Latin American Politics FINAL EXAM Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Guatemala City
La Paz
Costa Rica
San José
The Dominican Republic
Santa Fe de Bogatá
Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regime
In a Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regime the military governs collectively, as an institution, rather than vesting total authority in the hands of a single military leader or caudillo. Often the regime is headed by military juntas, with one active or retired officer who serves as president and wields the most power. Four primary examples of Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regimes in Latin America are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay, during the 1960s and 70s. O’Donnell notes that these regimes occurred at relatively high stages of socio-economic development, and came into power with a clear 'economic project' in mind, ie. To improve their countries’ poor economic conditions, through the promotion of economic orthodox economic liberal policiesespecially focusing on fiscal austerity and creating an attractive economic landscape for foreign direct investment. This observation of Latin America challenged Lipset’s Socioeconomic Development Model that explained that socioeconomic development led to democratization in developing countries.Bureaucratic-Authoritarian regimes can be quite repressive, like other military regimes; however, their day-to-day governing style is more bureaucratic and sophisticated, often drawing on the talents of highly trained technocrats. B-A regimes desire to depoliticize society, hoping to exclude popular participation, and often suspend political parties and large-scale gatherings, repress and ban grassroots organizations, unions, and movements, and jail, torture, and kill suspected political dissidents. The repression, like the regimes day to day governance, is often methodical and bureaucratic.
Pantanal Region
largest swampland in the world (Brazil)
Broker Clientelism
Broker Clientelism is when a politician in a specific bureaucratic role will do certain services for an individual or community in exchange for exchange for votes
There are five key characteristics of both Classical and Neopopulists. 1. A highly personalistic leadership, rooted in a highly charismatic leader.2. A multi-class political coalition heavily dependent upon the lower classes.3. Political strategy that favors direct, unmediated ties to the masses, as opposed to strong political parties.4. Utilized anti-elitest discourse.5. A general distrust of institutional checks and balances.The key distinction between classical populism and neopopulism is based on economic policies. Leaders like Brazil's Vargas (1930-45) and Argentina's Peron (1943-55) supported Statist policies of state creation of industries, protectionist policies, and import-subsidized industrialization. Whereas, neopopulists during the 1990s such as Argentina's Menem, or Peru's Fuijimori, have supported neoliberal economical policies such as fiscal austerity, privitization, and trade liberalization.Populism is again on the rise with leaders like Hugo Chavez (who epitimizes the five characteristics of populism) and Raphael Correa, and the degree to which populists strengthen or undermine democracy is becoming an increasingly significant debate among Latin American scholars to date. Contrast the Reformist Left to Populism.
"Corruption" can be defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private benefit. Every state experiences corruption, however, the degree varies widely, and Latin America experiences relatively high levels of corruption in many of its states. Corruption can take three forms: proactive personal enrichment, reactive personal enrichment (bribery), and lastly, public enrichment through the forms of clientelism.
spiritism, Umbanda, Candomble (the most authentic)
spritist movements in Brazil
Characteristics of the two subgroups of liberals?
1Classical Liberal•Emphasize individual rights•Had Cadre Political Partieso Small groups of intellectuals2Radical Liberals•Emphasized Equalityo Public Education and Universal Suffrage•Had mass political Parties
Political Culture
The set of attitudes, beliefs, and feelings about politics occurring in a country during a given time, shaped by its history and ongoing processes of social, economic, and political activity.The Political Culture Model explains that a political culture that has fostered a profound respect for the norms of democracy is far more likely to sustain democratic governance than one that doesn't. The weaknesses in many democratically governed countries in Latin America, such as corruption, weak states, and violence, has often led to a distrust of one's country's democratic regimes and can influence the political culture in such a way as to make democracy less likely to be consolidated and successful.
direct regulation, indirect regulation, environmental audits, creation of markets in environmental services
Forms of environmental management by government
Brazil, Haiti, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil
Countries with the largest African-American population
Types of Empires (2)
1Colonizing EmpiresThey get there and trade with the family back home. They do not mix.2Civilizing EmpiresThey get there and mix their culture with others.A new identity emerges.
coup d'etat
In Spanish, golpe de estado, this term refers to the replacement of political leadership, that frequently lacks broad popular support, and tends to leave intact political, economic, and social structures. In Latin America these have often taken place when the military, either as an institution or individual squadrons, take political power. Hugo Chavez carried out a failed coup attempt in 1992, and utilized the popularity he gained from it to become a populist president in 1998.
What is the common reason for ousting a president
The economic situation.
The past 25 years
The past 25 yearsMost enduring time period for democracy in Latin America?
Guatemala, Bolivia, Mexico, and Peru
4 countries that have the highest indigenous populations (by proportion)
Tell me about Populismo
o It is a unique Latin American ideology characterized by three things:• 1Mass Basedo The more people the merrier• 2Nationalistico About affirming who we are, and protecting our rights and our interests.• 3Social Justice Programo Creating a state where everyone has a decent standard of living• A right to work• Social Benefits• The state makes sure that wealth comes back into the countryo Socialist influence
Tell me about Latin American Democratic Left Parties.
1The Latin American Democratic Left was a result of the ideology of Populismo.2•Consisted of parties that combined social democracy and nationalism2A o They wanted the state involved in the economy2B o They still wanted capitalism
socioeconomic progress, transitions to democracy (women had stood against military regimes), changes in attitudes, and quota laws (requiring a certain percentage of candidates be female)
causes of the increase of women in politics (4)
Argentina, Panama, Nicaragua (possibly Brazil, Argentina, and Chile)
countries that have had female presidents
Latin American Independence came from two things
1. A breakdown of the imperial order• The poor rule of King Ferdinand the 7th, who promised to be a liberal king but did otherwise 2. The Liberals wanted to make a change•They said since they couldn't get what they wanted form Spain, they'll make a government of their own.Their efforts resulted in small republics
Characteristics of Conservatives (7)
o Wanted to preserve the ways of the Spanish empireo Institution orientedBelieved that the Church and Military were should be protected because they provided social mobility.o CorporatismIt is a view of society as different organs. State sponsored economy where social groups have more weight than individualso Paternalistic StateThought the state should be depended on to maintain order.o They were part of domestic industriesThey wanted to protect their way of businessThey were afraid that they would lose in a free market.o On SuffrageThought that voting rights should only be given to people who:•Had a stake in the country•Could reado Political PartiesThey opposed the creation of political parties. They worried that joining factions would divide the society and take power from the institutions.
Money goes to oil exporters → intl banks → oil importers → oil exporters and so on
flow of money in recycling petrodollars
What does it mean to be Macho?
A womanizer.Views women not as a companion, but as a possession.
Tell me about Latin American trust for the state.
Many Latin Americans do not recognize the legitimacy of the state.They do not believe in it.They do not see government officials as public servants elected to work for society.
interest rate increase, cutoff of new loans, a second rise in the price of oil, capital flight, overvalued exchange rates, unwise investments
What led to the outbreak of the debt crisis (6)
What is the significance of the treaty of Westphalia?
It ends the chance of resurrecting the Roman Empire by:1Emphazing that people citizens are bound to the state sovereign instead of members of a global community. 2Emphasizing Positivism instead of Natural Law.3 It forced each nation to find its own state, instead of the Empire style of having many nations under one state.
What marked the end of Latin America's membership to the Spanish Global community?
The void of power that occurred when Napoleon took over Spain.While Bolivar's intention to fill the Latin American void with a Federation, but once the Spanish empire fell, they felt that they didn’t have a lot in common to bring them together anymore.
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