LAST TEST Flashcards

Terms Definitions
formula
therm
heat
hypotonic
less solute
Organism
A living thing.
Mollusk - Phylum
Mollusca
Dependent
variable that is measured
Cytology
The study of CELLS.
Nuclear envelope ch.5
double membrane
chloroplasts
1. center for photosunthesis
2. contains: thylakoids/grana, stroma, plastids, inner and outer membrane
mRNA
Messenger; transcribes DNA--message to ribosome; in nucleus; triplets called codons (code for amino acids)
LH
luteinizing hormone released by pituitary gland, triggers ovulation
protostomes
mollusks, annelids, arthropods, and several other phyla.
Duplication
region of chromosome is duplicated
Inhibition of sodium reabsorption could lead to an increase in the excretion of what?
Water
Microspore
Spore that develops into male gametophyte in seed plants
aesexual-Parthenogenesis
insect lays egg, unfertilized, that develops into an adultex. bees, insects
phylum proifera
animals
no true tissues, nerves, muscles
sessile
filter feeders
chanocytes
create current and phygocytize food
have inner and outer layer of cells
some have cilia, calcium carbonate, spongin protein
hermaphodites
serial endosymbiosis
supposes that mitochondria evolved before plastids through a sequence of endosymbiotic events.
first woody plants
375 million years ago
spindle
a fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes
What are osteoblasts?
they make new bones
Hundreds of restriction enzymes are known, and each one cuts DNA at a specific sequence of .
Nucleotides
The bonding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
Cohesion
Biodiversity is necassary for ______to function no
ecosystems
nucleus
a specialized, usually spherical mass of protoplasm encased in a double membrane, and found in most living eukaryotic cells, directing their growth, metabolism, and reproduction, and functioning in the transmission of genic characters.
Birge
founded limnology (study of lakes) and described lake stratification
humans and other mammals have the __est gene density in a given length of dna
lowest
All fish posses jaws. True or False
False
How do sporozoans move?
THEY DO NOT, FOOL!
carrier
has one recessive gene which can result in disease in HL pairs
levels of organization
in multicellular organisms are individual cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems
homeostasis
by sensing and adjusting to change, organisms keep conditions in their internal environment withing a range that favors cell survival
Stimulus
Any change in an organism's internal or external environment that changes the organism's activity.
The phylum Arthropoda includes all of the following kinds of animals EXCEPT:
clams.
Homologous structures
similar structures inherited from a common ancestor
natural selection directly favors traits that promote
survival and reproduction
Because it is often difficult to gather numerical data, ______ research is used.
Descriptive
Define DNA
Large, double-stranded polymer of 4 nucleotides: A, G, C, and T
Examples of Archaea (3)
Thermophiles- loves hot
Halophiles- loves salt
Methogens- loves waste/swamps
ally
a plant, animal, or other organism bearing an evolutionary relationship to another, often as a member of the same family
S-shaped curve
growth at first is exponential but slows and then stabilizes when the carrying capacity is reached
sister chromatids
- identical copies of a chromosome, attached to each other at the centromere
- when mitosis is complete, each new daughter cell will have 46 chromosomes, each consisting of a single chromatid, separated from its sister
isotopes
atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons
ATP synthase
a complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port for which protons diffuse
Water molecules stay close together as a result of what kind of bonding?
hydrogen bonding
homeotic genes
helps determine identity of body parts during embryonic development
Ediacaranan biota
members of an early group of multicellular eukaryotes known as
Golgi Apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Give the test or procedure: injection of contrast into vessels and x-ray imaging ______________________
angiography (arteriography)
Ras activating protein
activaes MAP-kinase kinase kinase --> kinase cascade
bulb
a swelling at the base where hair originates in dermis or hypodermis
What side was the dissected worm cut on?
dorsal
Habitat
the location where a an organism lives at a given time eg. pond
acclimate
to accustom or become accustomed to a new climate or environment; adapt.
Capsomere
The protein subunit that makes up a capsid.
14. WHAT IS PERIOSTEUM?
TOUGH LAYER OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE SURRDING THE BONE
3.5-3.8 billion years ago
60. Scientists estimate that LUCA appeared:
Elongation step 4
Repeat 1-3 until stop codon positioned at A site
missesnse mutations
a point mutation that causes a change in what amino acid is coded for
Stomata
Pores in the leaf tha allow Co2 to enter and O2 to leave
Feedback regulation
the regulation of the activity of an enzyme by one of its products
Evaporative Cooling
The property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state.
Mammals lack cellulases and cannot digest cellulose without the help of symbiotic bacteria that produce cellulase for them. Why can't amylase, an enzyme that digests starch, effectively digest cellulose?
The shape of cellulose
Trophic level
Each step in a food chain or food web
Spits out ____, but digests and uses ____.
organic, inorganic nutrients. 
what are companion cells?
connected to the sieve tube cells, they produce and transport proteins to all of the sieve tube members
Yellow Bone Marrow
bone marrow that is yellow with fat; found at the ends of long bones in adults
What two things remain constant during action potential?
-Speed-AmplitudeBUT, as stimulus intensity increases, so does the number of action potentials*push on chin example
23. What causes acute respiratory distress syndrome?
(ARDS) caused by impaired gas diffusion, characterized by loss of surfactant, interstitial edema, formation of hyaline membrane, wide spread atclectasis
what does a sensory protein do?
it detects environmental changes and respond by producing signals that call for a response
Name the 5 stages of a heartbeat.
1. Mid-diastole (atria/ventricles relaxed, blood flows directly to ventricle from veins)2. Late diastole (atrial contraction)3. Early systole (isometric ventricular contraction)4. Late systole (ventricular contraction ejecting blood into aorta)5. Ventricular relaxation
39. What is the pressure in relation to the lungs during a tension pneumothorax compared to the atmospheric pressure?
Intraplueral pressure exceeds the atmospheric pressure
Define the level "The Biosphere"
The areas on, in, around, above and below the earth which organisms live.
the major biomes are defined by what?
a unique set of abiotic factors-particularly-climate, adn the assemblage of plants and animals
Where do plants get energy & food?
SunlightUse energy from sun to make ATPAirUse CO2 from air to make sugars
Can glucose pass through the phospholipid membrane without the help of a transport protein?
No it is too bigNeeds to use a transport proteinKnown as facilitated transport
Give the meaning of the term cerebral aneurysm
widening of a blood vessel (artery) in the cerebrum; the aneurysm can burst and lead to a CVA.
Ca
calcite
ductile
bended rocks(fold)
Diorite
Igneous
Intrusive
Phanaratic
Coarsely Grained
Medium Color
Effluent Streams
(Groundwater)
Gaining Stream
Ore factor 2
mineraalogy
groundwater
point source of pollution
intermediate
70 - 300 km
tuff
deposit from pyroclastic flows
pressure-hardened;
glued together by tiny crystals or chemical residues precipitated from fluids in the pores of a sediment
compacted;
cemented
resisting force
causes downward slope movement
Foot wall
Located below fault plane
Core
has 2 parts, outer=liquid, inner=solid
Seismograph
instrument that records seismic
waves that eq's generate
• seismographs used to study eq's + probe
deep interior of Earth
• by loosely hanging a mass by a spring or by a
hinge, can measure Earth's motions in
different directions
• plot movements by pen on chart paper, or
digitally on computer
• location of eq can be identified by measuring
time interval between arrival of P + S
waves at 3 or more stations
Mylonite
rock formed during dynamic metamorphism and characterized by foliation that lies roughly parallel to the fault(shear zone) involved in the shearing process; mylonite have very fine grains formed by the nonbrittle subdivision of larger grains
Quartzite-carbonate-shale assemblages are known from
the Late Archean
caverns
created when slightly acidic groundwater dissolves limestone in zone of saturation
Moho(Mohorovic dicontinuity)
Separates crust and mantle.
Seimic waves speed up on intering mantle
aquifer
volume of rock/sediment capable of storing & transmitting enough H2) to be useful
Salt Dome
upward expansion of plastic-like salt
Changes that are important
Gradual and Catastrophic
Basalt
common very fine grained volcanic rock
behind
because glacial ice moves slowly -migration of the terminus tends to be _____________ by several years a change in budget
Nonclastic
crystalline texture in which the minerals form a pattern of interlocking crystals.
Calderas
a huge bowl-shaped depression formed when an empty magma chamber collapses after a volcanic eruption
Subduction zones
descending plates partially melts, forms volcanic island or continental arc, origin of most volcanoes
Shale
common detrital sedimentary rock, most important detrital
water table
the boundary, approximately parallel to the Earth's surface, that separates substrate in which air fills the pores
The main detrimental byproduct of waste incineration is _______.
Ash
Luster
the way a mineral reflects light


1. GLACIAL ABRASION – SAND AND SILT CARRIED BY ICE RUBS
AGAINST AND WEAR AWAY THE ROCK LAYERS.2. GLACIAL
PLUCKING – ICE SHEET BOUNCES OVER BOTTOM OF THE GLACIAL VALLEY AND BREAKS IT
APART.






Glacial Striations
fission track
ejection of automatic particle during decay of a radioactive isotope damaging crystal lattice
Coastlines
Zones along which water is continually making changes
3 kinds of plate boundaries
divergent, transform, convergent
mafic- low, felsic- high
explosivity: mafic vs. felsic
Texture
a rock's appearance with respect to the size, shape, and arrangement of its grains or other constituents
Decreasing pressure on the hot rocks causes them to partially melt and produce mafic magmas even without any increase in temperature
True
Foliation
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
True or False: metamorphism is the process by which heat, pressure, and chemical reactions alter the mineral content and/or structure of preexisting rock without melting it
True
Scientific Method
The general procedure for discovering how the physical universe works through the systematic observations and experiments.
Which mineral subgroup is the most abundant in Earth's crust?
A) micas
B) garnet
C) ferromagnesian
D) feldspars
D
recharge
the process by which groundwater is REPLACED OR REPLENISHED - just like you recharge a battery you can recharge the supply of groundwater
original
Not derived from anything else, new and unique
A
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
A. The entire mantle is partially molten.
B. A drop in seismic wave velocities in the asthenosphere shows that this part of the upper mantle is partially molten; the rest of the mantle is solid.
C. Within the mantle are two depth intervals where olivine's crystalline form collapses to a denser structure, resulting in higher seismic wave velocities.
D. Although the inner core is hotter than the outer core, it is solid while the outer core is molten because of the higher pressures experienced by the inner core.
What is erosion?
The incorporation and transportation of material by a mobile agent such as water, wind, or ice.
Isostasy
the buoyancy of lithospheric plate is balanced by force of gravity
lithosphere
the rigid outer layer of earth, including the crust and upper mantle
P waves
are primary waves (compressional) they travel through solid, liquid, or gaseous material as a succession of compression and expansions.
Magmatic Deposits
-some of the most important accumulations of metals are associated with magma that forms igneous rocks
-certain metals are enriched in certain magmas and further concentrated during cooling of th magma
 
gravitational settling - heavy minerals that crystallize early settle and concentrate on the bottom of the magma chamber
 
immiscibility - separation and non-mixing of liquid phases of a magma
-nickel deposits of Sudbury and Voisey's Bay have similar origins, but different triggering mechanisms
 
Pegmatites - melt remaining in last stages of cooling is rich in volatiles and rare elements
-such a melt is very fluid and invades cracks and results in large crystals
Meanders
A snake-like curve along a stream's course
Advantages of C&C
Uses the precautionary principle: Don't wait for absolute certainty before acting!Embodies fairness: those most responsible must make the most reductionsEach nation chooses how to achieve its reductions
The important minerals on which modern civilization depends constitute a relatively large part of Earth's crust.
False
streams and lakes are ___ of the water
.01
dome
A broad circular or oval upward bulge of rock layers.
longitudinal (linear) dune
limited sand supply, strong converging winds
Type of stress... Strike-slip fault
Lateral, i.e. horizontal, shear
Porosity
percentage of total volume of rock or sediment that consists of pore spaces. determines how much groundwater can be stored. variations cam occur over short distances.
Greenhouse Gases
absorb heat energy emitted by Earth and thus help keep the atmosphere warm. Gases that can't escape the atmosphere.
Convection currents
Circular currents in the mantle caused by the magma being heated by the core off the Earth.
if granite is exposed to extreme heat and/or pressure, it will change into
griess
Anticline
A convex upward fold in which the oldest exposed rocks coincide with fold axis and all strata dip away from the axis.
emergent coasts
Found where land has risen with respect to sea level
Tectonics, isostacy etc.
Four factors in agg/deg
Load, Base level, Slope, discharge
fractional crystallization
when magma crystallizes it does so over a range of temperature. each mineral begins to crystallize at a different temperature, and if these minerals are somehow removed from the liquid, the liquid composition will change
What is a porphyroblast?
A relatively large metamorphic mineral.
horizons
refers to the various layers that make up soil
Pliosaur
A large marine reptile with a short neck and four flippers that lived in the Jurassic and Cretaceous seas.
recharge area
a location where water enters the ground and infiltrates down to the water table
regolith
broken apart rocks that cover an area; layer of rocks and mineral fragments
Cinder Cone Volcano
Tall and steepalternating layers of ejected materialvent filled with rock fragments
 
Molecules are formed from atoms by a process called...
 
Chemical bonding
Discharge?
The quanity of water that passes a given point in a period of time (gal/minute)
Valence Electron
the electrons involved in the bonding process; the electrons occupying th ehighest principal energy level of an atom
#35 Non-Foliated Metamorphic Rock
doesn't have a banded appearance
Which volcano(es) are active in a volcanic island chain?
Most of them
How does climate influence soil formation?
Precipitation and temperature influence soil formation, influences the rate of chemical weathering and plant growth. Soil formation is most rapid in warm, moist climates.
Mass Wasting
down slope movement of stuff due to gravity
metamorphic
this is a rock created from hot rock under high pressure- near subduction zone that does not melt - changes in the solid state
What is an earthquake?
-Dissipation of stored energy, usually along a fault
-Vibration produced by rapid release of energy
the two kinks in the seismic wave path are examples of seismic
refraction
bomb
a pyroclast at least 2 mm or larger; blob of lava that cools in flight and becomes rounded
chemically active fluids
ions may migrate or exchange between rocks layers from hot fluids
What is runup?
Runup is the maximum vertical height above normal high tide reached by a tsunami as
travels over the land surface.
resonance
period of the building is in sync with period of the wave
causes building to shake alot
Which is not a period formed during the Mesozoic era?A. cretaceousB. triassicC. jurassicD. cambrian
D.    cambrian
Earth System
Is all the spheres studied as a whole
Internal process
a process such as mountain building or volcanism that derives its energy from Earth's interior and elevates Earth's surface
accretionary disk of our sun was protplanetary, meaning it included....
volatiles, refractory materials
running water (streams) glaciers (ice) wind, water waves, groundwater
what other factors/agents contribute to mass wasting?
In what direction do wildfires tend to spread?
Up hill slopes.
Plate Tectonics Theory
basic idea that earth's outer crust is made out of pieces--
what is the astenosphere?
plastic like upper mantle where rock can move, bend, deform with out breaking.
what is an endogenic force?
earth's internal heat and material, plate tectonics move
What is a composite cone volcano?
large nearly symmetyrical structure composed of interbedded lavas and pyroclastic deposites, emitted from a central vent.
Paleozoic era
a time span of the geologic time scale between the Precambrian and Mesozoic eras-from about 540 million to 248 million years ago
When ice caps move out over the sea...
ice shelf is formed
during the Mesozoic, which dinosaurs were more diverse than the saurischians
ornithischians, some of which were heavily armored
Mold fossil
a space in a rock that has the shape of the remains of a living thing that once occupied that space.
Geologic processes in operation today were
the same in the past.
• Geologic processes are slow,
therefore the Earth must be
older than human history.
What is the Principle of Uniformitarianism?
What is the Atmosphere?
The gaseous portion of a planet; the planet's envelope of air. One of the traditional subdivisions of Earth's physical environment.
What proved that seafloor spreading was the mechanism behind continental drift?
The magnetic anomalies on the ocean floor
Atomic # VS Mass #/Atomic weight
-# of protons in nucleus.
VS
-# of protons + # of electrons in nucleus.
What happened when sea otters were reintroduced into alaska?
Reintroduction of sea otters to British Columbia has led to a dramatic improvement in the health of coastal ecosystems - killed the sea urchins
What are the thre trype sof basaltic flows?
Pahoehoe, Aa, and pillow lavas
Timing of Known Major Ice Ages
1 more than 2,000,000 years ago, 4 during Pleistocene (10,000 years to 2,000,000 years ago)
In the Hydrologic Cycle, water is stored in each of the following reservoirs
Oceans Ice and snow Groundwater Lakes
What is physical (or mechanical) weathering?
When a rock is broken into smaller and smaller pieces, each retaining the characteristics of the original material
What are the factors that drive ocean circulation?
- Transfer of heat
- Transfer of water
- Transfer of momentum
The moisture that is left over and not back in the ocean is evaporated and transported by the winds to land.
So some of the water gets put right back in the ocean and some of the water is trasported to fall on land in the shape of rain, snow, hail or sleet.








 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 








direct marketing












 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 








any direct communication to a consumer or business recipient that is
designed to generate a response in the form of an order, a request for further
information, and/or a visit to a store or other place of business for purchase
of a product




DO: price penetration
selling agent
represent the seller
research
was the communication successful? improvements?
Types of Brands
Manufacturer brands
Private Distributor brands
Generic brands
 
Coordination of advertising, display, publicity, and personal salesmanship to promote profitable sales
-Promotion


Database
Marketing







The creation of a
large computerized file of customers’ and potential customers’ profiles and
purchase patterns.



personal selling characteristics
Action-OrientedImmediate Response and Lasting RelationshipPaidInterpersonal, two-way, often face-to-face communication
Pure Oligopoly
few firms, homogenous product, substantial barriers to entry
Pricing for multiple Products
Price bundlingCaptive Pricing
Consumer-Oriented Marketing
The philosophy of sustainable marketing that holds the company should view and organize its marketing activities from the consumer's point of view.
direct selling
Marketing products to ultimate consumers through face-to-face sales presentations at home or in the workplace
A major characteristic of services-their quality may vary greatly, depending on who provides them and when, where, and how.
Service variability
LEVELS COMPANIES CAN BUILD CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS AT
1.ECONOMIC2.SOCIAL3.TECHNICAL4.LEGAL
Brand Loyalty
A customer’s favorable attitude toward a specific brand.
Census
an accounting of the complete population
dynamic pricing
practice of changing prices for products and services in real time in response to supply and demand conditions
price skimming
Charging the highest possible price that buyers who want the product will pay.
encoder
the conversation of a sender's ideas and thoughts into a message, usually in the form of words or signs.
Oligopoly
a few companies control the MAJORITY of an industry
Pioneers or Breakthroughs
new product introductions, especially new-to-the-world products that create new markets
Advocacy Advertising
promotes company's position on public issue
 
ie: Parents encouraged to talk to kids
about not smoking 
Personal needs
concerned with an individual's need for personal satisfaction --unrelated to what others think or do. (Self-esteem, accomplishment, fun, freedom and relaxation.)
retailer
All transactions in which the buyer intends to consume the product through personal, family, or household use
Industrial Marketing
Occurs when firms deal with organizational consumers.
A currently accepted or popular style in a given field.
fashion
Corporate VMS
A vertical marketing system that combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership--channel leadership is established through common ownership.
Concept Test
External evaluations with con- sumers that consist of preliminary testing of a new-product idea rather than an actual product. Generally, these tests are more useful with minor modifications of existing products than with new, innovative products with which consumers are not familiar.
SWOT analysis
idenifying internal strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) and also examining external opportunties (O) and threats (T)
Price Planning
Determining price levels and ranges, pricing techniques, term of purchase, price adjustments, and the use of price as an active or passive factor.
Public Relations
The marketing function that evaluates public attitudes, identifies areas with the organization that the public may be interested in and executes a program of action to earn public undersatnding and acceptance.
does not carry inventory, typically performs only a sales function, and serves an alternative to agents and brokers
manufacturer's sales office
Order Processing
The receipt and transmission of sales order information
variable costs
Costs that vary directly with changes in the number of units produced or sold
Secondary data
Data thats already been collected for a different purpose (available more quickly at a lower cost than primary data)
Steps in Costs-Plus Pricing
Estimate unit costsCalculate mark-up -markup on cost -markup on selling price gross margin
Manufacturer's Agents
agents who work for several producers and carry noncompetitive, complementary merchandise in an exclusive territory (also called manufacturer's representatives)
Primary Data
Data from research conducted to help make a specific decision.
family brand
same brand name for several products of similar types. Kenmore kitchen appliances.
competitive advantage
the provision of something that is unique and valuable to buyers beyond simply offering a lower price than the competitors.
Self Congruity Theory
Match between consumers self concept and the image of a users focal product
When a local TV station stops people who are in a shopping mall for an interview, this is an example of a(n) _____ sample.
convenience
types of organizational buyers
1. industrial2. reseller3. government markets
Focus Groups
A tool for marketing research where small groups of customers are invited to participate in guided discussions on the topic being researched
customer experience
which is the internal response that customers have to all aspects of an orgainzation and its offering. This internal response includes both the direct and indirect contacts of the customer with the company
a set of actual and potential buyers of a product.
market
A tool by which management identifies and evaluates the various businesses that make up the company.
portfolio analysis
media planning
1. reach & frequency 2. timing 3. media & media vehicles 4. sizes/lengths
If your company is market and customer focussed, it is what?
Market Centered
Marketing Management Process
the process of (1) planning marketing activities, (2) directing the implementation of the plans, and (3)controlling these plans
Catalog Wholesalers
Sell out of catalogs that may be distributed widely to smaller industrial customers or retailers that might not be called on by other wholesalers.
Licensing Agreement
An agreement in which one firm gives another firm the right to produce and market its product in a specific country or region in return for royalties.
expense item
a product whose total cost is treated as a business expense in the it's purchased
quantity discount
a price reduction to buyers who buy large volumes
Handling objections
The step in the selling process in which the salesperson seeks out, clarifies, and overcomes customer objections to buying.
Product Testing
Testing a product on a group of consumers.
complementary product pricing
setting prices on several products as a group, to increase sales for the group as a whole (one may be priced low so profits from another will increase)
Sampling error
any error in a survey that occurs because a sample is used
What are substitute products?
products for which changes in demand relate negatively; a percentage increase in quantity demanded for one means a percentage decrease in quantity demanded for the other.
How to electronic marketing channels create utility?
By combining electronic and traditional intermediaries
Family life Cycle
The set of stages of life through which we progress (childhood, maturity, golden years)
fixed cost
the sume of the expenses of the firm that are stable and do not change with the quantity of a product that is produced and sold.
 
rent, exec salaries, insurance
problem child (question mark)
in the portfolio matrix, a business unit that rapingd growth but poor profit margian
ABO (groupe sanguin) (ABO blood group)
Ensemble de glycoprotéines présentes au niveau de la membrane des hématies et définissant les groupes sanguins.
What are the generation X
those born between 1965 and 1976- first generation of latchkey children, 50 percent of them have divorced parents. they have considerable spending power. they are astute customers, demand convenience, and dont believe advertising claims.
return on marketing investment (marketing ROI)
The net return from a marketing investment divided by the costs of the marketing investment.
Depth of a product line
the store carries a large assortment of each item
Third Party Logistics firm (3PL)
A firm that is contracted to manager part or all of another firm's order fulfillment process.
the delivery gap is where ...
the rubber meets the road, where the customer directly interacts with the service provider.
Ratio of the firms sales revenue to those of the entire market.
Extraction of hidden info from large databases to find links
outgroup
them
Parasympathetic
accumulating energy
Semantic Memory
General Knowledge
incongruence
inconsistency between our personalities and innate dispositions
Jean Piaget
studied cognitive development
Basal Ganglia
Movement and reward
misinformation effect
incorporating misinformation into one's memory of an event
Otoliths
Tiny, motion-sensitive crystals within semicircular canals that sense body acceleration.
Suggestibility
Tendency to incorporate misleading information into recollections. Different euphemisms can affect answers to questions
Gestalt
...therapists believe that different parts of a dream reflect different aspects of the person. They work with dreams by having the patient become each element of the dream.
Survey
(Definition/Advantage/Disadvantage)
Technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes and behaviors of participants.
 
Advantage: Lot of subjects. Inexpensive.
 
Disadvantage: Socially desirable answers. Wording effects.
Implicit Memories
Procheduralprocedures and skill aquisitionRetention independent of conscious recollection
fitness
an inherited characteristic that increased in a population (through natural selection) because it helped solve a problem of survival or reproduction during the time it emerged
personalism
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
unconscious
a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories. (information processing of which we are unaware)
empirical grounding
values the interdependence and integration of systematic research and planful action
"knowledge w/out action is empty and action w/out knowledge is ignorant"
Focuses on: role as participant-conceptualizer; multiple research methods (qualitative/quantitative); research that meets and informs community needs;
Transference
psychoanalytic term for the person's relating to the analyst in ways that reproduce or relive important relationships in the individual's life
Neurotransmitter
chemical used by nerves to communicate
Acquisition
In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
dendrites
the branchlike fibres that extend outward from a neuron and receive information from other neurons.
stimulant-induced psychosis
schizophrenia-like symptoms that can occur as the result of prolonged amphetamine or coaine use
If a child exhibits "ego-resilience," that means he or she _________A) is stubbornB) is able to respond resourcefully to a new and challenging situationC) is impulsive and often in troubleD) is a leader in his or her peer groupE) has supportive parents
B
correlational method
most research is correlational- statistical techniques to determine degree of relationship bt variable- does not = causation!
Botulin
ACh antagonist that creates paralysis (botox).
Decay (forgetting)
fading of memory over time
Disociative disorder
psychological disorder where one becomes separated from certain memories (bad usually).
Sleeptalking
Speaking that occurs during NREM sleep.
Hypotheses
Statement of a possible explanation for some natural phenomenon.
imprinting
(mimic) where humans/ animals form attachment during a critical period
hypnopompic
pertaining to the semiconscious state prior to complete wakefulness
Egocentrism
In Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
Down syndrome
usually with three copies of chromosome-21 in their cells, individuals who are typically mentally retarded and have a round head, flat nasal bridge, protruding tongue, small round ears, a fold in the eyelid and poor muscle tone and coordination
child iq
iq at 4 predicts later iq
Stress
A response elicited when a situation overwhelms a person's perceived ability to meet the demands of a situation
reflex
a simple, autonomic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the kee-jerk response
Lens
- the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
FOUR MAJOR RESEARCH PROSPECTIVES
A. BIOLOGICAL
B. COGNITIVE
C. BEHVIORAL
D. SOCIOCULTURAL
Meissners corpuscles
touch sensitive organs;respond to low frequency vibration
Short Delay Conditioning
When inter-stimulus interval is short
Mental retardation-defined
mentally reatrede is applied when someone is significantly below average in general intellectual funtionin and devicits in adaptive function, communicating with others..(LIKE DOWNS)
Disjunctive
Presence of one or two common adjecticesKing, queen, jack is a face card
relearning
memory measure that assesses amount of time saved when learning for 2nd time
indications
isolation; people who may learn from others
Spontaneous Recovery
Reapperance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time
SOCIAL SUPPORT
information and feedback from others indicating that one is loved and acred for, esteemed and valued, and included in a network communication and mutual obligation
split brain
a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them
 
 
DSM-IV Classification
schizophrenia: A-2 or more) delusions, halluciantions, disorganized speech, disorganized or catatonic behaviors, negative symptoms. these symptoms present at least 1 day and no more than 30 days, no history of shchizo, good prognosis
manifest content
according to freud, the literal meaning of dreams
evolutionary perspective
stresses importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, based on assumption that mental capabilities evolved over milions of years to serve particular adaptive purposes
Kind of Heuristics
Representative- assume something has same characteristics as similar groupsAvailability- make judgment based on how readily info comes to mind
ears are set up to detect
pressure changes
classically conditioned responses have traditionally been characterized as reflexes and are said to be what?
elicited (drawn forth)
conditioned response
a response that becomes associated with a previously unrelated stimulus as a result of pairing it with another that normally yields the response
random sample
a method of selecting a sample
subliminal perception on attitudes have
small but measurable effects
instinctive drift
tendency for an animal's behavior to revery to genetically controlled patterns
Which profession is most directly involved in the application of psychology's principles to the workplace?
D) industrial-organizational psychology
Dizygotic
two eggs are fertilized at the same time. fraternal twins. about 50% of their DNA is the same.
Elaborative Encoding
The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory.
excitatory messages EPSPs
more likely recieving neurons will fill
Receptive field
Region of the visual world that stimulates a receptor cell or neuron
Facilitated Re-Acquisition
After "forgetting" period of 30 days, Ebb. studied lists once and was able to recall with much greater efficiency the second time. (This means there is no such thing as memory loss, just retrieval failure)
dependent variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variables
Which conditions had hypnosis successfully treated?
Alcoholism, somnabulism, suicidal tendencies, post-traumatic stress disorder, migraines, over eating, diabetes, and smoking
olfactory bulbs
units that receive odor molecules and communicate their nature to the brain
corpus callosum
- in forebrain- transfers info between the 2 cerebral hemispheres
Working Memory Approach
A three-part system that temporarily holds information as people perform cognitive tasks. Working memory is a kind of mental work-bench on which information is manipulated and assembled to help individuals perform other cognitive tasks
Scientists agree that... (2)
Acetylcholine turns on REM sleep 
The forebrain plays an important role in dreams
Social Influence
The effect that words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes, or behavior
acute stressor
short term stressphysical: being in a car accidentpsychological: working against a deadlinesocial: being humiliated
Unconscious
In Freudian theory, the part of the mind beyond conscious awareness that contains primitive drives or instincts
Stimulus generalization
The tendancy to respond to stimuli similar to, but not identical to, a conditioned stimulus.
Conformity
The tendency to do what others do simply because others are doing it
response sets
tendency to respond to all questions in certain way regardless of what question is asking
long term memory
-memory system involved in the long-term storage of information
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Asch effect
form of conformity in which a group majority influences individual judgments
sympathetic nervous system
branch of autonomic ns that produces rapid physical arousal in responce to perceived emergencies or threats
selective attenshion
ability to pick and chose among the various available imputs
critical period
a limited time span in the development of an organism when it is optimal for certain capacities to emerge b/c the organism is especially responsive to certain experiences
socially desirable responses
responses that reflect what is deemed appropriate by society but do not necessarily reflect the respondents true beliefs, attitudes or behaviors
Loneliness
 
Nature of Loneliness
Loneliness: "occurs when a person has fewer interpersonal relationships than desire, or when they are not as satisfying as desired."
 
Different types:
 

Emotional loneliness: absence of an intimate attachment figure.

Social loneliness: lack of a social network

Transient loneliness: brief disruptions to social network

Chronic loneliness: inability to establish social networks over several years.
 
SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
A DIVISION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, CONTROLLING THE BODY'S VOLUNTARY SKELETAL MUSCLES AND GLANDS
Affective Mood disorders
Disturbance of mood in which the person is either excessively depressed or elated or both
Psychological Influences on Sexual Motivation
Exposure to stimulating conditions, sexual fantasies.
validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
generalizability of a study
is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations
Avoidance Conditioning
A type of conflict situation in which the individual must choose between two negative or undesirable alternatives
The Science of Observation 4
1. Problems of detecting
2. Reliability- same result each time?
-power
-case method (H.M.)
-population
-sample
-law of large numbers
Multiple Intelligences
A term used to refer to Gardner's theory, which proposes that there are seven (or more) forms of intelligence.
Resting state:
The state in which there is a negative electrical charge of about -70 millivolts within a neuron.
External Locus of Cotnrol
Belief that fate chooses what will happen
Psychological dependence
The strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well being and reduction of stress
mirrors effect on self awareness
small mirrors have little effect; large mirrors make us more self aware as we see ourselves the way others do
therapeutic process of client-centered therapy
client and therapist work together, therapist's key task is to provide clarification, function as a human mirror, help clients become more aware of their true feelings
What is the limbic system?
It includes the hippocampus, amygdala and hypothalamus, and is a neural system located beneath the cerebral hemispheres associated with emotions and drives
eye contact
a meeting of the eyes of two persons, regarded as a meaningful nonverbal form of communication
Internal Locus of Control
belief that life events are due to their own effects
Unconditional self-acceptance.
I am a fallible human being; I have my good points and my bad points.
Persuasion: reason v. emotion
Reason should be used for an educated and interested audienceEmotion should be used for an uneducated, uninterested audience
Was Demonology an exclusively Judeo-Christain idea?
No. Many different cultures have had this belief at one time or another.
Are there genetic links to homosexuality?
Yes. Identical twins have the highest concordance rates for sexual orientation. This suggests some genetic link in sexual orientation.
According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion:
emotion occurs when the thalamus sends signals simultaneously to the cortex and to the autonomic nervous system.
What happens when you take opiates?
your brain stops producing its own and when you stop taking the drug your brain lacks it's own painkillers
What are the different growth trends between boys and girls? (Ages 6-9)
Ages 6-8 - Girls are slightly shorter and lighter and boysAge 9 - the trend reverses, girls approach the dramatic growth period, which occurs 2 years earlier than boys. Girls accumulate fat at a faster rate and boys have more muscle.
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