
Basic Services
Services normally defined in the scope of work as being standard for the landscape architect to perform while executing a design service contract (normally includes pre-design programming and site analysis, schematic design, design development, construction documents, bidding or negotiations, construction contract administration, and post-construction evaluations).
Tangible items to be produced as a part of design services; drawings, project manuals, planning reports, specifications, etc.
Pre-bid Conference
A meeting organized by the landscape architect and/or owner after advertising for bids and prior to actually receiving the bids, the purpose of which is to clarify and answer questions regarding the intended work; all consultants, an owner’s representative and potential bidders and their sub-contractors should be present.
Standard Form 255
is usually submitted for specific projects and has more specific information about the consultant’s abilities regarding that project.
Soil stabilization surfaces
unsatisfactory subgrade soils can be altered by admixtures to create suitable subbase, bases and sometimes surface courses, there are several methods. 2 most common: soil cement and lime stabilization.
pine and doug fir, generally. redwood and cedar for siding. glue comes in interior and exterior grades. a given thickness may be made up of different numbers of layers. Eg: 1/2" could be 3, 4 or 5 plies which influence the strength with the greater number of plies the greater the strength.
Monolithic concrete
concrete placed in one continuous cast without joints

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
eluviated soil
soil where nutrients have been carried away by infiltrating water. light in color. b horizon.
subhumid to arid with wet and dry seasons, or arid areas subject to flooding, grasses and woody shrubs, hight actuvity clays shrinking when dry, missing b horizon, poor drainage
Atterberg limits
The Atterberg limits are a basic measure of the nature of a fine-grained soil. Depending on the water content of the soil, it may appear in four states: solid, semi-solid, plastic and liquid. In each state the consistency and behavior of a soil is different and thus so are its engineering properties.
Concrete Aggregate
must be inert (no organic materials, clay silt or salt) dimensionally stable (not susceptible to breaking down). Need a spectrum of sizes to fill all gaps. 2 classes of size: -fine aggregate: sand to 1/4", coarse aggregate: 1/4" to 2". Max size is < 1/5th the wall thickness or 1/3 the slab thickness. more of this=less strength and cost.
Concrete Gradient
Concrete can be installed at flatter gradient than other pavements due to the high degree of accuracy with which formwork can be controlled. Minimum slopes of 1% are recommended for surface drainage, lower minimum slopes of 1/2% may be used when apparent surface warping is not desired.
reinforced pavement
Minimum concrete thickness of 4" to permit 2" minimum coverage of steel with concrete. Used for walls, foundations, structural slabs, columns. Factors= -location of rebar: tensile areas. -Bonding: steel must be clean and all rust, dirt, oil removed. -proximity to surface: minimum of 1.2" , 2" preferred.-exposed surfaces: reinforce faces where lots of temp changes happen, faces of retaining walls, etc.
common nail
An nail with a mostly smooth uncoated shank less than one third the diameter of its head, used for interior construction, especially framing
Rise________ = % slopeRun
Percentage Method1- 5 % considred ideal for many exterior sopaces & functions15%+ too steep for most land uses & functions
Transition space
Concept of relating a building to its site, diminishing the break between indoor and outdoors through gradual changes.
State Laws
In the US, states are charges with protection of public health, safety and welfare. Most states have specific laws governing the manipulation of the natural environment.  These include:
-State Environmental Protection Acts

-State Land Use Regulations

-Air, Water and Noise Pollution statutes

-Participation/Plan Review statutes
grading and topsoil stockpiling equipment
a. bulldozer: caterpillar track mounted tractors w/ broadfront mounted blades which strip by pushing soil forward at a controlled depth. max push dist:500'. light to med sized sites. b. scrapers: mortorized bin scoops via cutting blade at bottom of bin. bushed by track bulldozers. elevating scrapters don't need bulldozers, collect their own soil. need maneuvering room. c. Power shovels: good for embankments or narrow areas. used with a truck hauler.
Strict liability:
even if the la took every precaution, if something bad happens the la may be strictly liable...this doesn't happen very often.
costs plus fixed fee
payment arrangement based on actual costs plus a pre-negotiated fee.
Cloak of Immunity
Legal status granted to an architect in the quasi-judicial role as arbitrator in settling a dispute between the owner and the contractor. This protects the architect from liability by either party as a result of the decision rendered in resolving the dispute.
Two parties to a contract are in an arms length relationship to one another as a result of the commitment they have made to each other in the con-tract terms and conditions. This relationship is recognized by the courts and binds the two parties together in that relationship. (can be considered a relationship of mistrust).
Substantial Conformity
where a party has complied with the requirements of a writing to the degree that it is essentially the same as that which is required. Substantial conformity might be considered the opposite of material variance.
An omission of that which ought to be done; a failure to perform a legal duty.
Contractual Duty(Contractual Obligation)
The obligation which arises from a contract or agreement. IN a typical contract agreement, the parties are required to fulfill the duties enumerated in the contract writing between the two parties
Air Content Test
determines how it will fare when frozen by cold weather then thawed by warmer weather.
Post-Construction Evaluation
Normally the final phase of a project during which the landscape architect is responsible for carrying out an evaluation of the functional and operational performance of the project with respect to maintenance and user satisfaction and overall design quality with respect to hoped-for-performance of design elements.
Estimate of Probable Costs
Better name for a landscape architect’s “cost estimate”, generally an estimate of the work’s cost made during the design phase of a project.
Reciprocity in Licensure
Process by which the licensing agency of one state can recognize the equivalent value of the standards of another, thereby granting licensure to individuals in that reciprocal state without having to re-take the LARE (This is not the official national licensure, and states reserve the right to deny reciprocity to those not meeting their standards); having a CLARB Certificate helps in obtaining reciprocity.
Bending Moment (M)
The stress resulting from the forces acting on the beam and the reaction of hte supports. The bending moment at any section in the beam is the sum of the moments on either side of the section. Expressed in inch-pounds.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Sandy-clay stabilized surfaces
controlled mix of local soil and minerals, generally thicker, finished depth to 8", economical and suitable for traffic to 5oo vehicles a day. also excellent base for certain pavements.
Concrete Water
must be pretty pure, not acid or base. More water=less strength. colder water=slower process. generally 6-7 gallons of water/bag of cement. Calculations should include any water on aggregates.
Loading (P)
Dead load is the weight of the materials in the structure, including permanently attached fixtures and equipment. Live load is the weight of the people using the structure, the moveable furniture and equipment, snow, water, ice, and wind. Expressed in pounds per square foot (psf).
Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
NEat Cement
a mixture of cement and water (no aggregate)

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
plan discrepancies procedure
-between plan and site are recorded and reported to designer for amendment and administrative change order if req.
-between plan and specifications: specifications take precidence 
Implied Contractual Provisions
Provisions whcih do not appear in the written embodiment of the agreement, but which exist by implication. These include the implied duties to cooperate and to disclose, the implied warranty of specification suitability, and the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing.
Responsive Bidder
one who has submitted a bid under a competitive sealed bid which conformed in all respects to the invitation for bids so that all bidders may stand on equal footing with respect to method and timeliness of sub-mission and as to the substance of any resulting contract. One is responsive if one replies to the specific questions set forth. In the text of public works contracts, one must respond clearly and without qualification to all inquiries addressed to the invitation to bid.
Man Hour
A unit of production time equal to the work of one person in one hour.
bag (of cement)
a quantity of cement that weighs 94 lbs.
Derived limits
The values of these limits are used in a number of ways. There is also a close relationship between the limits and properties of a soil such as compressibility, permeability, and strength. This is thought to be very useful because as limit determination is relatively simple, it is more difficult to determine these other properties. Thus the Atterberg limits are not only used to identify the soil's classification, but it also allows for the use of empirical correlations for some other engineering properties.
What is the contractor's main responsibility when executing contract work?
Executing in a safe, technically competent and efficient manner.
Floor area ratio
  Ratio of the total floor area of buildings on a certain location to the size of the land of that location, or the limit imposed on such a ratio.
  Used in zoning. For example,a 0.10 floor area ratio, means the total area of all floors in all buildings must be no more than one-tenth the area of the parcel. 
Privity (No Privity Rule)
in the 1800's, many cases were settled when the plaintiff was denied access to the bench due to the no privity rule (no contract existed between the plaintiff and the defendant). However, in recent decades the no privity rule has given way to the notion of third-party liability.
Describe the characteristics of Plain-sawed lumber.
1.  Made by sawing across the entire log.
2.  Less expensive.
3.  Less affected by knots.
4.  Shrinkage/swelling is seen more in the width than the thickness of the board.
5.  Tend to easily develop checks & surface splits during seasoning.
"Differing Site Conditions" Clause - ("Changed Conditions"Clause)
Typically provides that in the event that the physical conditions at the site of the work vary materially from those represented or reason-able anticipated and in a manner which increases the time or cost of performance,the contractor is entitled to additional compensation or an extension of time
Bid Prep: to do bid, contractor needs construction docs:
1. Working drawings: limmited written notes. 2. Specifications: written descriptions of work, quality standards, specific methods OR desired outcomes 3. General Conditions: req for insurance, bonds, contractual obligations and procedure, field change orders, etc 4. Agreement Form: sign sheet, legally binding. contains list of bid items, quantities, unit pricing for each item w/ price provision for adding or deleting a specific item after constrution initiation.
Extreme fiber stress in bending (fB)
A measure of inherent strength in a species and grade of lumber. Expressed in pounds per square inch (psi).
Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
voluntary agreement
+consideration(each party is providing something)
+lawfullness, legally competent parties
+enforceable form.
-conditions that void contract 
(write a clause that says even if one clause is void the rest still stand)
+Arbitration plan
Division 12
Dashed contour
Existing contour
Awarding Methods
·         Negotiation
·         Bidding Procedures

·         Receipt of Bids
alum=aluminum ac.=acres A.C.C.M.P=asphalt-coated corrugated metal A.C.P =asbestos cement pipe   B&B=balled and burlaped B.C.=bottom of curb Bit.=bituminous B.M =benchmark
Uniform Federal Accesibility Standards
Division 8
Doors & Windows
snap valve system
quick coupler
Facing brick
solid or hollow
National environmental policy act.  1969.  oversight of federal actions.  requires
-public disclosure,
-public input,
-consideration of environmental concerns,
-project alternatives,
-environmental assesment(EA) and environmental impact statement(EIS) and mitigation measures. 
Applies to projects using federal funds, or on federal land. 
signed statement, not formally recorded by a court reporter
Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards
Department of Immigration and Naturalization
separation of heavier coarse aggregates from the mortar or of the water from the other ingredients of a concrete mix during heardening or placing.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
from lava, light-weight, inexpensive, easy to shape, chemically neutral, not used structurally, insulating, pervious to moisture.
cumulose soils
organic accumulations-peat, much, swamp sils, muskeg, humus, bog soilsTime-saver standards for landscape architects
Open spaceSemiopen spaceCanopied SpaceEnclosed canopied spaceVertical space
Creations of space
a lawful act performed improperly, harmfully
Insurance-Vehicle Liability:
covers damages from vehicle accidents
A written assurance, or official representation, that some act has or has not been done, that some event occurred, or that some legal formality is being complied with, a written and signed document establishing that a fact is true
A charge, security, or encumberance upon property; a claim or charge on property for payment of some debt, obligation, or duty
A contract whereby, for astipulated consideration, one party undertakes to compensate the other for loss on a specified subject by specifying perils. Party aggreing to make the compensation usually is called the insurer or underwriter; the other is the insured or assured. The agreed consideration is the premium; the written contract is the policy; the events insured against are risks or perils and the subject, right or interest to be protected is the insurable interest. This is a contract wherby one undertakes to indemnify another against loss, damage, or liability arising from an unknown or contingent event and is applicable only to some contingency or act to occur in the future.
Award of Contract
·         Notification of Award

·         Contract Time Period
·         Support Documents (at the beginning of construction)


Fabric reinforcement
Concrete reinforcement. Welded wire mesh. Best for conc. slabs and round columns. Generally for temperature reinforcement; must stand up to longitudinal forces and bending forces. Size expressed in spacing of wires and gauge of wire:(6 x 6 or 6" on center both ways and 6/6 or both wires gauge 6.
cast iron
piping specialties. drainage structures, frames, grates, covers, backwater valves, traps, hoods and steps. long life and high strength.
pl= property line P.V.C.=point of vertical curvature  P.V.t= point of vertival tangent pt-point of tangent r= radius r.c.p. = reinforced concrete pipe r.o.w. = roght of way
established when a contractor states they cannot perform the contract.
the person or organization hired by the owner to design the project.
Produces plans and specifications from which the building will be constructed. May also preside at the bid opening, monitor the construction process, and approve payments to the contractor. 
Enters into contracts with owner, consultants structural, mechanical, electrical engineers,etc.) but not with the contractor(contracts with owner also).
An improvement brought upon an estate (land and/or buildings) which enhances its value more that mere repairs. The improvement may either be temporary or permanent.
a term applied to the action, discretion, etc., of public administrative officers who are required to investigate facts, to draw conclusions from them as a basis for their official action, and to exercise discretion of a judicial nature. The actions of the O.S.H.A. administrators are quasi-judicial in character. When a design professional acts as an arbitrator in resolving disputes between the owner and the contractor, he or she is considered to be acting in a quasi-judicial role. It is in this role that the design professional is granted immunity.
Court of Equity
Court which administers justice according to the system of equity and according to a peculiar course of procedure or practice. Denotes the spirit and habit of fairness, justness, and right dealing which should regulate the interaction of me. Its obligation is ethical rather than jural. It is justice that is ascertained by natural reason or ethical insight independent of the formulated body of law.
Performance Specifications
The type of specifications describing the end result (“performance” of the element being constructed) and the standard applied to the results of the construction (gives the contractor greater freedom, yet controls the outcomes).
Sunset Laws
Laws requiring periodic reviews of state agencies, boards or commissions to determine their relevancy to the public health, safety, and welfare (a licensing agency could be sunsetted if having licensure is not considered to be in the best interest of the public.)
“S” Corporations
corporation designation permits a firm to act like a partnership, but it has some of the advantages of a corporation, such as reduced insurance offerings, no double-taxation
"bracing uses diagonal members to the depth of the connection between columns or posts.? length of diagonal must be increased as height of post or load is increased. can be designed as compressive members(rigid) or tension members(cables). rigid sheathing can be substituted between posts for bracing. acts on the principle of a truss
o.c.=  on center o.d.= outside diameter p.a.= planting area p.c.p.= porous concrete paver p.v.c.= polyvinyl chloride pipe p.c.= point of curvature p.c.c.= point of compound curve
C horizon
weathered parent material with layers of accumulated calcium sulfate found in some soils. Occasionally there is no c horizon.
light depreciation
lamp output (lumens) will depreciate over its effective life. I;;umination will be reduced further due to an accumulation of dirt and grime on the lamp and fixture. adjustments should be made to compensate for this depreciation when determining the average values of illumination maintaine over time. A maintenance factor of 50 to 70 percent is common for oudoor applications. New installations are routinely designed to deliver 1-1/2 to 3 times as much illumination as needed, to sustain this maintained output over the anticipated life of the lamp.

Time-saver standards for landscape architects
Geodetic surveying
measures the shape of the earth
Military crest
Provides clear views of the immediate slope in the foreground as well as more distant views to the MG and BG. Important point for locating structures that visually blend with the landform
an offer to perform a contract for work and labor or for supplying materials at a specified price.

a bid is an offer by the contractor to the owner. A bid, as an offer, becomes a contract once the owner accepts the bidder's offer with all other contractual requirements in order.
Non-conforming Uses:
Grandfathered users who the zoning has changed around and are not required to leave because it would cause undue hardship, but are not allowed to expand or leave and return.
financial guarentee is
the general catagory of financial forms, typically issued by an entity other than the contractor, that ensures the owner or a munincipal agency that the contract oblicagion for the monetary amount of the work will be met.  Financial guarentees are often used to ensure performance of a munincipal regulation, such as  the installation of temporary erosion-control measures at a site or of sidewalks in a new subdicision.  Examples of four commonly available kinds of financial guarentees are surity bonds, cash deposits, assignment of funds, and irrevocable letters of credit. 
Final closeout
Package for owner with things like
instruction manuals,
as-built drawings, bonds,
maintenance agreements,
inspection certifications,
etc. Often inspection is scheduled prior to the expiration of performance guarantees, to ensure that facilities are operating as specified.
-Professional construction management 2nd ed
a wrongful act, usually by a public official
Acceleration Cost
cost to a contractor when owner interferes and contractor must employ more manpower or work more hours in order to end on time.  Charged to owner.
if the contractor contributes to the cause of its own delays, acceleration cost may not be granted.
an amount of money established by a fixed percentage agreed to in the contract writing that is with-held by one party of the contract from the other as a means of security and/or assurance of performance. In the construction industry, retainage is withheld by the owner against the prime contractor, and the prime contractor, in a similar manner, withholds from its subs. A typical percent-age in the construction industry is 10 percent of the amount paid on the progress payments until 50 percent of the work is completed. At that time, the owner may discontinue withholding the retainage.
a choice; the power or liberty of choosing; some-thing that is or can be chosen. In the construction industry, an option is presented to the building contractor in the form of materials and/or methods which vary from the base requirements, which it may choose in order to meet other requirements of the contract. An example would be to choose a method which would employ more minorities to meet the minority quota. An option has no effect on the cost to the owner.
To into view by uncovering, to lay bare, to reveal, to free from secrecy or ignorance, or to make known; revelation; the impartation of that which is secret.
Payment Bond
a legal instrument which provides a source of payment for labor and materialmen should their employer fail to pay them because of either default or bankruptcy.
Project Management
a system of organizing a construction project from conception to the completion of the project. This system includes management of the preparation of the contract documents, the bid process, and the construction phase. This term sometimes is interchange-ably used with the term "construction management"
Antitrust Laws
Federal and State statues to protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints and monopolies. Bid rigging is considered an example of this.
Incorporated Papers
Where the signators execute a contract which refers to another instrument in such a manner as to establish that they intended to make the terms and conditions of that other instrument a part of their understanding. The two instruments may be interpreted together as the agreement of the parites
A person holding the position of a trustee or character analogous to that of a trustee in respect to the trust and confidence involved and the scrupulous good faith and candor which are required. In the construction industry the Architect and Owner are in this relationship in respect to the contractor
Accounts Receivable
An amount due for services rendered which is unpaid at the present time (an owed amount).
Division 2 – Site Work
• 02010 – Subsurface Exploration• 02100 – Clearing• 02110 – Demolition• 02200 – Earthwork• 02250 – Soil Treatment• 02300 – Pile Foundations• 02350 – Caissons• 02400 – Shoring• 02500 – Drainage• 02550 – Site Utilities• 02600 – Paving & Surfacing• 02700 – Site Improvements• 02800 – Landscaping• 02850 – Railroad Work• 02900 – Marine Work• 02950 - Tunneling
Pre-Construction Conference
A meeting organized by the landscape architect and/or the owner after the construction contract award has been made so that again, questions can be clarified and standards of construction conduct can be established (including site access, payment dates, and processes, introduction of representatives, etc.).
Proprietary Project
A project about which the owner/client may wish to remain secret and professional should exercise caution when discussing it with anyone else.
type S mortar
high tensile bond strength, reasonably high compressive strength for reinforced masonry , or non-reinforced if max flex strength is required and mortar is only bonding agent between facing and backing, like a ceramic veneer
Compression test
predicts strength of concrete pour. compression strength of sample poured from same batch as pour. conc. poured in a cylindrical form.
horizon A00
loose organic debris. usulaly only found in forests, not grasslands.
a point or surface of luminance that is above one's current state of adaptation. The human visual system can comfortably see in light levels ranging from starlight to noonday sun, but not all at once.
stainless steel
specialties, sheets and coils. more expensive and more specialized. resistant to oxidation and corrosion.
"Green" Brick
Unfired clay brick or other clay products which can be sculpted before they are dried and fired.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
non-reinforced pavement
minimum concrete thickness of 3" but 4" is preferred. Used for pavement, footings.
-Construction joint
Plan ahead so construction ends when they need an expansion joint anyway.
What is cross-grained lumber?
Produced by improper sawing.  Occurs when either the fibers or grain of wood aren't parallel to the edge of the member.  It's more susceptible to warpage, & shrinkage, rough faces, torn or lifted grain & structural weakness.
These are the elements that make up a landscape. They may be habitats to a certain species, they may be vegetation types, they may be a certain characteristics of vegetation (i.e., density, age); always defined in terms of the object of interest. Patches themselves may hold spatial heterogeneity at a scale smaller than the patch itself, and patch boundaries depend on the scale considered
Notice to Proceed
Project Manager gives it to contractor after contract signed, when ready.
it's a reference to the provisions of the contract, the type of work to be performed, and the date or dates that the work is to commence.
PUDS are rezones.  Must be based on a change in circumstance or be in accordance with a munincipal innitiative, not public group wants.  The change must be in line with the comprehensive plan or it is considered spot zoning.  must be for the public benefit and allow reasonable use .
Responsible Bidder
one who has the capability, in all respects, to fully perform the contract requirements and the integrity and reliability to assure good-faith performance.
Finality of Decision
A contract provision or the procedure of a legally recognized process which states that the decision rendered in the settlement of a dispute is final
Waiver Lien
To deny the right expressed int he lien. It is a certificate issued upon completion of the work, signifying that all monies have been paid and that the right to lien against the property is removed.
Title Act
act protects the use of name only; only those who have satisfied the requirements of licensure in that state can call themselves landscape architects.
Design Development Phase
A phase of typical design services contract during which the landscape architect refines the preliminary concepts presented and approved by the client in the schematic design phase.
Joint Venture
A legal entity consisting of a group of individuals or groups uniting temporarily to form a partnership for executing design services or the like not otherwise possible for the separate individuals or groups to perform on their own.
Third Party Damages
Damages during construction to a party (or property owned by that party) who may have been wronged as a result of the contract, but is not actually a signing party. If one can prove that the work of the contract was the cause of the damages, then the “Third Party” may seek damages. (Normally only the parties to a contract can seek damages in a breach of the contract.)
-Tooled joint
Type of Control joint carved into wet concrete, rounded bottom
Sealing on curing concrete
plastic sheeting, waterproof paper, or compounds placed on curing concrete to even out water loss.
ready-mixed concrete
concrete mixed at a central plant or in trucks enroute to the job and delivered ready to be placed

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Liquid limit
Soil wet beyond its liquid limit is cohesive, like playdough.  Dryer than the liquid limit (in a plastic state) crumbles like graham cracker crust.There may be a better way of imagining it.- me
The liquid limit (LL) is the water content where a soil changes from plastic to liquid behavior. 
.   wikipedia 
eye bolt
A bolt with a circular ring on the head end. Used for attaching rope or chain.
summary judgment
a motion made by one side in hearing before going to court saying we have heard all the facts, there is no question worth going to trial anymore, it is all one-sided or settled.
this clause is used to say a party is not responsible, to lay liability on the other party. It should be used to hold only the neglegent party responsible.
Third Party
a party which is not privy to a contract but which may be bound or benefited through a written or implied legal relationship.
Standard Form 254
is usually kept on file until updated by the professional ands is general in nature
cutoff light distribution
shades that control the angle at which light can leaves the fixture so as not to shine in eyes. usually 75 degrees above nadir, or within 15 degrees of horizontal. Time-saver standards for landscape architects
cadmium, nickel, chrome
metallic coating that may or may not be more expensive in certain locations in relation to galvanizing. not as durable in wet or corrosive atmospheres. cadmium is used on nuts and bolts and hardware items.
What do construction drawings consist of?
1. working drawings2. specifications3. general conditions4. agreement form
Duty not to injure the party:

determined by scope in contract, rules of liscensure, statutes and codes, and is the risk unreasonable? easily avoided? serious injury? accident would not have happened otherwise?
Exclusivity of Contract Provisions
When a remedy for breech is included as a part of the contract, that remedy is considered exclusive of other remedies provided by law
Code of Ethics
A code of ethics is usually a listing of acceptable behaviors fro belonging to a professional organization
Contractors: sequence of tasks:
-define scope
-eval. ex. conditions -do counts off plan, construction strategy, time line chart -layout survey: limit of work line -prepare site: erosion and  plant protection Site clearing: all organic matter rem. before earth work. -execute work -recieve final inspection and client approval (punch list)
-final clean-up, mechanic's lein waiver, final inspections, payment, certificate of occupancy
Statement of Probable Construction Costs
term introduced by the A.I.A. in 1963 to help minimize the responsibility of guaranteeing the cost estimate. Prior to that time, "cost estimate" was used.
Bid Price represents contractor's cost summary for:
1. site prep 2. materials and installation 3. equip and labor and time 4. overhead and profit
What is the bid price estimated based upon?
Implementing all of the provisions of the working drawings and specifications within the framework of the general conditions and agreement.
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