Latin American Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Czar
"Caesar"
bohemia
czech liberals demanded.
Rebel group in Haiti
salves
Caudillos
Military dictator; gained control after independence movements
junkers
conservative members of prussia's wealthy landowners class
Father Hidalgo
organized the Insurgency;abolishes Indian natives tribute obligation, Was brutaly murdered because the elites and the peasents thought he wasn't given out an equal distrubutin of land
Rebel group in South America
Creoles
Peninsulares
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class
Brazil
only Latin American country that gained independence peacefully.
Neocolonialism
Foreign investors acquired control of railroads, mineral resources, banking, made heavy inroads to real estate. Each country also had a government which revolved around only one or two products. It was the modernizing influence on commerce and industry which strengthened the position of the elite and allowed them to use the capitalistic values and ideals as a defense against demands for fundamental economic reforms.
Gran Colombia
modern-day Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, and Venezuela
Toussaint L'Ouverture
former slave taught Enlightenment ideas; led slave revolt in Haiti; freed both Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Santo Domingo)
Creoles
In colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. (p. 482)
Vincent Oge
was familiar with the French Declartion of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, the French had him tortured to death.
Mestizos
people of mixed Spanish and Indian background
otto von bismarch
prime minister under william I
Russification
policy of forcing russian culture on all ethnic groups in the russian empire.
Criollos/Creoles
Spanish colonists born in the American Colonies to European parents
Iturrigaray
Mexican viceroy, leads the Royal Army; immediately overthrown by Peninsulares
Simon Bolivar
freed was is now Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
Miguel Hidalgo
Mexican priest who led peasants in call for independence and improved conditions
Father Miguel Hidalgo
creole priest that began indenpendence movements in Mexico.
camillo di cavour
sardinian prime minister who worked for italian unif.
kaiser
title taken by king wilhelm of prussia during the second reich
Pancho Villa
leader with peasant, cowboy, and farm labor support in the north of Mexico; carried out the first phase of the Mexican Revolution of 1910
Jose de San Martin
freed South America from the South.
What were men who were born in spain at the top of latin american society called?
peninsulares
Mestizos and Mulattoes
people of mixed heritage in the American colonies
Jose Maria Morelos
trained an army and took control of southern Mexico and declared independence from Spain. In 1815 he was captured and killed.
El Grito de Dolores
was the speech that called the people of Mexico to fight for "Independence and Liberty".
José de San Martín
from Argentina but was a soldier in Spain, heard about Argentinian independence so returned home to liberate nearby countries (southern South America) to ensure that Argentina stayed free, met up with Bolívar then returned to Europe
What was Simon Bolivar's role in the indep. movement?
(Venezuela) won venezuela, marched 2000 soldiers through the andes into columbia, panama, ecuador all unified under "Gran colombia"
Native Americans
slaves.
ethnic uprising
vienna, hungary, bohemian
Elite Brazilians
had increased education/culture/economy but had to compete with Portuguese courtiers
Pogroms
Government supported attacks against Jews in Russia
LLANEROS
"cowboys" of the venezualan plains
Mercantilism
Economic policy; colonies exist for the benefit of mother country
Nationalism
belief that people's greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and histrory
Porfirio Diaz
ruled Mexico 1877-1911; increased school sponsoring; free education; hydraulic system; increased exports and investments; mines and railways
Antonio Paez
Llanero (cowboy) leader, conquered Spanish in Venezuela while Bolivar was in Columbia
mulattos
persons of mixed european and african ancestry
realpolitik
term applied to tough power politics with no room for idealism
L'Ouverture
self-educated former slave who led the slave revolt in Haiti against France. Defeated Spanish, English, & French armies. Was defeated and exiled by Napoleon. His Lt General, Dessalines finally won independence in 1803.
BOVES
Led llaneros on an invasion of Caracas, destroyed the Venezualen "second republic" before he died in battle
Toussiant L'Ouverture
was successful in driving the French out.
What were spaniards who were born in latin america called?
creoles
Monroe Doctrine
Issued by Pres. Monroe in 1823. Statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Notice to Europe, that Latin American nations are to be considered independent.
US warns that any European interference in the Western Hemisphere will be considered a threat to their own peace and safety.
cash crop economy
an economy based on cash crops
Why did people rebel in Haiti?
to end slavery
Who was the leader of the revolution in Brazil?
Dom Pedro
Francisco de Miranda
enlisted by Bolivar from England to be leader of patriot army but when patriots losing, made treaty w royalists, fled country w treasure, Bolivar caught him, died in prison
Who issued the grito de dolores?
miguel hidalgo, priest, indep. for mexico.
Who were the leaders of the revolution in Mexico?
Hidalgo, María, Morelos, Iturbide
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