latin american history Flashcards

Terms Definitions
1800-1830
Simon Bolivar
Bolivar
Who was the Liberator?
3 G-s
God. Gold. Glory
Subsistence Economy (Mexico)
Mexico's economy post-independence
Calpulli
organization unit within Aztec society
Mestizo
Mix of Spanish and Indian
colonies
territories controlled by other countries
cientificos
Who: the Mexican postivistsWhat: emphasized the practical and "scientific" approach to the organization of their world. They looked toward the US for inspiration because they saw a practical and ration people which could be a model for their own development: a way out from anarchy and chaos, and a way toward order and progress. They were advisors to bring progressive poliices of modernization. Where: MexicoWhen: Mid to late 19thSignficance: look at positivism.
Depletion (Peru)
Internal reason Guano ultimately fails
audiencia
functioned as appellate court, helped to control the area, viceroys introduced after this, started in Mexico, represented KING
creoles
descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status
Intendants
Salaried officials who were appointed by the new Spanish Bourbon Dynasty who replaced the life-long appointed officers from the previous Spanish dynasty (Ferdinand and Isabella one/Hapsburg Dynasty?????).
Haitian Revolution
Toussaint l'Ouverture led this uprising, which in 1790 resulted in the successful overthrow of French colonial rule on this Caribbean island. This revolution set up the first black government in the Western Hemisphere and the world's second democratic republic (after the US). The US was reluctant to give full support to this republic led by former slaves.
MR-8
is a Brazilian political movement, formerly an urban guerrilla group. During the military dictatorship in Brazil, the MR8 was formed by Brazilian Communist Party members who disagreed with the party's decision not to take part in the armed resistance against the military government - the so called Dissidência da Guanabara (DI-GB).
Liberalism
Who: Mestizos and specific Creoles who wanted to break free from the tradition colonial institions like the Church.What: an ideology supporting the legacy of the enlightenment = freedom of the individual, free market economy (lassiez faire), freedom of and from religion (secular society), education for all, private property. Change is good which means progress and modernization. Where: Latin AmericaWhen: 19th CenturySignficance: led to political instability because it still did not settle the problems of the lower classes. The lands that were to be used to create a middle class were instead bought by already wealthy elites and continued to enslave the poor more in the haciendas. As a result of this instability caudillos began to arise who brought political stability through strong central governments, which tended to not help the poor further and eventually led to revolutions in many countries, especially Mexico.
Spain (Brazil)
Country France invades to reach portugal. King's capture triggers South American wars of independence
Peninsulares (Mexico)
Born in Spain, living in Mexico
FARC
a peasant guerilla army in colombia that facilitates the drug trade and promotes chaos
Diego de Almagro
"El Viejo" Spanish conquistador, companion, then later rival of Francisco Pizarro, FIRST DISCOVERER OF CHILE
donatario
a Portuguese landowner of one of Brazil's provinces
benito juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
PBSuccess
a mercenary group used as a distraction for the covert op in Guatamala in order to overthrow the anti-American administration
Counter-Reformation
catholic church's attempt to stop the protestant movement and to Strengthen the Catholic Church
Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
true colony
where whites/owners out number amount of slaves
Sandinistas
Members of a leftist coalition that overthrew the Nicaraguan dictatorship of Anastasia Somoza in 1979 and attempted to install a socialist economy. The United States financed armed opposition by the Contras. The Sandinistas lost national elections in 1990
EZLN/Zapatistas
They disagreed with NAFTA and were fighting for land reform and the greater independence of indigenous communities and also for economic justice and the end of the PRI's hold of power. This group began its rebellion after NAFTA was put in affect in 1994.
1965 Immigration Act
- restricted immigration to US
 
 - limited 300,000 visas/yr. for immigrants: 170,000 from eastern hemisphere, 120,000 from western hemisphere and no more than 20,000 migrants per country
Peninsulares to Criollos (Mexico)
Power switch in Mexico post-revolution. Who to who?
Experience (Mexico)
Common lacking quality of leaders of Mexico post-Inturbide
veracruz
the site of an important mexican war battle fought by winfield scott's army soon after landing
ignacio zaragoza
a mexican general during the french intervention who led the army in the unlikely defeat of the french at the battle of puebla
francisco de miranda
a venezuelan revolutionary who sought independence for the spanish colonies. he was a precursor to simon bolivar.
Hernan Cortez
conquerer of Mexico, landed in Yucatan Peninsula in Mayan territory, La Malinche, governor of Mexico, returned to Mexico as viceroy, cruelty towards Indians
jose marti
led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War, Cuban poet and journalist who organized a guerilla revolution against Spain in 1895- "Cuba Libre" free Cuba was his battle cry-and sought US support and intervention.
Platt Amendment
the amendment in 1901 that allowed Cuba independence in 1902 because US would still have the right to intervene.
Cuzco
The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru
Alhambra
a palace and fortress built in Granada by the Muslims in the Middle Ages
columbian exchange
The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans
Dirty War
War waged by the Argentine military (1976-1982) against leftist groups. Characterized by the use of illegal imprisonment, torture, and executions by the military. (p. 857)
Lerdo Law
used to break up communally held Indian Lands in Mexico
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
-1848
 
-it gave citizenship to Mexicans who stayed for 2 yrs in US territory
 
-the irony is that it was a treaty that basically said “we take your land but maybe give you citizenship”
 
-Mexicans became lower class and were kicked out of their lands
 
-goes with the idea of Manifest Denisty, whites believed they were
better suited for
Grito de Dolores
Who: Miguel HidalgoWhat: a speech made to his congregation, (mostly Indians) to overthrow the bad government and the Spanish.Where: MexicoWhen: 1810Signficance: He represented a sentiment that was widespread among Mexican Creoles, but miss calculated the feelings of the Indians against the Creoloes. The Creole leaders of the insurrection saw the Indians rise against all white oppressors. Led to the Guanajuato massacre which signaled an unacceptable direction that the independence movement could not be permitted to take. It threatened the Creoles place in society and thus many Creoles and Spaniards turned on Hidalgo.
Batista
Who was the dictator of Cuba in the 1950's?
France (Mexico)
Nation that does not make an agreement with Mexico to suspend payment of debt.
james k. polk
11th president of the united states who expanded the territory of the us significantly through the mexican american war and negotiations with the british over the northwest territory
Marcos of Nice
explored seven cities of Cibola, led Coronado to make his expedition later
oligarchy
a system of government in which only a small elite has ruling power
Victoria '82
the scorched earth policy to wipe out the communists in guatemala
Hapsburg Dynasty
The Old Dynasty in Spain before the Bourbon Dynasty. They had loosened up their grip on the New World before they gave away their control over Spain.?????
Jose Maria Morelos
Mexican priest and former student of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, he led the forces fighting for Mexican independence until he was captured and executed in 1814.
Death Squads
El Salvador, an armed squad that kills civilians, terrorists or guerillas. These groups tend to commit extrajudicial assassinations / extra-judicial killings and forced disappearances of persons
Hernandez v. Texas
- Important Supreme Court case that stated that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the US had equal protection under the 14th amendment.
 
-landmark court case because it pushed towards desegragation
 
-1954
 
-Pete Hernandez accused of murder
One year (Mexico)
Amount of time Mexicans in new US territories have to either return to Mexico or stay and become US Citizens
atacama desert
a vast, arid desert in chile that has rich deposits of copper and nitrates
Vatican II
a meeting of clery and the pope to respond to the crisis that people weren't going to church
Time Frame: Porfirio Diaz
president of Mexico from the 1870s through1911.
Royal Pragmatic of 1776
This was designed to protect families (Particularly Spanish ones) from "unequal" marriages to people of lower classes to preserve social order. Preserving social order was a goal of the Spanish government because it helped them maintain power.
favorable balance of trade
an economic situation in which a country sells more goods abroad than it buys from abroad
Juan Manuel Rosas (Argentina)
One of the first major leaders of Argentina who wanted to unify the country
dona josefa ortiz de dominguez
the wife of miguel dominguez, the leader of the queretaro conspiracy
Gente de Razon
"Men of Reason" term used to refer to people who were culturally from Spain
Juan Manuel de Rosas
Who: rose to power in Argentina after independence. Rosas was a great landowner in a country where land and cattled formed the twin pillars of wealth.What: leader of the gauchos. He helped Buenos Aires defend itself against federale armies, thus preserving the estancias and that way of life. Continued the tradition of the Church which represented stability and order. When he rose to power the battles between the autonomists and federalists faded, in comparision to his consolidation of power. Where: ArgentinaWhen: 1820s-1850sSignificance: helped to set the stage for later economic problems. Because of his strong alliance with the estancias, the principle way to get wealth in Argentina was through cattle ranching, thus thats the only thing country produced. His policies tended to serve to benefit the cattle ranchers and hence ignorned the poor class.
Significance: War of the Pacific
In the end, after all the war and fighting the Chilean Nitrate Concession was turned over to the British. This is representative of liberal politics in 19th century Latin America. Illustrates neocolonial pressures (ie. British)
1781
Comunero Revolt
Rivadavia (Argentina)
Ousted by Rosas
Capitulación
Autorización Real para conquistar.
Sertanejos (Brazil)
Inhabitants of the interior
mercury equals=, silver equals=
Hui, Potosi
Castizo
1/4 Native and 3/4 Spanish
Pancho Villa
Mexican revolutionary leader (1877-1923) Did many good things, but killed a lot of people. Wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor.
Haiti
1789, slaves freed in what country?
1836 (Mexico)
Year marking Mexico losing Texas
Book of Prophecies
apocalpytical religious revelations written by Chris Columbus
peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
Mapuche
These people inhabited the southern fronteir of Chile. They resisted very well because they were able to adopt horses, European weaponry, and guerrilla warfare quickly and effectively.
mulattoes
People of African and European descent
FMLN
revolutionaries of El Salvador; took their name from a martyred leftist leader of the 1930's; Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front; organized an effective guerrilla force; the U.S. gave them money in military assistance annually and trained units of the army (failed to curb the Salvadoran military's human rights abuses)
Caudillos
Who: usually veterans of wars. Military figures. What: ruled over small clans or vast countries. They were essentially unifiers in vast regions where forces pulled things apart. Politically, economically, and socially they sought to centralize power and control in their hands, and to suppress regional tendencies and to consolidate the integration of their nations as sought by the founders.Where: Latin AmericaWhen: 1st half of the 19thSignificance: During the fragile period after independence in Latin America, there was a search for political order which the caudillos established in a society that was caught between liberals and conservatives. The caudillos had no ideology and therefore were able to become legitimate leaders through force and their establishment of political order which brought progress. Eventually led to ignorance of the difficulties of the lower classes who suffered and a quest for economic development.
Separatists (Brazil)
Want to break away from Brazil
contras
the collective name for rebel forces who opposed the sandinista party and recieved military and financial aid from the us
che guevara
an argentine marxist who was instrumental in leading the cuban revolution alongside fidel castro
Francisco de Orellano
Spanish explorer and conquistador, founded city in Ecuador
maximilian affair
French plotted with Mexicans unhappy with Pres Juarez to set up puppet gov't and appoint Maximilian as leader. Plan failed and Monroe Doctrine upheld.
Rural/National Guard
the national army of Nicaragua established by the US. Other such armies were backed by US support all over Latin America to help combat communist revolutionaries
Tenochtitlan
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)
Aztec
group from the north that invaded central Mexico; were first wandering warriors; built their capital city at Tenochtitlan; increased their power until they dominated central Mexico; built causeways, pyramids, marketplaces, and palaces; adopted many customs from other cultures; used chinamapas for farming; militaristic society; known for human sacrifice and dedication to the sun god; ended when conquered by Spanish explorers in the 1500s
Truman Doctrine
First established in 1947 after Britain no longer could afford to provide anti-communist aid to Greece and Turkey, it pledged to provide U.S. military and economic aid to any nation threatened by communism.
Constitution of 1917
Who: CarranzaWhat: Established three important articles in Mexico:1. Article 3: secular compulsary public education2. Article 27: restored illegaly seized ejidos. Private ownership could be revoked if land doesn't serve a useful social function.3. Article 123: 8 hour work day, 6 day work week, minimum wage, equal pay for equal work, right to organize.Where: MexicoWhen: 1917Significance: 1. Public education was to be available to everyone and no longer was in control of the Catholic Church.2. Ejidos were restored to the peasants who were enslaved by the hacienda system. Thus they were in a sense freed.3. It established workers rights, therefore if the peasants were re-employed by haciendas they were not placed in slave status and had rights that would allow them to get decient pay.
U.S.A., Mexico, Canada
What countries are involved in NAFTA?
Unitarians (Argentina)
group in Argentina that wanted to distribute money from Buenos Aires inland
Captured and Executed (Mexico)
Maximillion's fate after Juarez returns to power
john c. fremont
the first republican candidate for president and the leader of the short-lived bear flag republic
diego rivera
a mexican painter and communist who was married to frida kahlo
fidel castro
leader of the cuban revolution that overthrew the batista regime in 1959. he served as the leader in communist cuba from 1959 until 2008, when he handed over power to his brother, raul.
Pedro Gutierrez de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador, first royal governor of Chile, served under Pizarro in Peru
mercantilism
An economic theory that holds that a nation's prosperity is based on the nation's supply of capital. Mercantilism is generally associated with nations whose major mode of accumulating wealth is through merchant trading with other nations.
Panama Canal
was a canal in Panama successfully constructed by the US to make trade from it's east to west coast and vice versa easier
Quipu
an arrangement of knotted strings on a cord, used by the Inca to record numerical information.
Toussaint L'ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Gold Rush
discovery of gold in California; more than 200,000 people rushed over in a matter of 2 years
 
who? the discovery of gold in California
 
what? Americans and many other immigrants  rushed over to settle (part of Manifest Destiny) many crossed Panama on their way to CA
 
when?  1848-1855
 
where? CA
 
why? As a result of the Gold Rush California went from being a point on the map to a place of immigration. This is one of the greatest factors of Indian deaths in the valley as explained by Stephen J. Pitti in The Devil in the Silicon Valley.
 
- The Gold Rush was one of the "devils" in California
Benito Juarez
Who: a liberal leader who defeated Santa Anna the caudillo and established a liberal government in Mexico.What: He attacked the Church and the rights and privileges of both the military and the clergy. This provoked a War of the Reform between liberals and conservatives, in which Juarez and the liberals won. Where: MexicoWhen: 1850sSignificance: the War of the Reform hurt Mexico which had defaulted on its foreign debts thus giving the right of the European powers to intervene and collect those debts, particularly France. Who came in and reestablished an empire with Ferdinand Maximilian. In the long run, his reforms ended up hurting the peasants rather than helping them.
North American Free Trade Agreement
What does NAFTA stand for?
Paraná River (Brazil)
River that controls much trade in South America, fought over between Brazil and Argentina
1865 (Brazil)
Year that marks the beginning of the War of the Triple Alliance
alamo
the site of a battle in the texas revolution where a small texan force put up a valiant fight against the mexican army but was ultimately destroyed. their bravery served as motivation for the texans during the rest of the war
Juan de Zumarraga
first bishop of MExico, endeavored to protect Indians
Native American
one of the indigenous people of Latin America; fourth class citizen with few rites
CELAM
a meeting of bishops from all of Latin America in the Colombian city Medllin to discuss how the church could become more meaningful to the people
Boland Amendment
was the name given to three U.S. legislative amendments between 1982 and 1984, all aimed at limiting U.S. government assistance to the rebel Contras in Nicaragua. The first was to the House Appropriations Bill of 1982, which was attached as a rider to the Defense Appropriations Act of 1983. The House of Representatives passed the Defense Appropriations Act 411-0 on December 8, 1982[1] and it was signed by President Ronald Reagan on December 21, 1982. The amendment outlawed U.S. assistance to the Contras for the purpose of overthrowing the Nicaraguan government, while allowing assistance for other purposes.
Beyond restricting overt U.S. support of the Contras, the most significant effect was the controversial Iran-Contra Affair, during which the Reagan Administration illegally circumvented the Amendment in order to continue supplying arms to the Contras, behind the back of Congress and the American public.
Guarani
These people are a group of natives of Latin America similar to the Tupi.
Santa Anna
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
Getúlio Vargas
Dictator of Brazil from 1930 to 1945 and from 1951 to 1954. Defeated in the presidential election of 1930, he overthrew the government and created Estado Novo ('New State'), a dictatorship that emphasized industrialization.
1924 Johnson-Reed Act
o   The 1924 Immigration Act set quotas that limited annual immigration from particular countries. The legislation identified who could enter as a "non-quota" immigrant; this category included wives and unmarried children (under 18 years of age) of US citizens, residents of the Western hemisphere, religious or academic professionals, and “bona-fide students” under 15 years of age.
 
Those not in any of these categories were referred to as a “quota immigrant” and were subject to annual numerical limitations.
 
For quota immigrants, the Act stated that preference would be given to family members of US
Industrial Revolution (Brazil)
Even that causes slavery to be an inefficient source of labor
Bartolome de las Casas
wrote A Short Account of Destruction of Indians, rallied for more indigenous rights, witnessed difficulties of encomienda system under Ovando, priest, writer, witnessed genocide, reformer
Strategy of Containment
US policy in the Truman Doctrine to contain communism in USSR by keeping it out of other areas
Description: Panama Canal
When the U.S. realized the benefits in investing in South America they realized the importance of a canal through which they could sail goods to trade. After negotiating with Columbia and finding them unwilling to cooperate, the U.S. used its military power to support Panamanian independence. In 1903 Panama declared independence. In November of the same year the Hay-Bunau-Varilla treaty was signed which granted the U.S. the land the wanted for building the canal.
Bourbon Dynasty
Began to rule Spain in 1700. And began major economic and social change around 1750. This change was brought on by their loosing of control in the New World because of the new changes going on their with revolts and independence thoughts.
Rafael Jorge Videla
is a former senior commander in the Argentine Army who was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. He came to power in a coup d'état that deposed Isabel Martínez de Perón. After the return of a representative democratic government, he was prosecuted for large-scale human rights abuses and crimes against humanity that took place under his rule, including kidnappings or forced disappearance, widespread torture and extrajudicial murder of activists, political opponents (either real, suspected or alleged) as well as their families, at secret concentration camps.
Fourteen (Brazil)
Age of Dom Pedro II when he takes over Brazil
lopez de santa anna
on again off again president of mexico from 1833 to 1855. he saw mexico lose great portions of its territory after the texas revolution and mexican american war
Tzeltal Revolt (1712)
A revolt in 1712 in Mexico that was quickly oppressed, but was a revolt and was a sign of changing ideas and the ideas of independence. Nothing directly came from it, but it sparked ideas.
King of Spain, church matters and colonies
1508, The Pope gave __________________ absolute power over all_________________________________________________________________
According to the Mayan calendar what might happen in 2012?
According to the Mayan Calendar the world will end and begin again.
Church Committee
...
Pochteca
professional long-distance traveling merchant in the Aztec empire
IMF and World Bank
...
Mexico (Peru)
Country Peru resembles post-independence. "political revolving door"
Pizzaro
conquered Peru from the Incas
Lobo
A Zambo and an Indian.
Caudillos
independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of latin america.
Nitrates (Peru)
External reason Guano ultimately fails
drug cartels
criminal organizations concerned with controlling the drug trade. they have significant political power in central and latin america, particularly in colombia.
Potosi
important mining spot during Spanish conquest, made of silver ore (Bolivia)
peonage
The system which Latin Americans worked for large land owners, and were forced into debt. It was very much like share-cropping.
Navidad
first eupopean base in the americas
Good Neighbor Policy canceled when ______ _______ came into power in Cuba
Fidel Castro
1831 (Brazil)
Year Dom Pedro returns to Portugal
Golden Law (Brazil)
Emancipated Brazilian slaves without compensation
nicholas trist
an american diplomat who negotiated the treaty of guadalupe hidalgo to end the mexican american war in 1848
jefferson davis
colonel during the mexican american war who fought bravely at monterrey and buena vista. he later served as president of the confederacy.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
explorer, governor, conquistador, crossed Isthmus of Panama to Pacific Ocean in 1513, becoming first European to lead expedition to have seen or reached Pacific from New World, settled on island of Hispaniola
Black Legend
Spaniards were depicted as cruel, national demonization, especially in conquest of America
cabildo
a council established by Spain to govern the various towns of Spanish settlers in Latin America
Dirty Wars
state sponsered violence in Argentina (1976-1983)
Time Frame: Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
signed in november 1903
Where did the largest portion of Incans live?
Peru
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Simon Bolivar
a South American revolutionary leader who liberated northern South America from Spain
Conservatism
Who: Creoles and Spanish elite and the Catholic ChurchWhat: an ideology of how to govern the newly indepedent nations in Latin AmericaWhere: all over Latin AmericaWhen: 19th CenturySignficance: in this ideology the proponents wanted to perserve the tradition of the colonial legacy. The Church persistently blocked reforms with its reluctance to share its wealth and power
Urquiza (Argentina)
Exiled leader of Argentina who returns in Civil War
Boliva (Peru)
Leader who wants to create a confederation of NW South American states
general trujillo
leader of the dominican republic from 1930-1961 who had very progressive ideas about immigration and environmentalism to go along with his staunch anti-communism
goliad
the site of a series of battles between the texans and mexicans in 1836 that ended with colonel james fannin and most of his troops being massacred after they had already surrendered
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Spanish conquistador, led expedition in modern U.S. to search for gold, invested with Antonio Mendoza, conquest of Cibola, exploration of Colorado river
mercantalism
the concept used by the Spanish that economic success can be a result of exporting more than is imported
Jorge Ubico
the leader during the Great Depression (depression dictator in Guatamala) he was pro-American and on the lookout for communism
Moors
the group of Muslims from North Africa who conquered Spain in the eighth century
slave complex
colony where slaves out number owners or people who control colony.
Anastacio Somoza
dictator of Nicaragua who is supported by U.S. but is over thrown by Sandinistas
Spanish American War
main reason was for Cuba’s independece
fought in Caribbean and the Pacific
 
Spain fought over Cuba after the Monroe Doctrine exempted Cuba from it (M.D stated that the US would not allow Europeans to colonize land or mess with the states in the Americas)
 
America was interested in Cuba (which was Spain’s colony)
Gaucho
Who: were cowboys who did the "dirty" work for the caudillos.What: A necessary asset to the caudillo in terms of personalism --> favor for a favor which helped the caudillo to rise in power.Where: Latin AmericaWhen: 1st half of the 19thSignificance: Besides contributing to the significance of the caudillo, they helped to legitimize the power of the caudillo by helping to establish the caudillo's social and moral superiority. They also helped to centralize the power of the caudillo through military efforts to suppress regional tendencies and to consolidate the integration of their nations.
Indians (Mexico)
Group of people who are not recognized by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Triumvate (Brazil)
Group created to rule Brazil until Dom Pedro II is of age to rule
Caudillos (Peru)
Land owners who establish a local gov. with little interference from the central government. Specifically in Peru.
Revolution of Ayutla (Mexico)
Revolution by Benito Juarez in 1850s
ignacio allende
a mexican captain in the spanish army who sympathized with the independence movement and covertly joined the queretaro independence. he eventually assumed control of the rebellion in its early stages, but was captured and executed for treason
Blasco Nunez Vela
first Spanish viceroy of Peru, asked to enforce New Laws of 1542
Jorge Videla
the man who overthrow Isabel Perón in Argentina
Manco Capac
c. 1200 founder of the Inca dynasty who led the Inca to settle in Cuzco
battle of ayacucho
great battle fought by Simon Bolivar, freed Peru from Spanish rule
The Little School
Key Points
1. Short story written by Alicia Partnoy, an Argentine woman.
2. She disapeared during the Argentine Dirty wore and talks about the horrible living conditions she endured.
3. Prisoners were blindfolded and not allowed to talk.
4. Example of memory and silence
Luis Munoz Rivera
Who- A liberal autonamist from Puerto Rico, he was also a poet and writer.
 
What- He believed in the superiority of white men, those “Sons of Spain”
 
Where- Puerto rico
 
When- 1890’s
 
Why- he was a founder of the liberal autonimists and a white man
 
Who cares- He found for marriage and believed that prostitutes (believed to be afro-puerto ricans most of the time, therefore also inferring racism) were inferior and a “contaminananating spray” that should be kept away from honorable women.
 
-he was behind the notion of La Gran Familia and wanted moral transformation in Puerto Rico especially Ponce
 
- like Ana Roque he was a public figure who advocated for change, in his case racial equality and justice but with boundaries and marginalizing the lower class in the process
Eusebio de Quiraz (Brazil)
Measure that ends Slave Trade in Brazil
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
defender of Spanish Empire's right of conquest, colonization and evangelization in the New World
Decree 900
passed in 1951 and it called for the redistribution of unused land in Guatemala
Description: Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty
The two men negotiated the terms of sale for the building of a Panama Canal and for a Panama Canal Zone surrounding the canal. No Panamanians signed the treaty although Bunau-Varillas was present as the diplomatic representative of Panama (a role he had purchased through financial assistance to the rebels), despite the fact he had not lived in Panama for seventeen years before the incident, and he never returned.[1] Panama later agreed to the terms including: the United States was to receive rights to a canal zone which was to extend six miles on either side of the canal route in perpetuity; Panama was to receive a payment from US up to $10 million and an annual rental payments of $250,000.
Cult of Saints
Relics, the remains of the holy dead, were thought to have miraculous powers that could convert pagans and cure the sick. Consequently, the great desire to obtain relics led to the commercial exchange and even theft of them
School of the Americas
• Now known as the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation,
• controversial because the US Dept. of Defense has trained many Latin American soldiers and officers in military tactics.
• many of these leaders have gone on to commit atrocities in their home countries
May 5, 1862 (Mexico)
Date of Battle of Puebla. Mexicans are victorious.
Lope de Aguirre
set out for El Dorado on Amazon River, awful conquistador, side of Peru's first viceory Blasco Nunez Vela in order to implement New Laws, etc.
Ferdinand and Isabella
The king and queen of Spain who gave Columbus the funds that he needed to find a route to Asia. Also orchestrated the Reconquista.
Time Frame: Dom Pedro I
became the first ruler of the Empire of Brazil in the early 1800s.
indigenous
native
Nahuatl
Aztec language
aztecs
Ancient civilization (1200-1521AD) that was located in what is present-day Mexico City
FSLN
The Sandinista National Liberation Front is a socialist political party in Nicaragua. Its members are called Sandinistas in both English and Spanish. The party is named after Augusto César Sandino who led the Nicaraguan resistance against the United States occupation of Nicaragua in the 1930s.
N.B.
Apparently, the United Fruit Company had one of its headquarters on St. Charles Ave. How cool is that?
CIA
the "Central Intelligence Agency" of the United States government; responsible for the orchestration of the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
Positivism
a set of epistemological perspectives and philosophies of science which hold that the scientific method is the best approach to uncovering the processes by which both physical and human events occur. Though the positivist approach has been a recurrent theme in the history of western thought from the Ancient Greeks to the present day, the concept was developed in the early 19th century by the philosopher and founding sociologist, Auguste Comte.
cortes
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Emiliano Zapata
leading figure in the Mexican Revolution, which broke out in 1910, and which was initially directed against the president Porfirio Díaz. He formed and commanded an important revolutionary force, the Liberation Army of the South, during the Mexican Revolution.
Fulgencio Batista
a Cuban President, dictator, and military leader closely aligned with and supported by the United States. He served as the leader of Cuba from 1933-1944, and 1952-1959, before being overthrown as a result of the Cuban Revolution.
Jacobo Arbenz
a Guatemalan military officer and politician who served as Defense Minister of Guatemala from 1944-1951, and as President of Guatemala from 1951 to 1954. He was ousted in a coup d'état engineered by the United States government and CIA, and was replaced by a military junta, headed by Colonel Carlos Castillo. He went into exile after the coup and died in Mexico in 1971.
Creole
a person of unmixed Spanish or Portugese ancestry born in Spanish America or Brazil, respectively
Juan Perón
an Argentine military officer, and politician. Perón was three times elected as President of Argentina though he only managed to serve one full term, after serving in several government positions, including the Secretary of Labor and the Vice Presidency. He would return to run for the presidency a third term in 1973 and served for nine months, until his death in 1974. Perón was succeeded by his wife and Vice President of Argentina María Estela Martínez. Perón and his second wife, Eva Duarte, are immensely popular among many Argentines, and to this day they are still considered icons by the Peronists. The Peróns' followers praised their efforts to eliminate poverty and to dignify labor, while their detractors considered them demagogues and dictators.
Monroe Doctrine
Guaranteed the indepence of L.A. countries and warned other countries from Europe to stay away
Francisco Pizarro
conquered the Inca civilization with steel weapons and small pox
Liberalism
he belief in the importance of liberty and equal rights. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but most liberals support such fundamental ideas as constitutions,liberal democracy, free and fair elections, human rights, capitalism, free trade, and the freedom of religion.
Salvador Allende
a Chilean physician and is generally considered the first democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in Latin America.
Military Coups
1961-64: 9 coups (El Salvador: 1961, Ecuador: 1961, Argentina: 1962, Peru: 1963, Guatemala: 1963, Dominican Republic: 1963, Honduras: 1964, Brazil: 1964, Bolivia: 1964)
Aguste Comte
French philosopher, a founder of the doctrine of positivism.
PEMEX
Mexico set up a national oil company to run the oil industry. Huge symbol of Mexico's independence
Chichen Itza
Where the Toltec controlled the upper peninsula
Unidad Popular (UP)
a coalition of political parties in Chile that stood behind the successful candidacy of Salvador Allende for the 1970 Chilean presidential election
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America
Oscar Romero
a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. He became the fourth Archbishop of San Salvador, succeeding Luis Chávez. He was assassinated on 24 March 1980.
Antonio López de Santa Anna
a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government. Santa Anna first fought against the independencefrom Spain, and then supported it. He was not the first caudillo (military leader) of Mexico, but he was among the most original. He rose to the ranks of general and president at various times over a turbulent 40-year career. He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive occasions over a period of 22 years.
Import Substitution Industrialization
a trade and economic policy based on the premise that a country should attempt to reduce its foreign dependency through the local production of industrialized products. The term primarily refers to 20th century development economics policies, though it was advocated since the 18th century. It has been applied to many countries in Latin America, where it was implemented with the intention of helping countries to become more self-sufficient and less vulnerable by creating jobs and relying less on other nations.
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