AP Art History Midterm Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Clodion
Rococo
Primavera
Botticelli
Joseph Wright
Enlightenment
colonnette
thin column
Kirchner
Die Brucke
fibula
ancient brooch
demotic
late Egyptian writing
San Vitale
(Early Byzantine)
(Byzantium)
Salisbury Cathedral
John Constable
English Romanticism
Sarcophagus
a stone coffin
tetrarch
one of four co-rulers
Stepped Pyramid of Djoser
(IMHOTEP)
(Early Dynastic Periods)
(Egypt)
self portrait
Nicolas Poussin
French Baroque
...
Paleolithic
40,000 - 10,000 BCE
Seated scribe, old kingdom
symmetria
Greek "commensurability of parts"; Polykleito's treatise on his canon of proportions incorporated this principle
pharaohs
A king of ancient Egypt
triptych
a three-paneled painting or sculpture
Plowing in the Nivernais
Rosa Bonheur
Realism
allegories
symbolic stories translating abstract ideas into concrete events and images
Cloisonné
a metalworking technique involving filling soldered sections with colored glass and stones
Bison
A buffalo esque creature commonly depicted
orchestra
Greek "dancing place"; in ancient Greek theatres the circular piece of earth with a hard and level suface on which the performance took place
rotulus
manuscript scroll used by Egyptians, Greeks, Etruscans and Romans; predecessor of the codex
portal
a doorway; may be significantly decorated
encaustic
painting technique where pigment is mixed with wax and applied to surface while hot. Used by 6th and 7th century Byzantine artists to create panel paintings. Ex. Jasper johns' "Flag."
capital
the top element of a column
capriccio
Italian, "originality." One of several terms used in Italian Renaissance literature to praise the originality and talent of artists.
Saturn Devouring One of His Children
Francisco Goya
Spanish Romanticism
Iwan
In Islamic architecture, a vaulted rectangular recess opening onto a courtyard.
Minotaur
a half man half bull creature
Crenellations
a notched wall (castle wall top)
menhir
an upright monumental stone standing either alone or with others
twisted perspective
heads in profile, limbs from front
palaestra
ancient Greek and Roman exercise area, usually framed by a colonnade; in Greece an independent building; in Rome, frequently incorporated into a bathing complex
black-figure painting
in early Greek pottery, silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes
flutes
vertical grooves on shafts of greek columns
stele
a stone stab placed vertically and decorated with inscriptions or reliefs. used as a grave marker or memorial
kouros
archaic greek statue of standing nude male
Biomorphic
an adjective that describes forms that resemble or suggest shapes found in nature. Not abstract shapes! (Painting or Compostion by Joan Miró)
daguerreotype
a type of early photograph, developed by Louis Daguerre that is characterized by a shiny surface, meticulous finish, and clarity of detail. Daguerreotypes are unique photographs; they have no negative.
coussoir
A wedge-shaped block used in the construction of a true arch. The central voussoir, which sets the arch, is the keystone.
orthodox christianity believed in the equality of 3 aspects of the divinity called
holy trinity
Imhotep
Djoser's royal builder and high priest and chancellor; constructed the Step Pyramid
Section
depicts placement of the masses if someone cut through the building along a plane
Humanism
Greeks captured the essance of it. --that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appealing to universal human qualities, particularly rationality
city-state
14th century Italy consisted of this form of organization; each ___ consisted of a region dominated by a major city (examples: Venice Florence, Lucca, and Siena
Gypsum
a very soft mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O
Motion
Real - Piece actually moves
Implied - Piece is frozen in mid-action
heraldic composition
symmetrical on either side of a central figure
apotheosis
elevated to the rank of gods; ascent to heaven
acropolis
an "upper city"; a common feature of ancient Greek cities; an elevated site for religious observances
pieta
a painting or sculpture of a crucifed Christ lying the lap of a grieving Mary
pediment
the triangular top of a temple that contains sculpture
frottage
a composition made by rubbing a crayon or a pencil over paper placed over a surface with a raised design
burin
A pointed tool used for engraving or incising.
fete galante
French, "amorous festival." A type of Rococo painting depicting the outdoor amusements of upper-class society.
the name for the almond-shaped area of a fresco or mosaic usually behind christ
mandarla
Wrongful Execution of the Count and Justice of Otto III
Dirck Bouts
architecture of mass
architecture that is dense and heavy
Ottonian
the German dynasty (Otto I, II, III) that ruled as emperors of the Holy Roman Empire [962-1002]
Gold Leaf
gold that is beaten into extremely thin sheets
isocephaly
the arrangement of figures so that the heads are at the same height(on the same line)
Dome of the Rock
Islam (687-692 BCE) 1st great achievement of Islamic architecture. Octagonal dome. Interior is vivid and colorful.
hypostyle hall
a hall in which the columns support the roof
muqarnas
a squinch made up of rows of nichelike faceted shapes
the name for the almond shaped area of a fresco or mosaic usually behind Christ
mandorla
Teotihuacan- ca 50-250 CE
Pyramids of the Sun and Moon
Altarpiece
a painted or sculpted panel set on an altar of a church
post and lintel system
system of construction in which two posts support a lintel
the altarpiece is located..
behind the high altar of the cathedral
Corbelled vault
A vault formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch. (Lions Gate at Mycenae, also includes relieving triangle)
Use of Pattern and Texture
-Pattern - produced by the repetition of motifs, colors, shapes, and/or lines
-Texture - tactile quality of a surface
-Actual - the rough or smooth surface of a sculpture
-Implied - the softness of painted fur
-Simulate texture - through variations in color, tone, and line without altering the physical surface
Morisot
Impressionism
Romanticism
...
Forever Free
Lewis
Hatshepsut
(New Kingdom)
(Egypt)
Dying Slave
Michelangelo
Marble
Italian High Ren
...
BCE
before Common Era
pharaoh
ancient Egyptian king
Marcus Aurelius
(High Empire)
(Rome)
Sant'Andrea
Leon Battista Alberti
Early Italian Ren
hellenistic art
320- 30 bce
Harappan seals
(Indus Valley Civilization)
Louis XIV
Hyacinthe Rigaud
French Baroque
...
Stupa
a dome-shaped Jewish shrine
cuneiform
"wedge-shaped" writing of the Sumerians
chryselephantine
fashioned of gold and ivory
Head of a Roman Patrician
(Republic)
(Rome)
pilasters
rectangular columnlike upright strips above and arch altering with roundels
Farnsworth House
Mies van der Rohe
Modernism
Portinari Altarpiece
Hugo van der Goes
Mosque
a Muslim house of worship
Georgia O'Keefe
not easily classified; painted erotic-looking flowers, offensive to some
mandapa
pillared hall of a Hindu temple
Tribute Money
Massacio. Early Renaissance Painting (1427) Narrative, Light is coming from a specific source, Chiaroscuro, Vanishing Point, Aerial Perspective, Distance.
Amarna Period (amenhotep IV, now "akhenaton," and nefertiti)
...
qibla
the direction (towards Mecca) Muslims face when praying
Freestanding Sculpture
Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions.
cartoon
In painting, a full-size preliminary drawing from which a painting is made.
engaged columns
columns attached to a wall
Jade
A greenish stone reserved for royalty
Westwork
the monumental, west facing entrance section of a cathedral
Odysseus
(Greek mythology) a famous mythical Greek hero
Representation
the presenting in substitute form of something observed
Apse
A recess, usually semicircular, in the wall of a building, commonly found at the east end of a church.
vimana
pyramidal tower over the garbha griha of a southern style Hindu temple
Hijra
flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622, the year from which Islam dates its beginnings
illuminated manuscriptes
a handwritten book decorated with bright colors and precious metals
mosaic
a decoration using pieces of stone, marble, or colored glass, called tesserae, that are cemented to a wall or a floor
zoopraxiscope
a device that projects sequences of photographs to give the illusion of movement
gesso
Plaster mixed with a binding material, used as the base coat for paintings on wood panels.
formalism
Strict adherence to, or dependence on, stylized shapes and methods of composition. An emphasis on an artwork's visual elements rather than its subject.
the earliest date for the Gothic period
1144
Realistic
closely resembling real life; aware of things as they are; practical, usually stylized
Avant-guarde
an innovative group of artists who generally reject traditional approaches in favor of a more experimental technique
tufa
Tufa is a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposit that forms by chemical precipitation from bodies of water with a high dissolved calcium content
Horror vacui
(Latin, meaning "fear of empty spaces") a type of artwork in which the entire surface is filled with objects, people, designs, and ornaments in a crowded, sometimes congested way
Pointed arch
an arch with a pointed apex
-
Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte: 1885
Citadel
is a fortress or a stronghold that commands the city
orthogonal
line that appears to recede toward a vanishing point in a painting with linear perspective
reverse perspective
the things that are smaller are bigger
Canon
a rule for proportion, rule to create a perfectly proportioned stutue
Squinch
a small arch built across the interior angle of two walls (usually to support a spire)
minaret
a tall, slender column used to call people to prayer
Ionic
One of the two systems (or orders) invented in ancient Greece for articulating the three units of the elevation of a classical building: the platform, the colonnade, and the superstructure (entablature). The Ionic order is characterized by, among other features, volutes, capitals, columns with bases, and an uninterrupted frieze.
Hierarchy of scale
a system of representation that expresses a person's importance by the size of his or her representation in a work of art
Wider at the top
Minoan columns are unusual because...
pinnacle
a pointed sculpture on piers or flying buttresses
Controlled space
a concept and human motivation to impress or intimidate (by using fortified walls or lamassu)
incise
to cut into a surface with a sharp instrument; also, a method of decoration, especially on metal and pottery
underpainting
The layer or layers of colour on a painting surface applied before the over-painting, or final coat.
earth art
An American art form that emerged in the 1960s. Often using the land itself as their material, artists constructed monuments of great scale and minimal form.
loggia
A gallery with an open arcade or a colonnade on one or both sides.
the greek word for bearer of god, the virgin mary, the mother of Jesus
theotokos
composite figure
a figure combining the body parts of different animals or humans. A lamassu is a composite figure
Vault
a masonry roof or ceiling built on the arch principle, or a concrete roof similar in shape. Different types: barrel vault, quadrant vault, groin vault, ribbed vault, six part vault,and fan vault
reserve column
a column that is cut away from rock but has no support function
Santa Sabina
422-432 CE, no sense of wealth on the outside, roman meeting hall, arcade, corinthian columns, aisle, apse, clerestory, small crosses on top of the capitals
register
one of a series of rows in a pictorial narrative
two horrible events of the 14th century
black plague and hundred years war
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