LARE section D Flashcards

landscape architects
Terms Definitions
Division 16
Division 11
min.wheelchair path width
Urban Land Institute
American Lumber Standards Committee.
Sets guidelines that are used to base standards by regional wood grading authorities.
National Pollution Discharge elimination system.  Part of the Clean Water Act.   Point sources may not discharge pollutants to surface waters without a permit from the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). This system is managed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with states often issuing permits. buiolds on state legislation with technology-based effluent limitations.[6]
Construction Specifications Institute; national organization which has developed a system of organizing specifications into sixteen (16) uniform divisions, no matter what type of work.
American national standards institute
drive anchor
one-piece, drive-spike-type anchors compress when driven in and expanded inside the hole for a forceful grip. Ideal for use in concrete, block, brick, and stone. Made of zinc plated steel. Head types: Countersunk, Double, Mushroom, Pipe-Hanging, Round, Tie Wire
codes, covenants and restirictions.  Written into deeds of properties in new subdivisions before sale of houses.  Maintained and inforced by Homeowners associations.  subject to many abuses.  Little legal recourse or regulation. 
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; a federal agency charged with establishing various types of standards in construction practices, including standards for worker safety and reducing hazardous conditions of the work environment
canadian standard association. like astm
american society for testing materials. covers concrete.
d.m.h=drop manhole d.f.= drinking fountain e.c.= electrical contractor e.a.p=exposed aggregate paving e.v.c.=end of vertical curve e.w.= end wall e.s. = end section
Glacial soil
moraines, eskers, drumlins, kames--till, drift, boulder clay, glacial sands and gravelsTime-saver standards for landscape architects
often required by law and contracts.
seizing property by judicial order
a remedy by which the plaintiff  acquires a lien upon the property of the defendant for satisfaction of judgment. (See LIEN)
Termination for Default
construction contracts generally contain specific provisions itemizing events of default. However, even if not specifically itemized, delay in performance resulting in a failure to complete the contract in a timely fashion is universally recognized as a breach of contract. Whether the breach for untimely performance justifies an owner in terminating the contract may depend upon whether "time is of the essence" for performance of the contract. In federal construction contracts, time is of the essence, and if the contractor fails to perform by the date specified, the government may terminate the contract for default. In private contracts, where time is of the essence, the owner has a common-law right to terminate if the contractor fails to perform within the time specified, unless the time for performance has been waived or extended by the acts of the party.
receiving satisfaction for any injury sustained.
general recognition and conformity to established practice; a type, model, or combination of elements accepted as correct or perfect.
A caution, literally, "let him beware."
Building Codes
cover the construction, renovation, and improvements of buildings, including fire, safety, and structural requirements.
   Pre-construction Conference
o    Communication methods (identity and authority among project representatives and inspectors):
-       Owner Group (clerk of works; owner’s representative; inspector)
-       Designer Group (project manager; designer’s representative; superintendent; consultants
-       Contractors Group (general; superintendent; subcontractors
-       Other Agencies and jurisdictions (fire/safety; building code; health; agricultural, bank inspectors, etc.)
o    Scope and timing
o    Operating constraints
o    Clarification of construction documents
o    Administrative procedures (billing dates, jobsite visits, etc.)
o    Starting date
o    Verification of existing site conditions and record of damaged improvements
Certificate of Payment
The landscape architect’s certification that the work listed in the Application for Payment has been satisfactorily completed and advises the owner on amounts to be paid at that time for parts or portions of the work. (See the definition of Application for Payment).
Construction Contract Administration
Awarding Methods

Award of Contract

Opening the Project

Running the Project

Closing out the Project

Post-Project Completion
bleeder stubs
concrete subgrade underdrain into storm water man hole
sheet, coil, tubing, bars and specialties light, lightpoles. very expensive. less strength. specialized welding and must be coated to protect from o2.
residual soil
rock weathered in place-wacke, laterite, podzols, residual sands, clays and gravels.Time-saver standards for landscape architects
C.L.F. = chain-link fence C.O.= cleanout C.M.P.= corrugated metal pipe C/S= cross slope C.F.= cubic feet C.Y.= cubic yards D= degree of curvature
fragments of concrete dislodged from the surface of concrete

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
construction adhesive
Thick-bodied adhesive, suited to a wide range of repair and construction tasks.
Environmental assessment  
EA.  NEPA required concise, general, streamlined report of environmental impacts.  As opposed to the EIS(Environmental impact statement).  It takes 6-12 months. 
unintentional breach of a legal duty owed to another that results in some legally recognizable injury to the other's person or property. party suing must prove that the la had a duty which was breached and caused injury. If la is below established standards, court applys a standard of care(services within ordinary degree of skill expected of reasonably competent landscape architects under same conditions).
the process of settling a contract dispute through court because they each feel the other is 100% at fault.
that which is contrary to the constitution. The term can be used in two different senses. The first is that legislation conflicts with some recognized general principle or conflicts with a generally accepted policy. The second is that the legislation conflicts with some provision of the written constitution which it is beyond the power of the legislature to change.
a rule or order prescribed for management or government; a regulating principle; a precept; rules of order prescribed by a superior or competent authority relating to the actions of those under its control. An example is the body of federal regulations instituted by O.S.H.A. These regulations must be adhered to by those in the work-place, including the construction project site, or citations will be issued for their violation upon detection.
Mutuality of Assent
compliance, approval of some-thing done, or a declaration of willingness to do something in compliance with a request; an acting by two parties to perform a duty toward each other
A person with a particular expertise in a limited area of building design. May specialize in Structural, Mechanical, Electrical, or plumbing design
“C” Corporations
corporation is a collection of individuals united by authority of law into one body, under special name, acting as “individual”, legally, corporations and members of them are considered separate (but each professional is still responsible for their individual performance and professional actions).
Occupancy Permit
Before occupancy of structures is allowed, and before issuing a permit for such occupancy, and inspection by the appropriate oversight agency is required (this may include the fire Marshall to insure you have followed standards.
Construction Documents (May be in the form of drawings, specifications, and other written documents).
Move-in requirements
o    Posting of bonds/permits and licenses
o    Insurance certifications
o    Legal notices
o    Labor, equal opportunity affidavits posted
o    Establish storage area; jobsite office; fencing/barriers
plane surveying
Plane surveying, which assumes that the Earth is flat, is the most commonly practised form of surveying. It consists primarily of locating the positions of features on the ground (or fairly close to it). This is achieved, in the first instance, by a combination of angular and linear measurement.
humid from arctic to tropical, forests , a little grassland, young soils from residuum, soess, glacial till. soils moist.
structural fill
below floor slabs and building foundations or anything that needs an especially stable base.
Grade D Plywood
many controlled combinations of splits, knots, plugs, patches and holes
post and beam
Wood construction method. Overhead support system for shelter or shade. load bearing capacity: regional character, wwpa span computer can help. rafter span: dependant upon joist spacing, elasticity, type, roof pitch and deflection, total load rafter size and spacing. max overhead beam span: size, modules of elasticity, stiffness, strength, types of wood, live and dead lad, deflection and beam size and spacing. post sizing. load is transferred to post through beams, post sizes are determined by calculating load areas and sizing posts for that load.
Plank and Beam
structural construction method for flooring material supported by beams and uses fewer, larger timbers spaced farther apart than conventional. preferred for exterior use because *larger timber is more weather resistant and of a better scale*less labor=less cost,*no cross bracing is required, less cumbersome looking, adaptable: accommodates drainage with sloping and weather proofing or by spacing planks 1/4" apart
compacted fill or earth surface under subbase

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
are used to keep untreated wooden posts out of the ground, prevent decay and post shrinkage by distributing the load to a larger area of soil. footings should be below freeze thaw and should be in undisturbed soil. Special consideration for hurricane and earthquakes are required in cali and florida. Generally footing should be centered and have a width and depth two times the thickness of the foundation wall.
CapWall/fence SurfaceBase
3 primary elements of a wall/ fence
based on improper bid submission or arbitrary owner decision.
 The owner, in a typical contract, reserves the right to reject any and all bids. However, in rejecting a bid, an owner and its architect run the risk of interfering with the bidder's right to do work or of defamation of character on the part of the bidder.
1.min slope considered a ramp by ADA
2.Ramps should not exceed 8.3% for distances greater than___________ 
3.max cross slope intown___incountry____ 
2%, 3% 
a map handed in to the county auditor's office that describes a spot of land and divides it up, deliniating roads and R.O.W.s. 
The auditor's office makes sure taxes are not owed on the property before it is sold into pieces, and check that they make provisions for future improvements and it serves the public good.
Insurance-commercial general liablilty:
personal injury on office equipment, office theft etc
right of one property owner to make use of another's property, as specific limmited use, or excludes the use of land in a certain way, even by the owner.
damages resulting from real and substantial loss,
(as opposed to those which are merely theoretical, estimated, or anticipated.)
Actual damages represent the real and true value of the total loss suffered, as opposed to liquidated.
Types of Building Codes
Southern Standard Building Code (SSDSC)Uniform Building Code (UBC)Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA)National Building Code (NBC)
Bid Depository
A clearing house for subcontractors to submit their bids for a particular project and for prime con-tractors to receive bids from the various subcontractors.
A person authorized by another to act for him or her; one who is employed to represent another in business and legal dealings with third persons. In a typical relationship, three parties are involved: a principal, an agent, and a third party.
Quality Control Plan
an implementation plan for application of the quality assurance policies during the construction phase.
relationship of a party which has any part or interest in any action, matter, or thing. Privity of contract is that relationship that exists between two or more contracting parties. In a typical construction project, the contractual relationship between the participants is one of privity between the owner and the design professional and the owner and the contractor. However, there is no privity or contract between the design professional and the contractor.
Commercial Impracticability
The doctrine that recognizes that, in some instances, contract performance may become so costly that its impracticaiblity makes it the equivalent of impossibility.
Hold Harmless Clause
Alson known as Idemification, (process by which one party seeks to protect itself from any claims by a plantiff who has been injured or suffered a loss.
Field Order
A document issued by the architect directing the contractor to erect some portion of the building in a manner different from that described in the plans and specifications. This is issued when the modifications will not affect the money and/or the time spent on the project. May be requested by the Architect, Owner, or Contractor.
Unit Price Bid
Estimate of costs for labor, materials, equipment, and services associated with a single unit of work to be completed during construction (e.g., $2.00/square foot for paving); it is usually advisable to ask for a unit price breakdown in a lump sum bid so any change orders necessary to complete the work would have pre-established costs, known to all parties.
is the process by which CLARB formally recognizes a certificate holder’s education, experience, examination and professional conduct as meeting or exceeding their standards (not national licensure, but usually makes reciprocity in other states easier); a recognition that the candidate is “above-average” in competency.
Supplemental Services
Services requested by the owner, which may exceed the basic services being performed (examples include models, special renderings, videos, irrigation plans, etc.)
Project Manual
Name of the construction package in booklet form, which includes the contract documents, general, and technical specifications, and may include smaller drawings.
Change Order
Written documentation of a change in the time/cost/scope of the work to be performed in a contract; an amendment AFTER contract award.
Observation of Construction
Term used for landscape architect’s duties during construction, which implies and/or infers that the contractor is primarily responsible for the construction process, not the landscape architect (as opposed to “supervision”, “inspection”, and superintendence”).
Concrete Edging
stone or tool rounds and straightens edge to prevent chipping, compact edges.
choose it based on type of strength needed. same ingredients as concrete plus hydrated lime.comes in types: N, S, M, and O.
The width of one course of common bricks

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
D horizon
hard rock or any underlying stratum having siginificance to byt not part of parent material. Time-saver standards for landscape architects
should go all the way through the metal! not just on surface.
blocks are boards the same height as the joists they support, exactly the length of the space between those joists. They are inserted between the joists and aligned with each other. They help prevent twisting
A shelf or ledge formed by projecting successive courses of masonry out from the face of the wall.
-Time Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Name two types of sawed lumber.
1.  "plain-sawed" produces flat-grained boards.
2.  "quartersawn" produces edge- or vertical-grained boards.
Ratio method
Defines slope steepness by means of a ratio between the horizontal distance and the vertical elevation change within the slope. 1st figure of raito represents horizontal, 2nd represents veritical elev.change
Doctrine of Gratuitous Service
Holds that volunteered and free services carry the same duty of care as do those services which have been solicited and which a fee has been paid.
the submission of a dispute to a third party
(individual or panel), known as arbitrator(s), whose judgment is final and binding. Decisions at arbitration hearings, unlike those in judicial cases, do not establish precedents.
Planned Unit Developements  (PUD):
Sometimes zoning laws allow future developments to automatically change the zoning for a place fitting certain requirements when a planned unit development happens.
Quality Control Group
the group of personnel assigned to implement quality control during the construction phase.
Strict Liability
liability without fault. A case is one of strict liability where neither care nor negligence, neither good nor bad faith, and neither knowledge nor ignorance will save the defendant.
Liability insurance
is a part of the general insurance system of risk financing to protect the purchaser (the "insured") from the risks of liabilities imposed by lawsuits and similar claims. It protects the insured in the event he or she is sued for claims that come within the coverage of the insurance policy.
footcandle (fc)
a us unit of measurement referring to incident light (light reflecting of a surface at a certain location). Footcandles can be derived from lumens (1 fc= 1 lumen/sq ft) or candelas (fc=candelas/distance squared).

Time-saver standards for landscape architects
B horizon
10-12 " of soil depth below A horixonfrom 4" to 8'. made up of b1, b2, b3
Frost lines
The lowest level in soil that frosts or freezes.

Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Grade B Plywood
solid surface, up to 1"knots tight, slightly rough, but no skips
What's the difference between a designer's and contractor's view of a design?
Designer: emphasizes finished surface elevations, and vertical & horizontal dimensions.Contractor: emphasizes subgrade elevations.
action by a party to a contract which causes the other party of the contract to not complete the work of the project on time or in the manner established by the contract writing.
Positive action must be per-formed on the part of the interfering party as opposed to passive negligence, which is inactive, permissive, or sub-missive.
Sweat Equity
a term used to mean "mutual help" in certain federal agencies' contracts. The Department of Health and Urban Development (HUD) requires that the tenants of housing built by federal assistance programs, such as housing for the Indians on Indian reservations, con-tribute to the construction of the unit by giving of their manual labor.
Mechanic's Lien
A claim created by law for the purpose of securing priority of payment of the price or value of the work performed and materials furnished in erecting or repairing a building or other structure
Null and Void
naught, of no validity or effect. When used in a contract or statute, it often is construed as meaning voidable. A contract is rendered null and void when one of the essential elements that make up a contract is missing. An example of this is that when an organization is not licensed to perform work in a particular state, that organization does not have the capacity to execute contracts in that state. Such a contract can then be rendered null and void because of its deficiency regarding the capacity of one of the parties.
Sub-consultant Contract
A contract to engage the services of a consultant or consulting group who is not the primary consultant or designer on a project.
concrete slump test
is used for the measurement of a property of fresh concrete. The test is an emprical test that measures the workability of fresh concrete, is used to ensure uniformity for different batches of similar concrete under field conditions
Construction institute master format divisions
division 2- site prep-demo, surveying
31- earthwork (below grade)
32- exterior improvements(most LA things!)
Moment of intertia (I)
An abstract measure described as the sum of all the products of all infinately small areas times the square of their distances from the neutral surface of the beam.
Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
What are the criteria used to visually grade lumber?
slope of grain
natural defects
manufacturing defects
number of knots
tightness of knots
location of knots
lis pendens
a mark on property that a law suit is pending that concerns the title of the property. filed with the county clerk so the public and the owner know that the title may change hands.
O.S.H.A (Occupational Safety and Health Act)
a federal act creating an agency responsible for safety and health in the work place. The agency has the authority to issue citations to violators of the federal regulations imposed by the agency. There have been instances in the construction industry where O.S.H.A. has been used by the courts to establish a standard of care for the participants in the construction process.
Modules of elasticity (E)
A measure of how much a material deforms in relation to the load applied.
Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture
Duty of Care
If an LA is being sued, a jury looks at how other LAs would act in that situation.  Also covers telling the client about risks, conflicting instructions from clients, following bad instructions from clients, following the law.  Gets close to malfeasance(failure to act)
Third Pary Beneficiary
in order for a party not privy to a contract to maintain an action thereon as a third-party beneficiary, it must appear that the contract was made and intended for its benefit. The benefit must be one that is not merely incidental but must be immediate in such a sense as to indicate the assumption of a duty to make reparation if the benefit is lost.
What Three factors must exist to render a requirement impossible:
1-The impossibilty must be inherent in the nature of the act to be performed rather than personal to the contract.2-The facts which make the performance impossible must not have been forseeable.3-The person seeking to be excused from performance must have been in no way responsible for the impossibility.
persentage of prime consultant fee
is a method based on a protion of the project costs, set using the prime consultant's fee amount in some percentage as the subconsultant fee.  d
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