AP Art History 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Fragonard
Rococo
tribune
gallery
Copley
"Natural" America
illuminated manuscript
decorations
Orozco
Mexican Muralism
Codex
bound book
castrum
Roman military encampment
Citadel at Tiryns
(Mycenean)
October
The Limbourg Brothers
International Gothic
...
pier
vertical, freestanding masonry support
Djenne terra cotta archer
(Djenne)
(African)
Return from cythera
Watteau
French Rococo
...
Frieze
Horizontal band of sculpture.(greek)
Hierarchical
Equating size with status
mandala
sacred diagram of the universe
Paleolithic
UNDERGROUND cave paintings, twisted perspective. the "old" stoneage during which humankind produced the first sculptures and paintings
The Sacrifice of Issac
Carvaggio
oil on canvas
Italian Baroque
...
iconography
the images and symbolic representations that are traditionally associated with a person or a subject
Muhammed
the chosen prophet of Islam
Cardinal Points
North, South, East, West
satyr
in ancient Greek mythology, creature that was part man and part goat, usually with a man's head and body, and a goat's ears, horns and legs
tablinum
study or office in Roman house
daguerreotype
a type of early photograph, characterized by shiny surface, meticulous finish and clarity of detail; have no negative
diptych
two paneled painting or altarpiece. Melun Diptych
triforium
the second story of a church
gold leaf
Gold beaten into tissue-paper-thin sheets that then can be applied to surfaces.
View of the piazza del Popolo
Panini
oil on canvas
neo classical
...
Attribute
the distinctive identifying aspect of a person, for example, an object held, an associated animal, or a mark on the body
Venus of Willendorf
Paleolithic (obese, severely distorted, meant to represent fertility)
Facing
the exterior coating of temples, pyramids
incising
etching or carving into a surface
henge
arrangement of huge stones in a circle
skene
Greek "stage"; stage of a classical theatre
tholos
a type of tomb in Mycenaean architecture with a bee-hive shaped circular plan, also called a bee-hive tomb; a temple with a circular plan
mosaics
images formed by small colored stone or glass pieces (tesserae), affixed to a hard, stable surface.
avant-garde
late 19th and 20th century atists whose work emphasized innovation and challenged convention
Predella
The painted or sculpted lower portion of an altarpiece that relates to the subjects of the upper portion.
moai
large stone sculptures found on Easter Island
portico
A roofed colonnade; also an entrance porch.
the centers of learning throughout the middle ages
monasteries
sphinx
a mythological creature with the body of a lion and head of a man
Texture
the quality of a surface (rought, smooth, hard, soft, shiny, and dull) as revealed by light.
volute
is a spiral scroll-like ornament that forms the basis of the Ionic order, found in the capital of the Ionic column.
cloister
covered walk with open colonnade on one side, running along the walls of buildings
Anu
Near East king of gods, sky god
caryatid
a column carved to represent a woman
burin
A pointed tool used for engraving or incising.
orant
in Early Christian art, a figure with both arms raised in the ancient gesture of prayer
photo realism
Painted with a remarkable silarity to the photograph image.
vanitas
a theme in still life painting that stresses the brevity of life and the folly of human vanity
lord elgin
A british who dismantled the many Parthenon sculpture by the ships
apse
the endpoint of a church where the altar is located
stele
A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events.
this city, a new rome, functioned as the center of the byzantine Empire
constantinople
minbar
podium where the imam stands and reads verses from the Koran
(Islam)
Elements of Gothic Architecture
flying buttresses, ribbed vaults, pointed arches, stainedglass
illuminated manuscripts
a luxurious handmade book with painted illustrations and decorations
Xerxes
Son of Darius, who took the throne, invaded Greece, and was eventually defeated
zoomorphism
the representation of gods in the form or with the attributes of an animal
Sarcophagus of Lars Pulena
Etruscan (Early 2nd Century) Somber- Symptomatic of economic and political decline of the once mighty Etruscan city-state.
pylon temple
a temple with a wide entrance gateway characterized by its sloping walls, seen in Egyptian architecture in the New Kingdom
installation
a temporary work of art made up of assemblages created for a particularspace, like an art gallery or a museum
the greek art term used for "byzantine style" of painting
manera greca
Trompe l'eoil
French meaning "fools the eye" a form of painting that attempts to represent an object as existing in three dimensions and therefore resembles the real thing
Poussinistes and Rubenistes
admirers and imitators of Poussin and Rubens, respectively; the former felt that Poussin's mastery of drawing, composition, and emotional restraint were superior; the latter found greater value in Rubens' use of color, rich textures, and highly charged emotions
Palette
A thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors; any surface so used. Also, the colors or kinds of colors characteristically used by an artist. In ancient Egypt, a slate slab used for preparing makeup.
"reality" is made up of three aspects
form space and light
Clerestory
A row of windows in the upper part of a wall.
parapet
a low wall along the edge of a roof or balcony
Chavannes
Symbolism
Etruscan
...
Eugene Delacroix
Nadar
mandapa
assembly hall/porch
fenestrated
Having windows
polychromatic
many colored
cuirass
military leather breastplate
Hadrian's Villa
(High Empire)
(Rome)
The flood (sistine)
michelangelo
...
Nimbus
a golden halo
taj
Arabic and Persian "crown"
Arch of Constantine
(Late Empire)
(Rome)
Hall of Mirrors (versaille)
Hardouin-Mansart and Le Brun
French Baroque
...
Low Relief
projection is slight
Sumerian, akkadian, babylonian, Hittite, Assyrian, Persian
SABHAP
nymphs
in classical mythology, female divinities of springs, caves and woods
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc
(Maya)
(Americas)
Frank Lloyd Wright
Guggenheim Museum NYC
The Raft of Medusa
Theodore Gericault
French Romanticism
registers
horizontal bands dividing the piece
Nike
the winged goddess of victory
iconoclasm
destruction of religious images that occurred in 8th century byzantium
cista
Etruscan cylindrical container made of sheet bronze with cast handles and feet, often with elaborately engraved bodies, used for women's toilet articles
baldacchino
canopy on columns, frequently built over an altar
hieroglyphics
Egyptian writing using symbols or pictures as characters
cornice
a projecting ledge over a wayy
parthenon
118-128 CE
temple for all gods
built by marcus agrippa
Biggest unsupported area for 18 centuries
heavey walls to support the roof
dome made out of concrete coffers make it so there is less use of concrete-lighter material
oculus releases the pressure and stress of the dome
tenebrism
Painting in the "shadowy manner," using violent contrasts of light and dark, as in the work of Caravaggio. The term derives from tenebroso.
Punishment of the Rebels against Aaron
Botticelli
fresco
early Ita ren
...
group one
Greece (900-30 BCE)
Egypt (3000-30 BCE)
Classical (480-400 BCE)
Rennaissance (1400-1500)
Jambs
the side posts of the doorway
Neolithic
“New Stone Age” Approx 3,000 B.C
Pictograph
is a writing using simplified pictures for words
mosaic
patterns or pictures made by embedding tesserae of stone or glass in cement on surfaces such as walls or floors; technique of making such works
vellum
calfskin prepared as a surface for writing or painting
orthogonal
adj. Having or determined by right angles.
Pillar
usually a weight carrying member (i.e. pier or column), or an isolated freestanding structure used for commemorative purposes
exekias
an ancient artist of the black-figure technique
Daniel Burnham
CHICAGO, began 1906. A leading architect and city planner, produced a magnificent plan for redesigning Chicago
audience hall of constantius chlorus-basilica
4th century CE
pendentive
A concave, triangular section of a hemisphere, four of which provide the transition from a square area to the circular base of a covering dome. Although pendentives appear to be hanging (pendant) from the dome, they in fact support it.
the year thocracy fell to the ottomans
1453
Apandana
The great audience hall in ancient Persian palaces.
kore
maiden type of ancient Greek sculpture of the Archaic period.
Koran
the Islamic sacred text, dictated to the Prophet Muhammad by the Angel Gabriel
Registers (bands)
friezes; bands which divided an artwork's composition into sections with ground lines
-
Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte: 1885
dhyana
right hand over left, palms upward, in the lap; meditation mudra
orans figures
figure with extended arms or bodily attitude of prayer, usually standing, with the elbows close to the sides of the body and with the hands outstretched sideways, palms up. Donna Velata.
incised
a technique in which a design or inscription is cut into a hard surface with a sharp instrument. Such a surface is said to be incised
pilaster
a flattened column attached to a wall with a capital, a shaft, and a base
Lintel
A horizontal beam used to span an opening.
Menhir
a large uncut stone erected as a monument in the prehistoric era
Composition
how an artist organizes the form(s) of a work
cella
the chamber at the center of an ancient temple where the cult statue is
Figura Serpentinata
In Renaissance Art, a contortion or twisting of the body in contrary directions, especially characteristic of the sculpture and paintings of Michelangelo and the Mannerists.
Absolute Monarchy
form of government where the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government
Contour Line
Must distinguished line of a figure, usually along the backbone
art deco
The look of the 1920s and 1930s: simple line forms, geometric shapes, pastel
post and lintel construciton
a horizontal member (the lintel—or header) is supported by two vertical posts at either end.
married couple embracing
350-300 BCE- portrail of a more intimate moment; dressed in jewlery - the idea is that they will be in this intimate state for all of eternity
during the romanesque period, sculptural decoration would be found in these two parts of the church
tympanum and capitals of columns
hierarchy of scale
important figures were the largest and most centrally placed in a given composition (Standard of Ur)
Rib vault
a vault in which diagonal arches form riblike patterns; these arches partially support a roof, in some cases forming a weblike design
stylized
to design in or cause to conform to a particular style, as of representation or treatment in art; conventionalize.
Post and lintel
a method of construction in which two posts support a horizontal beam, called a lintel
Animal-Head Post, from the Oseberg Norway ship burial ca. 825
Guardians of the ship
Curving lines
Dynamic energy of the northern sea rovers
Roaring beast with bulging eyes, flared nostrils vs. controlled and contained interlaced pattern
axial plan
(basilican plan, longitudinal plan)
a church with a long nave whose focus is the apse, so-called because it is designed along an axis
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